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Refugees Magazine Issue 106 (Focus : 1996 in review) - Liberia: Shaking off bad memories

Refugees Magazine, 1 December 1996

1996 was meant to be a year of promise for Liberia. Instead, it has been a year marked by a renewal of fighting, especially in Monrovia, which was engulfed in a spiral of violence and horror. A new year is beginning. The guns have fallen silent in Liberia. The announced disarmament has timidly begun.

By Francis Kpatindé

It was meant to be a year of promise for Liberia. The Abuja Agreement, signed by the Liberian warlords on 19 August 1995, made provisions for disarming the militias, deploying the mainly Nigerian, ECOMOG troops the West African peace-keeping force throughout the territory, setting up of a skeletal administration in a country devastated by civil war, preparing for the return of thousands of refugees from neighbouring countries and organizing free and democratic elections. All that was supposed to happen in 1996.

1996 has just ended. Apart from disarming several hundred fighters, the results have been disastrous. Armed militias still control the area around Monrovia and the back country. The ECOMOG "white helmets" have run into great difficulties in deploying their forces because of insecurity and lack of funds, which the superpowers had promised to contribute. Some 750,000 Liberian refugees are still in Côte d'Ivoire, Guinea, Ghana, Nigeria and Sierra Leone. Elections are scheduled for 30 May 1997 "at the latest." Another Abuja Agreement the 13th peace treaty since the outbreak of the conflict has replaced the previous one.

1996 has been a year marked by a renewal of violence, especially in Monrovia, which had until then been considered a haven of peace. The fighting began on 6 April when the provisional authorities tried to arrest the leader of one of the factions, Roosevelt Johnson, who is a suspected accomplice in a murder case.

Starting on 6 April and for several weeks, Monrovia was engulfed by violence and horror. Stores were looted. Offices and warehouses of the humanitarian agencies were sacked, forcing them to evacuate all non-essential personnel. Nothing seemed to stop the spiral of violence. Not even an orphanage was spared. On 30 April armed men assaulted and looted the Vahun Children's Centre, an orphanage run jointly by a local agency and UNHCR, where 75 unaccompanied Sierra Leonean children and some 20 Liberian orphans were sheltered.

The Ministry of Health building that sheltered 1,200 Sierra Leonean refugees and 4,300 displaced Liberians was seized by armed men, who made it their barracks. Refugees and displaced persons fled and ended up crammed in a former UNICEF warehouse that had been looted at the onset of the hostilities and had no water or toilet facilities.

Part of the population sought refuge in the compound of the United States Embassy, protected by American soldiers and located in the residential district of Mamba Point. Thousands of others tried to leave Monrovia, a city at the mercy of drugged teenagers, their bodies wound with amulets in a mad search for invincibility.

In the good old days, Liberia owed its international reputation to its rubber plantations, under the management of the American tire company, Firestone, and especially to its naval convenience flags. In 1996, the "First African Republic," founded in 1847 by a group of emancipated slaves, has given birth to an unprecedented phenomenon in the Gulf of Guinea: boat people. But unlike the Vietnamese and the Somalis, the Liberians were not fleeing from a totalitarian state, but from the absence of a state, from havoc, death and desolation.

After being stripped of their meagre savings 70, at times 100 dollars the most fortunate of them were finally taken on board dilapidated vessels: Bulk Challenge, Victory Reefer, Zolotitsa. But no port would accept their passengers. With more than 2,000 persons on board mostly Liberians, but also some Ghanaians and Nigerians the Bulk Challenge was turned back by Côte d'Ivoire, which has already taken in 350,000 Liberian refugees. Then it was declared non desiderata by Ghana, that already shelters 15,000 of them.

The Victory Reefer was driven out of the territorial waters of Sierra Leone. The Russian trawler, Zolotitsa, with its 450 passengers, suffered the same fate in Ghana, and then in Togo. No one wants to take in the "outcasts of the sea." Epidemics broke out on board the ships. Everything was in short supply food, drinking water, medicine and, above all, breathing room.

On 13 May, the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, Sadako Ogata, appealed to the West African countries to receive the Liberian boat people. "I am very concerned about the situation of the people aboard these vessels. They have been at sea for some days now. The situation has become desperate. Unless the door is opened to them, a lot of people, many of them women and children, may die."

Then, on 14 May a miracle happened: ten days after the beginning of their odyssey, the Bulk Challenge was authorized to enter the Ghanaian port of Takoradi, where the ship had tried to dock twice unsuccessfully. The passengers were assisted by the local authorities, UNHCR and other humanitarian agencies, and then taken to the Essipong camp on the outskirts of the city.

In a climate of international protest, the Victory Reefer received authorization to drop anchor in the port of Freetown. And, after wandering the Gulf of Guinea for several weeks, turned back by one port after another, the Zolotitsa made a surprise return to Monrovia, which was still under militia control.

A new year is beginning. The guns have fallen silent in Liberia. The announced disarmament has timidly begun. The enemies of yesterday appear to want to live together again. The Bulk Challenge, the Victory Reefer and the Zolotitsa are no more than bad memories. But, despite such encouraging signs, Liberia is still the third largest "producer" of refugees in the world. Liberia desperately needs the help of the international community to complete the deployment of the ECOMOG "white helmets" throughout the country, to prepare the return of refugees, and to organize, at last, free and democratic elections.

Source: Refugees Magazine Issue 106 (1996)




UNHCR country pages

New flows of Ivorian refugees into Liberia

As of late March, more than 100,000 Ivorian refugees had crossed into eastern Liberia since lingering political tension from a disputed presidential election in neighbouring Côte d' Ivoire erupted into violence in February. Most have gone to Liberia's Nimba County, but in a sign that the fighting has shifted, some 6,000 Ivorians recently fled across the border into Liberia's Grand Gedeh County. Most of the new arrivals have settled in remote villages - some inaccessible by car. The UN refugee agency sent a mission to assess the needs of the refugees in the region.

Photographer Glenna Gordon photographed new arrivals near Zwedru in south-eastern Liberia.

New flows of Ivorian refugees into Liberia

Liberia: Return, Reintegration, Rehabilitation and Reconstruction

Colombia's armed conflict has forced millions of people to flee their homes, including hundreds of thousands who have sought refuge in other countries in the region.

Along the border with Colombia, Panama's Darien region is a thick and inhospitable jungle accessible only by boat. Yet many Colombians have taken refuge here after fleeing the irregular armed groups who control large parts of jungle territory on the other side of the border.

Many of the families sheltering in the Darien are from Colombia's ethnic minorities – indigenous or Afro-Colombians – who have been particularly badly hit by the conflict and forcibly displaced in large numbers. In recent years, there has also been an increase in the numbers of Colombians arriving in the capital, Panama City.

There are an estimated 12,500 Colombians of concern to UNHCR in Panama, but many prefer not to make themselves known to authorities and remain in hiding. This "hidden population" is one of the biggest challenges facing UNHCR not only in Panama but also in Ecuador and Venezuela.

Liberia: Return, Reintegration, Rehabilitation and Reconstruction

Sierra Leone: Last Return Convoy from Liberia

On July 21, 2004, the final UNHCR convoy from Liberia crossed over the Mano River bridge into Sierra Leone with 286 returnees. This convoy included the last of some 280,000 refugees returning home after Sierra Leone's brutal 10-year civil war which ended in 2000. Overall, since repatriation began in 2001, UNHCR has helped some 178,000 refugees return home, with a further 92,000 returning spontaneously, without transport assistance from UNHCR.

UNHCR provided returnees with food rations and various non-food items, including jerry cans, blankets, sleeping mats, soap and agricultural tools in order to help them establish their new lives in communities of origin. To promote integration of newly arrived returnees, UNHCR has implemented some 1,000 community empowerment projects nationwide. Programmes include the building and rehabilitation of schools, clinics, water and sanitation facilities, as well as micro-credit schemes and skills training.

UNHCR and its partners, alongside the UN country team and the government, will continue to assist the reintegration of returnees through the end of 2005.

Sierra Leone: Last Return Convoy from Liberia

Liberia: A Neighbour's HelpPlay video

Liberia: A Neighbour's Help

Alphonse Gonglegbe fled to Liberia with his family a few months ago. He appreciates the help he's been receiving in this land neighbouring his native Côte d'Ivoire.
Liberia: Hurried FlightPlay video

Liberia: Hurried Flight

Tens of thousands of Ivorians have fled their villages and sought shelter in Liberia. Francis says he ran for his life and now he wants safety and food.
Liberia: Settling InPlay video

Liberia: Settling In

A dozen new shelters are built every day in Liberia's Bahn refugee camp. Eventually there will be 3,000 shelters for some of the many civilians who have fled from neighbouring Côte d'Ivoire.