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Life-sustaining water project in Ethiopia will live on after refugees leave

News Stories, 6 February 2006

© UNHCR/K.G.Egziabher
A water project originally planned by UNHCR to help Somali refugees will have lasting benefits for their Ethiopian hosts.

KEBRIBEYAH CAMP, Ethiopia, 6 Feb (UNHCR) Over the years, Somali refugees in this area of Ethiopia have gradually returned to their homeland, but a life-sustaining water system originally installed by the UN refugee agency will remain behind to ease the lives of both the last refugees and the local communities.

"Our life as refugees has obviously been beset with a multitude of challenges but none was so difficult as the problem of securing full access to safe drinking water," said 37-year-old Leila Oumer, a Somali mother of nine who has been in Kebribeyah camp since 1996.

"I believe the days of our water-related woes are over and all we must do to sustain this is guard the system and the water points against abuse and misuse of any sort," said the member of the Refugee Committee, which is in charge of overseeing the functioning of the water points.

The impetus for the project was originally the vast numbers of Somalis who had fled war in their own country. In the early 1990s some 628,000 Somali refugees were in eight camps in eastern Ethiopia, including Kebribeyah and the nearby camp of Hartisheik, which hosted a staggering 250,000 people.

Supplying water by tanker was difficult and expensive for UNHCR, so the refugee agency decided to install a pipeline to the well-watered Jarar Valley, 21 kilometres from Kebribeyah.

"Initially the project was meant to benefit a total of 173,367 people composed of Somali refugees in Kebribeyah and Hartisheik camps, the local communities in both towns, the communities of the valley and people living along the route of the pipeline, not to mention the big number of cattle and camels that are fed in the valley," says Fernando Protti Alvarado, UNHCR's deputy representative.

The complex work of boring holes in the valley, connecting the wells and building the pipeline cost some US$4 million and was not completed until just over two years ago.

By then, the UNHCR repatriation operations that began in 1997 had led to the closure of all the camps except Kebribeyah. But more than 15,000 Somali refugees remain, unable to join their countrymen in returning because of the continuing political chaos of Somalia.

"Before UNHCR installed these water points in the camp, we used to get much less water per day and what we used to get from the camp reservoir was of poor quality," said Mohammed Alijama, a Somali refugee who is still unable to return home because his area is still dangerous.

"Full-time guards have been assigned and the Refugee Committee, of which I am a member, does a regular oversight of the way things are handled by other refugees," he said.

Protection of the pipeline matters to more than just the Somali refugees. The 24 water points seven in the camp and 17 in the town benefit 38,909 people, most of them Ethiopians who have generously hosted the refugees during the past two decades. In addition, five water points and cattle troughs have been installed along the pipeline route.

"Before UNHCR gave us these precious water points, which pour clean and safe water, we in Kebribeyah had faced a very serious shortage of water," said Fatima Beshir, a local resident of Kebribeyah. "Whatever little we used to get from dirty ponds had very dire health consequences. We used to travel scores of kilometres to Jarar Valley and Fafen, which is even further away, to fetch water."

There are concerns for the long-term future of the water system. UNHCR says the pumps and other equipment are already ageing, causing occasional interruptions of service while spare parts are found. Pumping capacity is just 50 percent of the theoretical capacity of the wells.

"To overcome these and other problems UNHCR will continue to support the region and the Kebribeyah werda [local administration] in building their managerial capacity to take over and manage the scheme," said Protti. "There is also a need for further discussions and negotiations and hard work to get a proper and sustainable management system in place.

"Failure in this endeavour will have a serious impact on the overall refugee assistance at Kebribeyah camp, and the local communities who benefit from the scheme," said the UNHCR official.

By Kisut Gebre Egziabher in Kebribeyah Camp, Ethiopia




UNHCR country pages

Water, Sanitation and Hygiene

Provision of clean water and sanitation services to refugees is of special importance.

Bonga Camp, Ethiopia

Bonga camp is located in the troubled Gambella region of western Ethiopia. But it remains untouched by the ethnic conflicts that have torn nearby Gambella town and Fugnido camp in the last year.

For Bonga's 17,000 Sudanese refugees, life goes on despite rumblings in the region. Refugee children continue with school and play while their parents make ends meet by supplementing UNHCR assistance with self-reliance projects.

Cultural life is not forgotten, with tribal ceremonies by the Uduk majority. Other ethnic communities – Shuluks, Nubas and Equatorians – are welcome too, judging by how well hundreds of newcomers have settled in after their transfer from Fugnido camp in late 2002.

Bonga Camp, Ethiopia

Crossing the Gulf of Aden

Every year thousands of people in the Horn of Africa - mainly Somalis and Ethiopians - leave their homes out of fear or pure despair, in search of safety or a better life. They make their way over dangerous Somali roads to Bossaso in the northern semi-autonomous region of Puntland.

In this lawless area, smuggler networks have free reign and innocent and desperate civilians pay up to US$150 to make the perilous trip across the Gulf of Aden.

Some stay weeks on end in safe houses or temporary homes in Bossaso before they can depart. A sudden call and a departure in the middle of the night, crammed in small unstable boats. At sea, anything can happen to them - they are at the whim of smugglers. Some people get beaten, stabbed, killed and thrown overboard. Others drown before arriving on the beaches of Yemen, which have become the burial ground for hundreds who many of those who died en route.

Crossing the Gulf of Aden


In February 2005, one of the last groups of Somalilander refugees to leave Aisha refugee camp in eastern Ethiopia boarded a UNHCR convoy and headed home to Harrirad in North-west Somalia - the self-declared independent state of Somaliland. Two years ago Harrirad was a tiny, sleepy village with only 67 buildings, but today more than 1,000 people live there, nearly all of whom are former refugees rebuilding their lives.

As the refugees flow back into Somalia, UNHCR plans to close Aisha camp by the middle of the year. The few remaining refugees in Aisha - who come from southern Somalia - will most likely be moved to the last eastern camp, Kebribeyah, already home to more than 10,000 refugees who cannot go home to Mogadishu and other areas in southern Somalia because of continuing lawlessness there. So far refugees have been returning to only two areas of the country - Somaliland and Puntland in the north-east.


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