2014 UNHCR country operations profile - South Sudan
| Overview |
As a new nation, South Sudan is building some of its institutions from the very start, with core administrative structures and mechanisms of political representation beginning to emerge. The Government is still struggling to provide basic services for the majority of the population. Since the country's independence in July 2011, high inflation has been affecting the economy, which remains relatively undeveloped.
Industry and infrastructure in landlocked South Sudan remain limited, imposing prohibitive costs on the procurement and delivery of relief items and other operational activities. Seasonal rains and annual flooding render large parts of the country inaccessible by road between June and November.
Inter-ethnic conflicts continue in various parts of the country, causing internal and cross-border displacement. In Jonglei, more than 132,000 were displaced by August 2013.
The rate of refugee influxes from Sudan remains considerable, with almost 26,700 individuals registered between January and August 2013 in Unity and Upper Nile states.
The South Sudanese authorities continue to provide protection and safety for over 234,000 refugees in the country and have allocated land for two new refugee camps in Unity and Upper Nile States. Following the creation of the Commission for Refugee Affairs in early 2013, the authorities established a regular presence in the refugee-hosting areas, ensuring effective coordination with humanitarian actors on the ground.
In a newly independent nation, parts of the population remain at risk of becoming stateless by virtue of being of mixed Sudanese-South Sudanese parentage, originating from border areas, or having resided in Sudan for an extended period of time.
People of concern
The main groups of people of concern planned for in 2014 under the South Sudan operation are: refugees from the Central African Republic (CAR), the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Ethiopia and Sudan, people at risk of becoming stateless, as well as IDPs and returnees.
Some 210,000 refugees have fled the conflict in South Kordofan and Blue Nile states in Sudan since 2011. South Sudan provides asylum to 13,600 refugees from the DRC, 6,000 from Ethiopia and 1,600 from the CAR.
Pending the implementation of the "Four Freedoms" agreement (a 2012 agreement between Sudan and South Sudan which allows citizens to enjoy freedom of movement, residence, freedom to undertake economic activity and to acquire and dispose of property), the risk of becoming stateless remains high for individuals of mixed Sudanese-South Sudanese origin or belonging to border ethnic groups, as well as for those with long residence in Sudan or other countries.
|UNHCR 2014 planning figures for South Sudan|
|TYPE OF POPULATION||ORIGIN||Dec 2013||Dec 2014||Dec 2015|
|Total in country||of whom assisted
|Total in country||of whom assisted
|Total in country||of whom assisted
|Refugees||Dem. Rep. of the Congo||13,600||13,600||15,600||15,600||17,600||17,600|
|Returnee arrivals during year (ex-refugees)||South Sudan||5,000||5,000||5,000||5,000||5,000||5,000|
|Internally displaced||South Sudan||132,000||15,000||125,000||12,500||125,000||12,500|
|People in IDP-like situations||South Sudan||120,000||10,000||120,000||10,000||120,000||10,000|
|Returnee arrivals during year (ex-IDPs)||South Sudan||70,000||10,000||50,000||20,000||30,000||20,000|
| Response |
Needs and strategies
UNHCR continues to encourage South Sudan to sign and ratify relevant international conventions and treaties related to the protection of refugees and the prevention of statelessness. The Office enjoys the support of the Commission of Refugee Affairs, in establishing an active field presence in Unity and Upper Nile states.
In 2014, UNHCR's main focus in South Sudan will be to respond to the needs of Sudanese refugees in the camps. The overarching priority will be to upgrade emergency structures in all camps and enhance interventions in the areas of shelter, health, education, water, sanitation and hygiene to reach a minimum standard. Protection priorities will include: maintaining the civilian character of refugee settlements; improving access to and quality of education, as a means of preventing child recruitment and child labour; enhancing the monitoring of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) and referral of cases; harmonizing access to assistance for individuals with specific needs; promoting peaceful coexistence among refugees and host communities; and strengthening the Government's capacity to respond to the protection needs of refugees.
Regarding IDPs, UNHCR will continue to co-lead the protection cluster with the Norwegian Refugee Council (NRC) and will undertake assessments, protection monitoring, registration of unaccompanied and separated children, and advocacy -- together with other protection actors, the Government, OCHA, diplomatic missions and the United Nations Mission in the Republic of South Sudan (UNMISS).
The Office will continue to support the Government in processing applications for nationality and identity documentation to prevent statelessness.
| Implementation |
UNHCR will maintain its strategic and operational partnerships to deliver protection and assistance to refugees, returnees and IDPs in the country.
Partners from the United Nations include FAO, UNDP, UN-Habitat, UNICEF, UNMAS, OCHA, UNOPS, WFP and WHO. Other partners are: IOM, Government ministries and departments, international and national NGOs and community-based organizations. UNHCR also cooperates closely with key donor countries.
In responding to refugee situations, the Office also actively coordinates with different agencies, drawing on their technical expertise and on the provision of emergency supplies. Moreover, in both refugee and IDP emergencies, UNHCR benefits from standby arrangements with NGO partners which provide technical experts.
|2014 UNHCR partners in South Sudan|
|Government agencies: Commission for Refugee Affairs, Directorate of Nationality, Passports and Immigration, Relief and Rehabilitation Commission|
|NGOs: Action Africa Help International, African Humanitarian Action, Agence d'Aide à la Coopération Technique et au Développement, Association of Christian Resource Organizations Serving Sudan, CARE, Danish Refugee Council, Human Development Council, IBIS - Italy, International Medical Corps, International Rescue Committee, Lutheran World Federation, Nonviolent Peaceforce, Norwegian Refugee Council, Oxfam, Samaritan's Purse, Save the Children, World Vision International|
|Others: UNOPS, UNV|
|Government agencies: Ministry of Interior and Wildlife Conservation|
|NGOs: Médecins sans Frontières (France, Belgium, the Netherlands and Spain), CAFOD, Relief International, Medair|
|Others: FAO, IOM, UNAIDS, UN-Habitat, UNDP, UNFPA, UNICEF, UNMISS, UNMAS, WHO and WFP|
| Financial information |
After South Sudan gained independence in 2011, UNHCR's South Sudan budget was separated from the budget for Sudan as of 2012. Following the sudden influx of Sudanese refugees from Sudan's South Kordofan and Blue Nile States in 2012, a supplementary appeal and subsequent revision were launched to respond to the needs of refugees, bringing the financial requirements for UNHCR's operation in South Sudan to USD 265.3 million in 2012. In 2014, the financial requirements for the operation have been set at USD 230.1 million, an increase of USD 11 million when compared to the revised 2013 budget of USD 219.1 million, reflecting the pressing need to establish more permanent infrastructures in the refugee camps and adjacent host communities.
Source: UNHCR Global Appeal 2014-2105