Sudan flag

Sudan Sudan RSS Feed

2015 UNHCR country operations profile - Sudan

| Overview |

Working environment

UNHCR 2015 Sudan country operations map

  • The humanitarian environment in Sudan has deteriorated over the past two years, with new, conflict-induced internal displacement in Darfur. About 400,000 new internally displaced people (IDPs) were registered between January and August 2014 in the country. According to UN figures, 6.9 million people are in need of humanitarian assistance in Sudan. Latest estimates suggest that by the end of 2015, there could be up to 460,000 refugees and asylum-seekers in the country.

  • Sudan has a longstanding tradition of hospitality towards refugees and asylum-seekers, with 167,000 refugees and asylum-seekers currently hosted in eastern Sudan, Darfur and Khartoum. South Sudanese refugees have been allowed to move freely in the country, with more than 100,000 having sought safety in Sudan as of mid-October 2014; until there is a political solution in South Sudan, this number is likely to grow. The refugees' presence places additional pressure on resources, both for the country which is already affected by an economic downturn and for humanitarian partners who are stretched to respond to numerous emergencies.

  • Humanitarian access, particularly for international staff, remains restricted in some areas, hampering UNHCR's ability to fulfil its mission.

  • An increased number of refoulement cases were reported during the first half of 2014. The authorities suspended a number of activities that had supported the longstanding refugee population in eastern Sudan. A new asylum act was passed in 2014 but its provisions maintain a restricted freedom of movement for refugees.

  • Sudan has been playing a proactive role in addressing human trafficking, a phenomenon which concerns the entire Horn of Africa. An anti-trafficking law was passed in 2014 and the number of verified incidents has declined since 2012.

People of concern

Populations of concern to UNHCR in Sudan include: Eritrean refugees and asylum-seekers, mainly residing in the east and in Khartoum; refugees from South Sudan having fled violence in their country since December 2013; IDPs, of which several hundred thousands were newly displaced in 2014, overtaking the Office's planning figures; people of South Sudanese origin, who have been living in Sudan since the secession and remain at risk of statelessness.

UNHCR 2015 planning figures for Sudan*
Type of population Origin January 2015 December 2015
Total in country Of whom assisted
Total in country Of whom assisted
Total 2,329,100 1,875,040 2,596,640 2,098,950
* An estimated 300,000-350,000 people of South Sudanese origin were living in Sudan before the conflict that broke out in South Sudan in December 2013. Current information indicates that the majority of these individuals should in principle be able to acquire documentation confirming that they are South Sudanese nationals.
Refugees Chad 8,910 8,830 9,540 9,440
Eritrea 117,320 89,800 125,530 96,090
South Sudan 51,340 50,540 101,440 100,580
Various 5,470 2,340 5,850 2,500
People in refugee-like situations Central African Rep. 2,280 - 2,430 -
Chad 35,740 5,140 38,240 5,500
Asylum-seekers Dem. Rep. of the Congo 930 870 990 930
Eritrea 2,660 670 2,850 710
Ethiopia 7,280 1,020 7,790 1,090
Various 700 350 750 380
Returnee arrivals during year (ex-refugees) Sudan 12,000 12,000 10,000 10,000
Internally displaced Sudan 1,976,000 1,680,000 2,174,000 1,848,000
People in IDP-like situations Sudan 85,000 - 93,500 -
Returnee arrivals during year (ex-IDPs) Sudan 20,000 20,000 20,000 20,000
Others of concern Ethiopia 3,420 3,420 3,660 3,660
Various 70 70 70 70

| Response |

Needs and strategies

In 2015, the influx from South Sudan is expected to continue, with the current estimate at 130,000 South Sudanese refugees by the start of the year. UNHCR will continue to lead and coordinate the response to this, in support of the Government's efforts. It will advocate a predictable legal framework for newly arrived South Sudanese, to ensure they can access the rights and entitlements affirmed in public statements by the authorities.

The influx from Eritrea is also expected to continue in the east, with more than 1,000 new arrivals per month. Eighty per cent of the new arrivals tend to continue their journey onwards, including unaccompanied minors, and many are facing serious protection risks, such as human trafficking. UNHCR will continue advocating for their access to asylum and will aim to consolidate counter-trafficking achievements. It will pay special attention to people with specific needs, notably by implementing targeted interventions for children.

Following the Government's suspension of activities planned under the Transitional Solutions Initiative (TSI) in 2014, the authorities have reviewed their approach and are determining strategic self-reliance interventions that will benefit both refugees and host communities.

In Khartoum, a population assessment of urban refugees and asylum-seekers was completed in 2014 and will help determine a strategy to address the needs of around 32,000 urban refugees. This will build on the registration of refugees in Khartoum, carried out jointly by UNHCR and the Commissioner for Refugees (COR). Key areas for interventions will include livelihoods, education and health.

UNHCR will strengthen national partnerships to respond to new displacement and potential returns from asylum countries, as well as anticipated new arrivals from South Sudan. It will support community-based interventions to avoid conflict between returnees and host populations over scarce resources in highly volatile regions.

The risk of statelessness, mainly for populations at risk following the independence of South Sudan, will be addressed by providing legal advice. UNHCR will support procedures to confirm nationality and documentation for South Sudanese to prevent statelessness and enhance their protection. In parallel, the organization will pursue a large-scale documentation campaign for South Sudanese in Sudan.

UNHCR is reviewing its engagement with IDPs in Darfur owing to access constraints. It will continue to lead the protection and emergency shelter/non-food items (NFI) sectors and focus on enhancing emergency response to new displacement, addressing acute protection needs in selected IDP camps. For refugees in Darfur, the Office will pursue its planned interventions to provide protection and assistance, and to promote durable solutions.

| Implementation |


UNHCR will continue to work closely with its main governmental counterpart, the COR, and relevant governmental entities, in particular the Ministry of the Interior, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Ministry of Justice.

Strong partnerships have also been established with the Humanitarian Aid Commission for internal displacement and issues related to the South Sudanese. In Darfur, the Office liaises with the Darfur Regional Authority and the African Union/United Nations Hybrid operation in Darfur (UNAMID) and will remain fully engaged in the UN Country Team and Humanitarian Country Team, including through its role in the inter-agency cluster arrangements.

The new Refugee Coordination Model will continue to be applied in response to the South Sudanese emergency situation and UNHCR will be actively engaged in related inter-agency initiatives, including the Regional Response Plan.

2015 UNHCR partners in Sudan
Implementing partners
Government agencies: Commissioner for Refugees, Commission for Voluntary and Humanitarian Works, Humanitarian Aid Commission, Gedaref State authorities, Ministry of Social Affairs (South Darfur), Ministry of Social Development, Women and Child Affairs (South Kordofan), Ministry of Social Welfare for Child Protection (Kassala), Ministry of Social Welfare and Humanitarian Affairs (Blue Nile), Refugee Counselling Services, South Sudan Directorate of Nationality, Passports and Immigration
NGOs: Africa Humanitarian Action, Al Fanar Psychosocial Rehabilitation Centre, Al Manar Voluntary Organization, Cooperazione Internationale, Danish Refugee Council, El Sugya Charity Organization, Global Health Foundation, HelpAge International, Human Appeal International, Labena Organization for Women's Development, Organization for Voluntary Humanitarian Assistance Programme, People Legal Aid Centre, Save the Children Sweden, Sudan Organization for Development, Sudanese Red Crescent Society, Triangle Génération Humanitaire, Windle Trust International, World Vision Germany, World Vision International
Others: UNOPS
Operational partners

| Financial information |

UNHCR's financial requirements for the programme in Sudan have been going down since 2011. However, the initial 2014 budget of USD 97.4 million has been increased owing to the unexpected level of arrivals of South Sudanese refugees: the corresponding additional requirements of USD 54.4 million for 2014 were presented in a supplementary appeal.

Compared to the initially-approved budget for 2014,the financial requirements for 2015 will be significantly higher, as they include the needs estimated for the South Sudanese refugees. Should the emergency needs for South Sudanese refugees continue to expand in 2015, a supplementary appeal for additional requirements will be issued.

In total, UNHCR's budget for 2015 has been set at USD 130.6 million, including USD 97.1 million for refugee activities and USD 30.5 million for IDPs. Almost USD 3.1 million has been allocated to the stateless programme.

Source: UNHCR Global Appeal 2015 Update

UNHCR contact information

The UNHCR Representation in Sudan
Style of Address The UNHCR Representation in Sudan
Street Address Ahmed Kheir Street (North of Farouk Cemetery), Khartoum, Sudan
Mailing Address P.O. Box 2560, Khartoum, Sudan
Telephone +249183471013
Facsimile +249183473101
Time Zone GMT + 3
Working Hours
Monday:08:30 - 16:15
Tuesday:08:30 - 16:15
Wednesday:08:30 - 16:15
Thursday:08:30 - 16:00
Sunday:08:30 - 16:15
Public Holidays 03 January 2016, new year
04 January 2016, Independence day
01 May 2016, easter sunday
06 July 2016, eid al fitr
11 September 2016, eid al adha
02 October 2016, hijri new year
24 October 2016, un day
25 December 2016, christmas day

Comments New Year's Day Friday 1 January 2016 observed on Sunday 03 Jannuary 2016
Independence Day Friday 1 January 2016 Observed on Monday 04 January 2016 *
Easter Sunday 01 May 2016 Observed on Sunday 01 May 2016l 2016 #*
Eid Al-Fitr Wensday 06 July 2016 Observed on Wensday 06 July 2016 & Thursday 07 July 2016 @*
Eid Al-Adha Sunday 11 September 2016 Observed on Sunday 11 September 2016 & Monday 12 September 2016 @*
UN Day Monday 24 October 2016 Observed on Monday 24 October 2016
Hijri New Year Sunday 02 October 2016 Observed on TSunday 02 October 2016 @*
Christmas Day Sunday 25 December 2016 Observed on Sunday 25 December 2016

* Taken in lieu of the actual holiday day
# Easter Sunday is observed this year by the Christian communities on the same day
## Celebrated for the first time in 2014
Please note that holidays depending on the lunar calendar will aligned with the official list of the Government at the time
The Opening date of the office :15 September 1968
Style of Address The UNHCR Sub-Office In Kassala
Street Address Wali Street,, Block 12, Plot 213, Kassala, Sudan
Mailing Address C/o UNHCR Representation Office Khartoum, P.O. Box 2560, Khartoum, Sudan
Telephone 249 411 829 003
Facsimile 249 411 829 001
Time Zone GMT + 3
Working Hours
Monday:8:30 - 16:15
Tuesday:8:30 - 16:15
Wednesday:8:30 - 16:15
Thursday:8:30 - 16:15
Sunday:8:30 - 16:15



UNHCR contact information

Statistical Snapshot*
* As at June 2015
  1. Country or territory of asylum or residence.
  2. Persons recognized as refugees under the 1951 UN Convention/1967 Protocol, the 1969 OAU Convention, in accordance with the UNHCR Statute, persons granted a complementary form of protection and those granted temporary protection. It also includes persons in a refugee-like situation for whom refugee status has, for practical or other reasons, not been ascertained. In the absence of Government figures, UNHCR has estimated the refugee population in many industrialized countries based on 10 years of individual asylum-seeker recognition.
  3. Persons whose applications for asylum or refugee status are pending as at 30 June 2015 at any stage in the asylum procedure.
  4. Refugees who have returned to their place of origin during the first half of 2015. Source: country of origin and asylum.
  5. Persons who are displaced within their country and to whom UNHCR extends protection and assistance. It also includes people in IDP-like situations. This category is descriptive in nature and includes groups of persons who are inside their country of nationality or habitual residence and who face protection risks similar to those of IDPs but who, for practical or other reasons, could not be reported as such.
  6. IDPs protected/assisted by UNHCR who have returned to their place of origin during the first half of 2015.
  7. Refers to persons who are not considered as nationals by any State under the operation of its law. This category refers to persons who fall under the agency's statelessness mandate because they are stateless according to this international definition, but data from some countries may also include persons with undetermined nationality.
  8. Refers to individuals who do not necessarily fall directly into any of the other groups but to whom UNHCR may extend its protection and/or assistance services. These activities might be based on humanitarian or other special grounds.
The data are generally provided by Governments, based on their own definitions and methods of data collection.
A dash (-) indicates that the value is zero, not available or not applicable.

Source: UNHCR/Governments.
Compiled by: UNHCR, FICSS.
Residing in Sudan [1]
Refugees [2] 356,191
Asylum Seekers [3] 11,448
Returned Refugees [4] 3,896
Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) [5]
More info 2,342,979
IDP figure in Sudan includes 77,300 people who are in an IDP-like situation.
Returned IDPs [6] 50,105
Stateless Persons [7] 0
Various [8] 3,290
Total Population of Concern 2,767,909
Originating from Sudan [1]
Refugees [2]
More info 640,919
Refugee figure may include citizens of South Sudan (in absence of separate statistics for both countries).
Asylum Seekers [3]
More info 40,109
Figure for asylum-seekers may include citizens of South Sudan (in absence of separate statistics for both countries).
Returned Refugees [4] 3,896
Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) [5]
More info 2,342,979
IDP figure in Sudan includes 77,300 people who are in an IDP-like situation.
Returned IDPs [6] 50,105
Various [8] 6
Total Population of Concern 3,078,014

Sudan UNHCR Fundraising Reports Rss FeedUNHCR Fundraising Reports

more documents

Bonga Camp, Ethiopia

Bonga camp is located in the troubled Gambella region of western Ethiopia. But it remains untouched by the ethnic conflicts that have torn nearby Gambella town and Fugnido camp in the last year.

For Bonga's 17,000 Sudanese refugees, life goes on despite rumblings in the region. Refugee children continue with school and play while their parents make ends meet by supplementing UNHCR assistance with self-reliance projects.

Cultural life is not forgotten, with tribal ceremonies by the Uduk majority. Other ethnic communities – Shuluks, Nubas and Equatorians – are welcome too, judging by how well hundreds of newcomers have settled in after their transfer from Fugnido camp in late 2002.

Bonga Camp, Ethiopia

Southerners on the move before Sudanese vote

Ahead of South Sudan's landmark January 9, 2011 referendum on independence, tens of thousands of southern Sudanese in the North packed their belongings and made the long trek south. UNHCR set up way stations at key points along the route to provide food and shelter to the travellers during their arduous journey. Several reports of rapes and attacks on travellers reinforced the need for these reception centres, where women, children and people living with disabilities can spend the night. UNHCR has made contingency plans in the event of mass displacement after the vote, including the stockpiling of shelter and basic provisions for up to 50,000 people.

Southerners on the move before Sudanese vote

South Sudan: Preparing for Long-Awaited Returns

The signing of a peace agreement between the Sudanese government and the army of the Sudanese People's Liberation Movement on 9 January, 2005, ended 21 years of civil war and signaled a new era for southern Sudan. For some 4.5 million uprooted Sudanese – 500,000 refugees and 4 million internally displaced people – it means a chance to finally return home.

In preparation, UNHCR and partner agencies have undertaken, in various areas of South Sudan, the enormous task of starting to build some basic infrastructure and services which either were destroyed during the war or simply had never existed. Alongside other UN agencies and NGOs, UNHCR is also putting into place a wide range of programmes to help returnees re-establish their lives.

These programs include road construction, the building of schools and health facilities, as well as developing small income generation programmes to promote self-reliance.

South Sudan: Preparing for Long-Awaited Returns

Portraits of Darfur's Refugees

Nearly 200,000 refugees, the majority of them women and children, have fled across the border from Sudan into Chad since the outbreak of conflict in Sudan's Darfur region in March 2003. The refugees have left behind their homes and often loved ones in Darfur, where militias have reportedly killed and raped villagers, looted and burned houses and possessions and driven people from their homes.

Most of the refugees in eastern Chad are sheltered in 11 camps established by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, where they receive humanitarian aid, shelter, water and basic services.

Life in the camps is not easy in the desert environment of eastern Chad, where water and firewood are extremely scarce. Sandstorms are a regular feature during the dry months and torrential rains flood the landscape in the wet season.

Yet in the faces of the refugees, dignity and hope remain in spite of the hardships and the violence they have suffered.

Portraits of Darfur's Refugees

Chad: Relocation from the Border to Refugee Camps

Since fighting broke out in Sudan's western region of Darfur last year, more than 110,000 Sudanese refugees have fled into Chad. They are scattered along a 600-km stretch of desert borderland under a scorching sun during the day and freezing temperatures during the night.

Access to these refugees in this inhospitable region is difficult. Staff of the UN refugee agency drive for days to locate them. Bombing in the border zone and cross-border raids by militia from Sudan put the refugees at risk and underscore the urgent need to move them to camps in the interior. In addition, the approach of the rainy season in May will make the sandy roads impassable. Aid workers are racing against time in an attempt bring emergency relief to these refugees.

Chad: Relocation from the Border to Refugee Camps

South Sudan: The Long Trip Home

When the peace treaty that ended 21 years of civil war between north and south Sudan was signed in 2005, some 223,000 Sudanese refugees were living in Uganda – the largest group of Sudanese displaced to a neighbouring country.

Despite South Sudan's lack of basic infrastructure, such as schools, hospitals and roads, many Sudanese were eager to go home. In May 2006, the UN refugee agency's Uganda office launched an assisted repatriation programme for Sudanese refugees. The returnees were given a repatriation package, including blankets, sleeping mats, plastic sheets, mosquito nets, water buckets, kitchen sets, jerry cans, soap, seeds and tools, before being transported from the transit centres to their home villages. As of mid-2008, some 60,000 Sudanese living in Uganda had been helped back home.

As of the beginning of May 2008, some 275,000 Sudanese refugees had returned to South Sudan from surrounding countries, including Uganda, Ethiopia, Central African Republic, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Kenya. Some 125,000 returned with UNHCR assistance.

Posted on 16 July 2008

South Sudan: The Long Trip Home

Uganda: Sudanese Refugees Flee Rebel Attacks

On August 5, 2002, some 24,000 Sudanese refugees fled their homes in Achol-Pii camp in northern Uganda after a bloody attack by the Lord's Liberation Army rebel group. More than 60 refugees and many local villagers were killed in the attack.

Fearing further violence, displaced refugees trekked overnight to Lira, from where UNHCR trucked them to Kiryondongo, 100 km to the south-west. Kiryondongo site, a settlement already hosting 13,000 refugees, was temporarily extended to accommodate the Achol-Pii survivors until another site could be prepared.

Arriving families were initially accommodated at an expanded reception centre at Kiryondongo. After being registered, the new arrivals received UNHCR plastic sheeting, an emergency food ration and a 20 x 15-metre plot per family to build their own temporary shelter. UNHCR also distributed blankets and jerry cans. Additional latrines were also dug, new water pumps installed and a new emergency clinic was set up.

Uganda: Sudanese Refugees Flee Rebel Attacks

Destruction and Displacement in Darfur, Sudan

An estimated one million people have been displaced within Sudan's western region of Darfur by fighting that erupted in early 2003. Militia have reportedly killed and raped villagers and forced hundreds of thousands from their homes in Darfur.

Many of the displaced people are living in squalid, makeshift encampments, where they continue to fear attacks by marauding militia.

UNHCR became operational in Darfur in June 2004 following a request from the UN country team for the refugee agency to share its expertise in protection, camp management and site planning. UNHCR has opened offices in Nyala and El Geneina and plans to establish a presence in El Fasher. UNHCR teams have begun evaluating existing camps for displaced persons to improve the layout and design and have begun training governmental camp managers in protection and the rights of displaced people.

Destruction and Displacement in Darfur, Sudan

Camp Life in Eastern Chad

Faced with nearly 200,000 Sudanese refugees from Darfur fleeing into the barren desert of eastern Chad, the UN refugee agency has essentially had to build small villages – including shelter, latrines, water supply and basic services – to accommodate the refugees and help them survive in a hostile natural environment with scarce local resources. The 11 camps set up so far shelter more than 166,000 refugees from Darfur.

While much work still needs to be done, especially to find sufficient water in the arid region, life in the camps has reached a certain level of normalcy, with schools and activities starting up and humanitarian aid regularly distributed to the residents. Meanwhile, UNHCR continues to improve services and living conditions in the existing camps and is working to set up new camps to take in more refugees from the ongoing violence in Darfur.

Camp Life in Eastern Chad

Crisis in the Central African Republic

Little has been reported about the humanitarian crisis in the northern part of the Central African Republic (CAR), where at least 295,000 people have been forced out of their homes since mid-2005. An estimated 197,000 are internally displaced, while 98,000 have fled to Chad, Cameroon or Sudan. They are the victims of fighting between rebel groups and government forces.

Many of the internally displaced live in the bush close to their villages. They build shelters from hay, grow vegetables and even start bush schools for their children. But access to clean water and health care remains a huge problem. Many children suffer from diarrhoea and malaria but their parents are too scared to take them to hospitals or clinics for treatment.

Cattle herders in northern CAR are menaced by the zaraguina, bandits who kidnap children for ransom. The villagers must sell off their livestock to pay.

Posted on 21 February 2008

Crisis in the Central African Republic

Darfuri Refugees in Chad: No end in Sight

More than six years after the beginning of the conflict in Sudan's Darfur region, more than a quarter-of-a-million refugees remain displaced in neighbouring Chad. Most of the refugees are women and children and many are still traumatized after fleeing across the border after losing almost everything in land and air raids on their villages.

Families saw their villages being burned, their relatives being killed and their livestock being stolen. Women and girls have been victims of rape, abuse and humiliation, and many have been ostracized by their own communities as a result.

The bulk of the refugees live in 12 camps run by UNHCR in the arid reaches of eastern Chad, where natural resources such as water and firewood are scarce. They have been able to resume their lives in relative peace, but all hope one day to return to Darfur, where hundreds of thousands of their compatriots are internally displaced.

In eastern Chad, UNHCR and other agencies are helping to take care of 180,000 internally displaced Chadians, who fled inter-ethnic clashes in 2006-2007. Some families are starting to return to their villages of origin only now.

Darfuri Refugees in Chad: No end in Sight

Chad Mission Photo Gallery

Chad Mission Photo Gallery

The Nubians in Kenya

In the late 1880s, Nubians from Sudan were conscripted into the British army. The authorities induced them to stay in Kenya by granting them homesteads and issuing them British colonial passports. The Nubians named their settlement near Nairobi, Kibra, or "land of forest." In 1917, the British government formally declared the land a permanent settlement of the Nubians. Since independence, Kenyan Nubians have had difficulty getting access to ID cards, employment and higher education and have been limited in their travel. In recent years, a more flexible approach by the authorities has helped ease some of these restric¬tions and most adult Nubians have been confirmed as Kenyan citizens, but children still face problems in acquiring Kenyan citizenship.

The Nubians in Kenya

The Most Important Thing

More than 105,000 refugees have crossed the border between Sudan's Blue Nile state and South Sudan's Upper Nile state since November, 2011. The journey, usually made on foot, winds through treacherous conflict zones and along back roads that are barely passable due to heavy rains. Most flee on a moment's notice, bringing only what they can carry, and sometimes nothing more than the clothes on their backs. Some arrive ill or injured, and many have gone hungry along the way. Photojournalist Brian Sokol asked several refugees in South Sudan to show him the most important item they brought with them. See his photo essay to find out what they chose.

The Most Important Thing

The resilience and dignity of refugees in South Sudan

Since September 2011, more than 100,000 Sudanese refugees have fled bombing raids and fighting in their home country and taken refuge in South Sudan's Upper Nile state. Hosted in four refugee camps in Maban County, they face tough living conditions that have worsened during the rainy season. Staff from the UN refugee agency share some of their hardship in one of the most remote and difficult to access areas of South Sudan.

Grateful for the life-saving assistance they receive from the UN refugee agency and its humanitarian partners, the refugees are an example of the extraordinary resilience humans are capable of. The following photographs, taken by UNHCR staff, show the conditions in which they live during a daily battle to maintain their dignity and hope.

The resilience and dignity of refugees in South Sudan

Health crisis in South Sudan

There are roughly 105,000 refugees in South Sudan's Maban County. Many are at serious health risk. UNHCR and its partners are working vigorously to prevent and contain the outbreak of malaria and several water-borne diseases.

Most of the refugees, especially children and the elderly, arrived at the camps in a weakened condition. The on-going rains tend to make things worse, as puddles become incubation areas for malaria-bearing mosquitoes. Moderately malnourished children and elderly can easily become severely malnourished if they catch so much as a cold.

The problems are hardest felt in Maban County's Yusuf Batil camp, where as many as 15 per cent of the children under 5 are severely malnourished.

UNHCR and its partners are doing everything possible to prevent and combat illness. In Yusuf Batil camp, 200 community health workers go from home to home looking educating refugees about basic hygene such as hand washing and identifying ill people as they go. Such nutritional foods as Plumpy'nut are being supplied to children who need them. A hospital dedicated to the treatment of cholera has been established. Mosquito nets have been distributed throughout the camps in order to prevent malaria.

Health crisis in South Sudan

A Family On the Move in South Sudan

When fighting erupted in Kormaganza, Blue Nile state, in September last year, 80-year-old Dawa Musa's family decided to flee to the neighbouring village of Mafot. Dawa was too frail to make the two-day journey by foot, so her son, Awad Kutuk Tungud, hid her in the bush for three days while he moved his wife, Alahia, and nine children to safety. Awad returned for his mother and carried her to Mafot, where the family remained in relative safety for several months - until artillery began shelling the village.

Awad again fled with his family - this time across the border to South Sudan. For 15 gruelling days, he carried both his elderly mother and his daughter Zainab on his back, until they reached the border crossing at Al Fudj in February. UNHCR transported the family to Jamam refugee camp in South Sudan's Upper Nile state. They lived in safety for seven months until heavy rains caused flooding, making it difficult for UNHCR to bring clean water to the camp and bringing the threat of highly contagious waterborne diseases.

UNHCR set up a new camp in Gendrassa, located 55 kilometres from Jamam and on higher ground, and began the relocation of 56,000 people to the new camp. Among them were Awad and his family. Awad carried his mother once again, but this time it was to their new tent in Gendrassa camp. Awad has plans to begin farming. "Come back in three months," he said, "and there will be maize growing."

A Family On the Move in South Sudan

International Women's Day 2013

Gender equality remains a distant goal for many women and girls around the world, particularly those who are forcibly displaced or stateless. Multiple forms of discrimination hamper their enjoyment of basic rights: sexual and gender-based violence persists in brutal forms, girls and women struggle to access education and livelihoods opportunities, and women's voices are often powerless to influence decisions that affect their lives. Displaced women often end up alone, or as single parents, battling to make ends meet. Girls who become separated or lose their families during conflict are especially vulnerable to abuse.

On International Women's Day, UNHCR reaffirms its commitment to fight for women's empowerment and gender equality. In all regions of the world we are working to support refugee women's participation and leadership in camp committees and community structures, so they can assume greater control over their lives. We have also intensified our efforts to prevent and respond to sexual and gender-based violence, with a focus on emergencies, including by improving access to justice for survivors. Significantly, we are increasingly working with men and boys, in addition to women and girls, to bring an end to dangerous cycles of violence and promote gender equality.

These photographs pay tribute to forcibly displaced women and girls around the world. They include images of women and girls from some of today's major displacement crises, including Syria, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mali and Sudan.

International Women's Day 2013

Cold, Uncomfortable and Hungry in Calais

For years, migrants and asylum-seekers have flocked to the northern French port of Calais in hopes of crossing the short stretch of sea to find work and a better life in England. This hope drives many to endure squalid, miserable conditions in makeshift camps, lack of food and freezing temperatures. Some stay for months waiting for an opportunity to stow away on a vehicle making the ferry crossing.

Many of the town's temporary inhabitants are fleeing persecution or conflict in countries such as Afghanistan, Eritrea, Iraq, Sudan and Syria. And although these people are entitled to seek asylum in France, the country's lack of accommodation, administrative hurdles and language barrier, compel many to travel on to England where many already have family waiting.

With the arrival of winter, the crisis in Calais intensifies. To help address the problem, French authorities have opened a day centre as well as housing facilities for women and children. UNHCR is concerned with respect to the situation of male migrants who will remain without shelter solutions. Photographer Julien Pebrel recently went to Calais to document their lives in dire sites such as the Vandamme squat and next to the Tioxide factory.

Cold, Uncomfortable and Hungry in Calais

Chad: Education in Exile

UNHCR joins forces with the Ministry of Education and NGO partners to improve education for Sudanese refugees in Chad.

The ongoing violence in Sudan's western Darfur region has uprooted two million Sudanese inside the country and driven some 230,000 more over the border into 12 refugee camps in eastern Chad.

Although enrolment in the camp schools in Chad is high, attendance is inconsistent. A shortage of qualified teachers and lack of school supplies and furniture make it difficult to keep schools running. In addition, many children are overwhelmed by household chores, while others leave school to work for local Chadian families. Girls' attendance is less regular, especially after marriage, which usually occurs by the age of 12 or 13. For boys and young men, attending school decreases the possibility of recruitment by various armed groups operating in the area.

UNHCR and its partners continue to provide training and salaries for teachers in all 12 refugee camps, ensuring a quality education for refugee children. NGO partners maintain schools and supply uniforms to needy students. And UNICEF is providing books, note pads and stationary. In August 2007 UNHCR, UNICEF and Chad's Ministry of Education joined forces to access and improve the state of education for Sudanese uprooted by conflict in Darfur.

UNHCR's ninemillion campaign aims to provide a healthy and safe learning environment for nine million refugee children by 2010.

Chad: Education in Exile

Battling the Elements in Chad

More than 180,000 Sudanese refugees have fled violence in Sudan's Darfur region, crossing the border to the remote desert of eastern Chad.

It is one of the most inhospitable environments UNHCR has ever had to work in. Vast distances, extremely poor road conditions, scorching daytime temperatures, sandstorms, the scarcity of vegetation and firewood, and severe shortages of drinkable water have been major challenges since the beginning of the operation. Now, heavy seasonal rains are falling, cutting off the few usable roads, flooding areas where refugees had set up makeshift shelters, and delaying the delivery of relief supplies.

Despite the enormous environmental challenges, UNHCR has so far managed to establish nine camps and relocate the vast majority of the refugees who are willing to move from the volatile border.

Battling the Elements in Chad

South Sudan: A Long Walk in Search of Safety Play video

South Sudan: A Long Walk in Search of Safety

Years of fighting between Sudan and rebel forces have sent more than 240,000 people fleeing to neighbouring South Sudan, a country embroiled in its own conflict. After weeks on foot, Amal Bakith and her five children are settling in at Ajoung Thok refugee camp where they receive food, shelter, access to education and land.

South Sudan: Helping the Most VulnerablePlay video

South Sudan: Helping the Most Vulnerable

UNHCR comes to the assistance of older, disabled and sickly Sudanese refugees arriving in Yusuf Batil Camp.
Sudan: A Perilous RoutePlay video

Sudan: A Perilous Route

Kassala camp in eastern Sudan provides shelter to thousands of refugees from Eritrea. Many of them pass through the hands of ruthless and dangerous smugglers.
Sudan: Heading for a New HomePlay video

Sudan: Heading for a New Home

UNHCR is offering to help move hundreds of people from Sudan to newly independent South Sudan, where they will build new lives. Almost 250 families with ties to the south are waiting for a ride.
South Sudan: Blue Nile RefugeesPlay video

South Sudan: Blue Nile Refugees

Refugees are streaming in from Sudan's Blue Nile Region into South Sudan, many to Doro Camp.
Kenya: In Need of ProtectionPlay video

Kenya: In Need of Protection

The legacy of Sudan's civil war haunts many refugees. In Kakuma camp some need special protection to ensure their safety.
Sudanese Vote in Kenyan ExilePlay video

Sudanese Vote in Kenyan Exile

Refugees in Kenya may have missed election day in South Sudan. But that did not stop them voting.
Sudan: Going HomePlay video

Sudan: Going Home

Thousands of southern Sudanese leave the North to return to their villages.
South Sudan: Voting for the FuturePlay video

South Sudan: Voting for the Future

Voting is under way in South Sudan. The millions who returned to their villages, after decades of war, hope this election could bring positive change and permanent peace.
Refugee Women: A Step ForwardPlay video

Refugee Women: A Step Forward

This year International women's day focuses on the economic, social and political achievements of women.Yet each day millions of women around the world struggle to make ends meet. Nowhere is situation more acute than in those countries recovering from conflict. Here's the story of how one group of women is striving for their own economic independence in the hope that one day it will help them return to south Sudan.
Refugee Women: A Step ForwardPlay video

Refugee Women: A Step Forward

In countries recovering from conflict, women struggle to make ends meet. Here's the story of how one group of women is striving for economic independence in the hope that it will help them return to South Sudan.
Play video

"Experience Darfur"

Londoners are given the chance to see the world through the eyes of refugees. CNN's Sasha Herriman reports.
New Violence In DarfurPlay video

New Violence In Darfur

Recent violence in Darfur has forced tens of thousands of people from their homes and made the delivery of aid almost impossible. A joint UN humanitarian mission recently visited Sirba, one of the towns that came under attack.
Learning Is Their FuturePlay video

Learning Is Their Future

Almost a quarter-of-a-million Sudanese have fled violence in the Darfur region and found refuge across the border in eastern Chad. Schools in the UNHCR-run refugee camps provide an education for more than 50,000 children. Conditions are basic and equipment scarce, but the children feel education is their only hope for a brighter future.
Play video

"Experience Darfur" in Trafalgar Square

On June 17, an exhibit dubbed "Experience Darfur," opened on Trafalgar Square, in London. The square was turned into a mock refugee camp for a day to highlight the plight of hundreds of thousands of people displaced by conflict in Sudan's Darfur region.