Report of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
United Nations General Assembly Official Records: Nineteenth Session
Report of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
Supplement No.11 (A/5811/Rev.1)
1 The report submitted to the General Assembly by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees last year1 reflected the concerns of an institution which was compelled to adapt its programme to new situations affecting the refugees whom it is called upon to assist. The object at that time was to make a final effort to terminate the programmes of assistance begun in 1955 on behalf of the refugees, victims of the Second World War and the events which followed while continuing its basic task of protection, and to lay the foundation for continuous action adapted to current needs and, in particular, to those which had arisen in areas of the world where the Office of the High Commissioner had not yet been called upon to provide assistance.
2. What progress has been made after a year of intense efforts to attain that twofold objective? As will be seen from the facts given in the various chapters of this report, substantial progress has been made in both directions.
3. With its financing virtually assured, subject to the actual payment of various pledged contributions, the last major aid programme on behalf of the remaining "old" European refugees has now entered its final stage. Apart from a few adjustments which have had to be made in the initial projects along the way, the implementation of this programme, which should be completed in the main by the end of 1965, is continuing as planned and very much at the pace envisaged. Circumstances, it is true, have caused a few delays here and there, since certain factors such as the rate of housing construction in a given country depend not only on the operations of the High Commissioner. But those unavoidable setbacks do not affect the programme as a whole, which continues to progress satisfactorily owing, of course, to the untiring efforts made, with a most praiseworthy constancy and vigour, by the Governments concerned and the voluntary agencies which in most cases contribute directly to its implementation.
4. The current programme, designed to meet the most urgent needs immediately wherever circumstances justify action by the High Commissioner, has proved effective and suitable both for solving problems where they arose and, at the same time, for preventing them whenever possible by avoiding new accumulations of refugees unable to provide for their basic needs, whether in or outside camps. In this respect, the effects of the current programme in coping with the continued movement of new refugees in Europe are revealing. But the most acute and difficult problems, those which caused the most serious concern and kept the services of the Office of the High Commissioner in a constant state of alert, were those in Africa. It was there, too, that the stimulating effect of the current programme and its ability to initiate the process of international solidarity were most clearly revealed. Many concurrent actions by Governments, United Nations specialized agencies and voluntary agencies complemented the plans worked out by Governments and the Office of the High Commissioner to deal with each particular situation. This compact network of operations, duly synchronized and co-ordinated, enabled the High Commissioner to achieve his objectives at minimum cost. As shown in chapter IV after report, he is continuing his work despite sometimes unfavourable circumstances and events which are still causing disturbances in certain parts of the world. The exceptionally moving character and particular urgency of the refugee problems existing there at the present time require both rapid action and frequent revision of established plans. This adaptation to day-to-day realities is made possible by the flexibility which was built into the current programme from the outset.
5. It should be recalled that the programme of assistance provided by the Office of the High Commissioner flows from the primary and peremptory obligation placed upon it by its statute to provide international protection for refugees. While those two tasks - protection and assistance - generally appear to be separate and are dealt with in separate chapters of the report for reasons of convenience and clarity, they are very often closely related and complementary. Indeed, the scope of protection continues to widen as new refugee problems arise. This was reflected, for example, in the accession of a forty-third State to the Convention of 28 July 1951 and by the confirmation given by three countries which recently attained their independence that they considered themselves bound by the Convention, which constitutes the charter of the refugee. No less significant is the fact that, despite the serious financial, economic and social problems with which they had to cope owing to the influx of refugees, the African countries have opened their doors wide to the latter, thus observing the humanitarian and generous practice of granting the right of asylum in conformity with the tradition and ideals of the United Nations as expressed in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the draft Declaration on the Right of Asylum now before the General Assembly.
6. Still another result of the extension of the activities of the High Commissioner's Office geographically - a reflection of its aspiration for universality - was the decision of the General assembly at its eighteenth session to enlarge the Executive Committee of the High Commissioner's Programme from twenty five to thirty members (resolution 1958 (XVIII)).
7. Another noteworthy fact is the increasingly substantial contribution being made by more and more Governments, international organizations and voluntary agencies to activities on behalf of refugees. This development of international co-operation and the concomitant effort towards co-ordination are worth emphasizing at a time when the United Nations is in the process of organizing the International Co-operation Year.
CHAPTER I INTERNATIONAL CO-OPERATION IN FAVOUR OF REFUGEES
A. General observations
8. International co-operation in favour of refugees has been steadily developing over the past years. it reached a quite remarkable degree of effectiveness during the period under review and should contribute to the success of the forthcoming International Co-operation Year.
9. As the problems of refugees facing the Office of the High Commissioner extend to further regions throughout the world, increasing interest is aroused in the work of assistance on the part of Governments, other organizations and peoples. Their combined efforts towards the alleviation of the plight of refugees, "old" and new, have grown into a real mechanism of inter national solidarity which is proving to be of great value in solving refugee problems. This increasing co-ordination of effort on the part of all those who concern themselves in one way or another with the fate of refugees now extends over all UNHCR's activities, whether international protection, repatriation, resettlement, local integration or other forms of material assistance.
B. Co-operation with Governments and local authorities
10. The extension of the work of UNHCR to more countries throughout the world has called for wider geographical representation on the Executive Committee of the High Commissioner's Programme and, in accordance with the recommendation adopted by the General Assembly at its eighteenth session, the number of members on the Committee was increased by five and the following new members were elected by the Economic and Social Council: Algeria, Lebanon, Madagascar, Nigeria and Tanganyika.2
11. Another token of the interest of Governments and countries as a whole in the work of assistance to refugees is the financial effort made by the traditional contributors to the High Commissioner's programmes and several other countries to enable the High Commissioner to ensure the financing of major aid programmes for assistance to "old" European refugees. This effort, together with the spectacular success of a special fund-raising campaign in the Netherlands and of the world-wide sale of the UNHCR record "All - Star Festival", show how much goodwill can still be found to meet burning refugee problems.
12. Increasingly close contact has been maintained by the High Commissioner and his senior staff and representatives throughout the period under review with Governments of many countries where refugee problems have to be faced or where interest is being taken in the work of UNHCR.
13. The part played by the local authorities in the many areas where projects are being put into effect also deserves special mention, for they are in many instances responsible for the day-to-day work of assistance in co-operation with local representatives of UNHCR and of the voluntary agencies and other organizations. In view of the newly emerging problems, the network of these representatives was increased, particularly in Africa, in order to enable the Office to deal more effectively with these problems.
14. To illustrate this multilateral co-operation, mention might be made of the joint mission of the Director of Operations of UNHCR and an ILO expert to Kivu in the Congo (Leopoldville) and Burundi, to which reference is made in chapter IV, section F, below or, for example, of the close co-operation between the UNHCR Representative in Algiers and the newly established office for refugees in that country. This kind of co-operation is of the greatest value in that it enables the Office of the High Commissioner and the Governments which are responsible for the fate of refugees on their territory to deal with their problems as rapidly and as effectively as possible, alleviating human misery while at the same time helping the refugees to become self-supporting, which is one of the basic aims of the Office.
C. Co-operation between UNHCR and other organs of the United Nations and with intergovernmental organizations
15. In accordance with Article 8, sub-paragraph (g), of the Statute of the Office of UNHCR, the High Commissioner is keeping in close touch with the inter-governmental organizations concerned in the work of international assistance to refugees.
16. For several years now there has thus been fruitful co-operation between the Office of the High Commissioner and the specialized agencies of the United Nations, including in particular the ILO, WHO, FAO, UPU and UNESCO, and certain United Nations organs such as UNICEF, TAB and UNRWA. A close working relationship has similarly been established between UNHCR and certain regional organizations such as, for example, the Inter-governmental Committee for European Migration (ICEM), the Council of Europe, the European Economic Community and the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development.
17. Co-operation between UNHCR and other organizations varies, of course, according to the special fields of the organizations concerned. To cite just a few examples, ICEM, which deals with the migration of refugees, has been the partner of the Office of the High Commissioner as regards migration ever since UNHCR began its activities in that field. The ILO, which traditionally contributes to international efforts for the protection of refugees, is now considering programmes in Africa within the framework of technical assistance, which are of particular importance for aid to refugees in certain areas, as is shown in chapter IV, section F, concerning assistance to refugees from Rwanda in the North and Central Kivu provinces of the Congo (Leopoldville) and in Burundi. FAO, WHO, and UNICEF have already assisted UNHCR, each in their own field. The ILO Zonal Development projects in Kivu in the Congo (Leopoldville) provide a good example of present co-operation between UNHCR and the specialized agencies and other organs of the United Nations, FAO, WHO, UNESCO, UNICEF and the United Nations Bureau of Social Affairs, as well as ONUC, are called upon to participate in these projects, which will contribute to consolidating the position of the refugees from Rwanda in the areas concerned.
18. As regards more specifically the protection of refugees, European regional organizations have continued to give active support to the work of UNHCR and are helping to improve the legal position of refugees, as shown in more detail in chapter II on international protection. As for the completion of major aid projects for "old" European refugees, the Office has received invaluable support from the Council of Europe which, through various recommendations and resolutions, ha encouraged its member Governments to make special financial contributions to the 1963 Programme.
19. In considering the question of relations between UNHCR and inter-governmental organizations, the Executive Committee of the High Commissioner's Programme, at its eleventh session, paid a tribute to the Council of Europe for its participation in the humanitarian task of international assistance to refugees. In connexion with assistance to refugees in Africa, the Committee noted that contact had been made with UNHCR by other regional organizations such as the Organization of African Unity. The Committee stressed the importance of increased co-operation between the Office of the High Commissioner and other United Nations agencies, and expressed the hope that co-operation between UNHCR and other organizations would, where necessary and possible, be further extended in other geographical areas with a view to the raped solution of the problems of refugees.
D. Co-operation between UNHCR and voluntary agencies
20. The manifold activities of the voluntary agencies in carrying out or supporting the work of assistance to refugees have again proved of vital importance during the period under review. Close relations have been maintained with the International Council of Voluntary Agencies, which includes some eighty agencies concerned with refugees or migration, and many of which act as operational agencies for the implementation of UNHCR projects. The simultaneous implementation of major aid projects for "old" European refugees and of the new projects put into effect under the current programme has placed a great additional strain on many of these agencies, particularly at a time when new problems call for immediate attention in Africa and Asia. Several agencies have nevertheless taken on a new burden of assistance in addition to their other activities, particularly in connexion with the problem of new refugees from Rwanda. While lending their wholehearted support to the work of UNHCR in the field, several of the agencies have also made a significant financial sacrifice for the humanitarian cause which the Office is serving, and have thus made it possible for some of the host Governments to put into effect supplementary projects badly needed to improve the lot of the refugees. Special mention should also be made of the individual voluntary workers, of the missionaries and of the constituencies of the agencies, who all together constitute an invaluable element of goodwill throughout many countries.
E. Award of the Nansen Medal for 1963
21. In recognition of the outstanding contribution made by the voluntary agencies to the solution of problems throughout the world and with a view to honouring all the agencies and their constituencies as well as individual voluntary workers who have shared in the common effort of assistance to refugees, the Nansen Medal for 1963 was awarded to the International Council of Voluntary Agencies at a ceremony held at the Palais des Nations, Geneva, on 10 October 1963.
CHAPTER II INTERNATIONAL PROTECTION
A. General observations
22. Activities in the exercise of the basic and traditional function of international protection have continued during the period under review. The annual report can only highlight certain events in the efforts of UNHCR to protect the rights and legitimate interests of refugees and to improve their status, and cannot therefore do full justice to the varied and world-wide character of these activities which extend to every area where problems concerning the protection of refugees arise.
23. These activities are exercised on an international level through co-operation with other bodies of the United Nations, organizations of the United Nations family or other inter-governmental organizations, and on a national level by co-operation with Governments, mainly through the UNHCR branch offices and correspondents. The period under review was marked by a further expansion of these activities to new areas and by a fruitful development of co-operation with inter-governmental organizations on a regional level, with a view to the recognition of the special status of refugees and the improvement of their position.
24. Manifold efforts were made by UNHCR in a variety of individual cases raising protection problems many of which could be solved, thanks to the generous co-operation and assistance of Governments. The activities in the field of legal assistance which are reported in chapter IV are complementary to activities in the field of protection, inasmuch as legal aid accorded to refugees often make it possible to solve their problems, thereby frequently obviating the need for action in the field of protection.
25. April 1964 was the tenth anniversary of the entry into force of the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees. During this ten-year period the number of states parties to the Convention has greatly increased and its principles have become widely accepted, while considerable progress has been achieved in the improvement of the status of refugees, particularly in regard to their social rights.
B. Inter-governmental legal instruments
1951 CONVENTION RELATING TO THE STATUS OF REFUGEES
26. With regard to the most important legal instrument affecting refugees, namely the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees, a further accession took place during the period under review, that of the Government of Burundi on 16 July 1963. In addition, the Secretary-General of the United Nations was notified by the Governments of Cyprus, Gabon and Senegal that they consider themselves bound by the 1951 Convention; application of the Convention had been extended to the territories of these States, before independence, by the Government of the United Kingdom, for Cyprus, and by the Government of France, for Gabon and Senegal. In addition, the Peruvian Congress approved accession to the convention. The matter of accession is under consideration in several other countries and the Government of Tanganyika in particular has indicated its intention to accede to the Convention.
27. The 1951 Convention has now been ratified or acceded to by the following forty-three States:
|Federal Republic of Germany||Togo|
|Ghana||United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland|
28. The Office of the High Commissioner continues to implement its statutory task of supervising the application of the provisions of the Convention and co-operates with Governments and administrative authorities for this purpose. The Office also co-operates with the Governments and administrative authorities of many of the countries which have recently acceded to the Convention with a view to giving advice and assistance in drawing up appropriate legislation and administrative regulations for the implementation of the Convention.
29. The Algerian Government, by Decree No. 63/274 of 22 July 1963, has established a bureau for refugees and stateless persons at the Ministry for Foreign Affairs which will be competent to handle refugee matters. Its first objective will be to issue certificates of refugee status to persons who come within the mandate of the High Commissioner or who are eligible according to the 1951 Convention, and to issue travel documents in accordance with article 28 of the Convention.
30. In certain cases, in accordance with recommendation E of the Final act of the Conference which adopted the 1951 Convention, governments have granted the treatment for which the Convention provides to refugees who do not fall within the scope of the Convention as a result of the date-line contained in article 1.
31. The High Commissioner welcomes the decision taken by the General Assembly at its eighteenth session to include, in resolution 1959 (XVIII) on the report of the UNHCR, a recommendation to States to improve the legal status of refugees residing in their territory, particularly in new refugee situations, inter alia, by acceding, as appropriate, to the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees, and by treating new refugee problems in accordance with the principles and spirit of the Convention.
1957 AGREEMENT RELATING TO REFUGEE SEAMEN
32 Another international instrument of importance to refugees on which progress has been made is The Hague Agreement of 1957 relating to Refugee Seamen. On 4 December 1963, Yugoslavia acceded to this agreement to which twelve States are now parties. These are:
|Federal Republic of Germany||Switzerland|
|France||United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland|
33. In co-operation with the Netherlands Government, the Representative of the High Commissioner in the Netherlands has continued to maintain a special counsellor at the port of Rotterdam whose role is to advise refugee seamen calling at that port on how to regularize their situation, and how to benefit from the terms of the Hague Agreement where applicable. This operation has brought to light various general difficulties affecting refugee seamen in certain circumstances which it has been possible to overcome through the helpful co-operation of the Governments concerned. Thanks to this operation, the Office has been able to assess the beneficial effect of the Hague Agreement in considerably reducing the number of refugee seamen in an irregular situation.
UNIVERSAL COPYRIGHT CONVENTION
34. Two further Governments, Greece and Finland, which have acceded to the Universal Copyright Convention have at the same time acceded to the Protocol No. 1 which assimilated refugees and stateless persons who have their habitual residence in a State party to the Protocol to the nationals of that State. The Convention and Protocol No.1 have now been ratified or acceded to by the following thirty-eight States:
|Cambodia||Federal Republic of Germany|
|Liberia||United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland|
|Liechtenstein||United States of America|
ILO CONVENTION ON SOCIAL SECURITY
35. In the report of the High Commissioner to the eighteenth session of the General Assembly, mention was made of the ILO Convention on Equality of treatment of Nationals and non-Nationals in Social security, adopted in 1962. The provisions of this convention apply to refugees and stateless persons without any condition of reciprocity. The Convention has now been ratified by Guatemala, Jordan, Norway, Sweden and Syria, and entered into force on 25 April 1964.
36. The Office of the UNHCR has continued to administer the fund of DM 45 million, placed at the disposal of the High Commissioner in accordance with article 2 of the Agreement with the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany, concluded on 5 October 1960, for the indemnification of victims of the National Socialist regime persecuted by reason of their nationality. The screening of the some 40,000 registered applications received has continued; decisions have been taken on over 36,000 applications, and first and second payments have been made to more than 10,000 applicants who were found to quality under the Fund. It can now be expected that the screening of most of the cases in the total case-load will be finalized before the end of 1964, and that the balance of the Fund will be paid out by that time, apart from a reserve which will be kept for any cases still to be screened or to be considered under the appeals procedure.
37. The Office deeply appreciates the help given by voluntary agencies to refugees in filing their applications, and in answering questions addressed to applicants in order to enable the Office to decide on their cases; this assistance greatly facilities the task incumbent on the Office of screening applications in order to determine whether the criteria established for the Fund are fulfilled.
38. With regard to the implementation of article 1 of the Indemnification Agreement, 376 positive decisions had been taken by the German federal Administration Office as of 30 April 1964, granting retroactive payments and pensions to persons persecuted by reason of their nationality and who had suffered permanent damage to health. the Office of the High Commissioner is continuing its functions specified in the Protocol to the Indemnification Agreement in order to facilitate the effective implementation of the Agreement.
39. The Office is furthermore continuing to co-operate with the competent German authorities with regard to problems which have arisen in connexion with claims made by refugees under the present German federal Indemnification Law, in particular by assisting these authorities in establishing proof of refugee status required by the regulations.
40. With regard to the German legislation to be enacted for a final settlement of indemnification matters, which was mentioned in last year's report, the High Commissioner is continuing his consultations with the government of the Federal Republic of Germany in order to protect the interests of the refugees and in particular to see that indemnification is provided for those groups of refugees so far not covered by German legislation.
D. Recognition of refugee status
41. UNHCR has continued to fulfil one of its basic tasks in the exercise of international protection, that of endeavouring to ensure that no refugees in any part of the world are returned against their will to a country where they fear persecution for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group, or political opinion.
42. The Office UNC has also continued to co-operate with Governments to determine which persons are entitled to the rights and benefits of the 1951 Convention. In those countries where the Office acts as observer or takes part in the procedures established to determine the eligibility, under the 1951 Convention, of those persons who make application, some 10,200 persons were recognized as refugees during 1963.
43. The Government of Argentina has recently asked for the co-operation of UNHCR in determining the eligibility of persons seeking to benefit from the provisions of the 1951 Convention, with particular reference to the issue of refugee travel documents.
44. UNHCR has continued to examine and certify the refugee status of applicants for admission to the United States under Public Law 86.648, as amended, in cases where the persons concerned could not otherwise produce the necessary evidence of their refugee status.
E. Rights of refugees in their countries of residence
EMPLOYMENT AND SOCIAL RIGHTS
45. The Office of the High Commissioner has continued to work for the improvement of the social rights of refugees in their countries of asylum and in particular for access to employment, rights in the field of social security and the right to public assistance, in order that these rights may approximate as nearly as possible to those of nationals of the country.
46. With regard to the right to work, there have been specific developments during the period under review in Belgium and Italy.
47. According to a circular letter issued by the Belgian Ministry of Employment and Labour concerning employment criteria for 1963, work permits of unlimited duration are to be granted, without regard to the situation of the labour market, to refugees who have worked for two years in Belgium and whose families reside with them in the country.
48. In spite of the reservation made by Italy on accession to the 1951 Convention with regard to wage earning employment, the Italian Government issued an instruction in December 1963 concerning the employment of foreign workers in Italy, which contains a special chapter in favour of refugees. This instruction extends the categories of refugees who are to be granted the same treatment as Italian nationals regarding the right to work.
49. In connexion with the exercise of liberal professions, mention should be made of the Austrian Law of March 1964 on the exercise of the medical profession. According to this Law, refugee doctors who have obtained their medical degrees abroad and who have been resident in Austria for three years may be authorized to practice medicine even though the conditions of reciprocity normally required in these circumstances may not be fulfilled. This exemption from reciprocity is based on article 7 of the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees.
50. The Office of the High Commissioner continues to attach the greatest importance to facilitating the naturalization of refugees as the final legal step in their assimilation within the population of the country to which they have been admitted for permanent settlement.
51. In March 1964, the Belgian Parliament passed a law on naturalization according to which refugees are included in the category of privileged foreigners for the purpose of acquiring Belgian nationality. The law also lays down criteria for the reduction of naturalization fees in the light of the financial circumstances of the applicant.
52. In the Federal Republic of Germany an amendment to the Nationality Law of 1913, which came into force in April 1963, provides that legitimate children of German mothers are now able to obtain German nationality at birth if they would otherwise be stateless. This provision will be of benefit to children of refugee fathers and German mothers born in Germany who would otherwise have been stateless.
53. In the Netherlands, about 70 per cent of the refugees naturalized in 1963, numbering some 500, benefited from recent provisions enabling refugees, in certain circumstances, to obtain naturalizaton free of charge or at a reduced fee.
F. Improvement of the status of refugees on a regional basis
54. The Office of the UNHCR has continued its efforts for the improvement of the legal status of refugees not only on a national basis but within the framework of regional organizations, and in this connexion the valuable co-operation of the intergovernmental organizations concerned is greatly appreciated.
55. On 25 March 1964, the council of the European Economic Community adopted a new regulation on the freedom of circulation of workers within member countries. On this occasion the representatives of the States members of the community also adopted a Declaration of Intention concerning the Free Circulation of Refugee Workers.
56. According to this Declaration, each State member of the European Economic Community will give especially favourable consideration to the admission to its territory, for the purpose of taking up wage earning employment, of refugees recognized as such according to the 1951 Convention, and established in the territory of another State member of the Community, particularly with a view to granting such refugees as favourable treatment as possible.
57. The Consultative Assembly of the Council of Europe at its fifteenth session in September 1963 adopted a recommendation No. 375 (1963) to the effect that the Committee of Ministers invite Governments:
(a) If not yet parties to the European Agreement on the Abolition of Visas for Refugees, to accede to that Agreement;
(b) In the meantime to issue entry visas free of charge to refugees and to speed up procedure for the issue of such visas;
(c) Not to apply any measures of frontier control to refugees which are not applied to nationals of member States.
58. In the resolution which the Consultative Assembly adopted at its session held in April 1964 in response to the report presented to it by the High Commissioner, the Consultative Assembly inter alia reaffirmed the provisions of its former resolution No.213 concerning the improvement of the status of refugees within the framework of European integration.
59. UNHCR has co-operated with the Council of Europe Committee of Government Experts on Human Rights so far as the right of asylum is concerned, and with the Committee of Experts on the European Consular Convention in order that the special situation of refugees may be taken into consideration in this matter.
ASIAN-AFRICAN LEGAL CONSULTATIVE COMMITTEE
60. The high Commissioner was represented by an observer at the sixth session of the Asian-African Legal Consultative Committee, which met in Cairo from 24 February to 6 March 1964. The Committee approved a resolution on the rights of refugees instructing the Secretariat to collect the laws, constitutional provisions and State practices applying to the rights of refugees in the participating countries, with particular reference to repatriation, compensation and asylum. These findings are to be discussed at the Committee's next session in 1965.
ORGANIZATION OF AMERICAN STATES
61. UNHCR was represented by an observer in the Human Rights Commission of the above organization, which met in Washington in April 1964. Problems of refugees in Latin America were discussed, and in particular the question of the issuance of refugee travel documents.
G. Facilitation of travel of refugees
62. The Office of the High Commissioner for Refugees has continued its efforts in order that all refugees may obtain an adequate travel document to enable them to travel from the country which has granted them asylum, either for the purposes of resettlement, temporary employment, tourism, or for other personal reasons. The Office has also endeavoured to see that refugees benefit in some measure from the relaxation of frontier formalities which are granted to nationals on a regional basis.
63. During the period under review, two further Governments, Iceland and Turkey, have begun to issue the special travel document for which article 28 of the 1951 Convention provides; these documents are in conformity with the standardized model prepared by UNHCR.
64. The Government of Italy has signed the European Agreement on the Abolition of Visas for Refugees, and intends to ratify its signature in the near future. Italy will be the ninth State to become a party to this Agreement, which provides that holders of refugee travel documents may pay visits of up to three months to other States which are parties, without the necessity of a visa. The Agreement, drawn up under the auspices of the Council of Europe, is at present in force between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, France, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway and Sweden. A recent recommendation of the Council of Europe on this matter is reported in paragraph 57 above.
65. Austria, Belgium and Italy have made further concessions with regard to the waiving of visa fees in favour of refugees.
CHAPTER III PROGRESS TOWARDS THE COMPLETION OF MAJOR AID PROJECTS FOR ASSISTANCE TO "OLD" EUROPEAN REFUGEES
A. General observations
66. The major aid projects comprise all the programmes and projects adopted since 1955 to solve the assistance problems of refugees, which have accumulated since the First and Second World Wars. They include projects in the programme of the United Nations Refugee Fund (1955-1958), in the Camp Clearance Scheme adopted in 1959, in the UNHCR current annual programmes of 1959 to 1962, and in the $5.4 million Major Aid Programme for 1963. These projects concern the neediest among the non-settled refugees of European origin whose number was estimated at 270,000 at the beginning of 1955 in the following main countries or areas where UNHCR programmes are being carried out: Austria, Far East, Federal Republic of Germany, France, Greece, Italy, Middle East, Morocco and Turkey. Some 30,000 refugees were still to benefit under these projects as at 1 January 1964 in these countries or areas.
67. In the course of 1963 alone, over 36,500 refugees benefited from UNHCR assistance under major aid projects in some forty countries or areas of operation, as shown in more detail in annex II to the present report. Of this total, 10,649 were firmly settled, including 9,729 through local integration and 920 through resettlement in other countries. A further forty refugee camps were completely cleared of refugees within the mandate of UNHCR and 1,831 refugees from camps were firmly settled. Projects for the remaining qualifying camp population of approximately 1,900 refugees, of the original number of 85,000 in 1955, are in the course of implementation.
68. Supporting contributions have continued to be made from within countries where the major aid projects are put into effect. They vary from one country to another and are largely dependent on the type of projects involved and on the various ways in which the Governments of the receiving countries participate in the work of assistance to refugees. For example, in certain countries where UNHCR projects provide mainly for the housing of refugees or for their placement in institutions, the supporting contribution is relatively high. In countries where refugees benefit extensively from social welfare arrangements, the supporting contribution nay be much smaller, as also in countries or areas where economic conditions are less favourable. From 1955 to the end of 1963, UNHCR projects in a total amount of over $41 million had attracted supporting contributions of approximately $52.7 million, i.e.,56.1 per cent of the total cost of $94.1 million.
B. Types of assistance given
69. As in previous year, permanent solutions were sought to the problems of the "old" non-settled refugees, through voluntary repatriation, resettlement in other countries and local integration. In view of the demographic composition of the caseload - the refugees remaining are the most difficult to settle - these persons cannot easily benefit from the favourable economic conditions prevailing in some of the countries of residence or from the resettlement opportunities granted by overseas countries of immigration.
70. It was nevertheless possible for 1,112 refugees, mostly physically or socially handicapped in varying degrees, to be resettled through migration, thanks to the liberal attitude of traditional immigration countries in Europe and elsewhere. Of these refugees, 920 received UNHCR financial assistance, and 192 were accepted by immigration countries without financial grants. The total group that was resettled includes over 500 refugees of European origin who were moved from the Far East, mainly to Australia under the Far Eastern operation conducted by this Office in conjunction with its operational partner, the Inter-governmental Committee for European migration, with the assistance of the voluntary agencies. It further includes over 190 handicapped refugees who were resettled mainly in Belgium and Sweden under the scheme instituted by Dr. Jensen, the medical expert whose services had been made available by the Australian Government to ICEM and UNHCR, with a view to preparing specialized dossiers for the selection of handicapped refugees. The survey of these cases which was started by Dr. Jensen in Austria, the Federal Republic of Germany, Greece, Morocco, Turkey and Hong Kong in 1962, was continued in 1963, and covered a total of 1,071 seriously handicapped refugees.
71. The Jensen cases accepted for resettlement so far include a considerable proportion of tubercular or post-tubercular refugees for whom there is a good chance of recovery provided they receive the necessary follow-up treatment. A particularly difficult problem is that of the mental cases, a small number of whom have now been accepted by Sweden. The fact that these, as well as other physically handicapped refugees, are being admitted for resettlement in other countries is most significant in that it showed that through the combined effects of modern methods of rehabilitation, medical care and social welfare, many seriously handicapped refugees have the possibility of entering a new community where they can take part to some extent in its economic and social life. The difficulties inherent in the selection of these refugees by immigration countries have been largely overcome through the co-operative attitude of several such countries which, in accordance with recommendations adopted by the Executive Committee of the High Commissioner's Programme, made arrangements for the selection of refugees in countries not usually visited by selection missions, thereby giving every refugee a chance.
72. With regard to local integration, the majority of beneficiaries were assisted through the provision of housing, particularly in Austria, the Federal Republic of Germany and Greece. In the course of 1963, the total number of housing units made available or planned increased from 9,574, to 10,447, of which 8,708 were occupied by the end of the year. During 1963, 1,105 families comprising 3,505 persons moved into housing provided to them under the programme. Although the housing programmes present increasing difficulties owing to the constant rise in the cost of materials and the shortage of labour, other factors have exercised a favourable influence on the housing of refugees, such as the measures taken in co-operation with the Austrian and German authorities towards the provision of rent subsidies for refugees. Furthermore, as a result of the natural turnover in the refugee population, the available housing can be re-utilized to an increasing extent and in 1963 alone, seventy-two dwellings were vacated and re-occupied by a total of 189 refugees.
73. As previously, establishment assistance has also proved a most useful complement to housing, in that it enables refugees who move into their own accommodation to acquire the bare essentials in terms of equipment and furniture, which they would be unable to purchase themselves with the low income they derive from their employment or otherwise. Special mention should be made of the rehabilitation and re-training provided for 493 refugees in the handicapped category who were thus enabled, in the course of 1963, to become partly self-supporting.
74. A particularly difficult aspect of the programme is the local integration of non-rehabilitable handicapped refugees who constitute a relatively high proportion of the caseload. In the course of 1963, 1,025 of these refugees were settled in their country of residence through placement in local institutions, or in accommodation where they can receive permanent medical care, or by being granted annuities. A further 191 refugees were resettled in institutions outside their country of residence.
75. As heretofore, counselling has continued to be given to the non-settled refugees in order to assist them and the voluntary agencies or local authorities concerned to work out plans for their future. In view of the gradual withdrawal of international voluntary agencies, it has become more difficult to give refugees the necessary counselling. Arrangements could, nevertheless, be made thanks to the co-operative attitude of the local voluntary agencies in the countries concerned.
C. Developments in major areas of operations
76. Every effort is being made by the Office of the High Commissioner, in conjunction with the operating voluntary agencies and local authorities, to speed up the completion of the major aid projects, most of which are scheduled to be terminated towards the end of 1965.
77. The rate of settlement depends, of course, on such factors as the completion of housing projects and the departure of certain groups of refugees admitted for resettlement through migration, the precise dates of which cannot always be determined in advance. There is also the fact that in certain countries or areas, new data on the structure of the refugee population have brought to light additional information calling for the modification or cancellation of existing projects and for the drawing up of new projects to meet these needs. This has been the case particularly in Latin America where the caseload, being extended over large areas, does not lend itself to detailed statistical surveys; in France, where the number of non-settled handicapped refugees hoes far beyond the original estimates, and in the Federal Republic of Germany, where the number of non-settled refugees outside camps, for whom the Government of the Federal Republic envisages a special housing programme, also exceeds the original estimate.
78. At its second special session held in January 1964, the Executive Committee of the High Commissioner's Programme considered the resulting problem and decided to approve new and revised projects in an amount of $1,103,000, including $553,000 for assistance projects in France, $230,000 in Latin America and the balance for projects in Austria, Italy, the Middle East and Spain. The Committee authorized that these projects be put into effect within the financial limits of the major aid projects through the use of funds becoming available through the cancellation of obligations and the refund of unspent balances within the total financial objectives previously set. With regard to the newly emerged needs in respect of refugees in the Federal Republic of Germany, the Committee was informed that the Government of the Federal Republic would do everything it could to procure the necessary housing to ensure their local integration.
79. As far as the completion of major aid projects is concerned, no difficulties are anticipated in respect of the clearance of camps which is already at an advanced stage. As regards the non-settled refugees living outside camps, some delays may be entailed in certain countries or areas where new projects have recently been put into effect and where the capacity of the administrative machinery dealing with refugees cannot be extended beyond certain limits. This also applies to the Federal Republic of Germany where the construction of housing for refugees cannot proceed as rapidly in view of the scarcity of building sites and the shortage and high cost of labour and building materials which affect the whole of the building trade. In other areas where resettlement of refugees through migration plays a more important role, projects can be implemented at a faster rate.
80. It may be stated in conclusion that while the attainment of the financial target of the major aid projects is practically assured and the required practical measures for the implementation of all outstanding projects have been put into effect, considerable effort will still be required on the part of this Office and of the host Governments, local authorities and voluntary agencies concerned, in order to assist every one of the remaining non-settled refugees to become settled. Only when this great humanitarian task in which so many countries and peoples have generously participated is finally completed, will its full significance become apparent.
CHAPTER IV ASSISTANCE GIVEN UNDER THE CURRENT PROGRAMME OF COMPLEMENTARY ASSISTANCE FOR 1963 AND OTHER PROJECTS3
A. General observations
81. The Current Programme of Complementary Assistance (1963) was conceived as an essential means of action to ensure the over-all effectiveness of UNHCR's continuing role. This Programme not only enabled the Office to give practical help to Governments in coping with specific refugee problems with which they found themselves confronted; it also provided the Office with an opportunity to promote awareness and understanding of the problems, to ensure co-ordination within the complex field of international co-operation, and to keep alive the goodwill and spirit of international solidarity which constitute its driving force.
82. As shown in chapter III above, a special effort was made in 1963 to bring the major aid projects for "old" European refugees nearer to their conclusion. It was necessary, of course, at the same time to put into effect a much more modest programme in order to pursue the work of international assistance for refugees and to adapt it to the requirements of the new problems of refugees which emerged in various parts of the world. With this object in mind, the Executive Committee of the High Commissioner's Programme approved the concept of the current programme. whereby the Office of the High Commissioner is making its services available with a view to assisting Governments to meet new and current problems as and when they arise.
83. Of the total amount of $1.4 million which was the financial target of the current programme, roughly $600,000 was allocated for assistance to European refugees, and $800,000 for new groups of refugees. With regard to the former, new arrivals in the course of 1963 again began to create a heavy burden of unsolved cases in countries of first asylum, but through the combined efforts of the immigration countries and of the voluntary agencies, it proved possible to keep abreast of the new influxes during the period under review.
84. As regards the new groups of refugees, it will be recalled that until the end of 1962, assistance was provided by the Office of the High Commissioner outside the annual programmes, under the "good offices" resolutions of the General Assembly. As from the beginning of 1963, an allocation for assistance to these refugees was included in the current programme which enabled the High Commissioner to intervene more rapidly wherever and whenever necessary, and to plan and adapt his action to the needs of the new groups of refugees. Even so, the programme could only achieve its purpose effectively through its strong catalytic effect. As shown in annex III and in the following sections of this chapter, large-scale support was given towards assistance programmes by the Governments of countries of asylum, by other interested Governments and by certain voluntary agencies in the form of contributions in cash and in kind, or of services to the refugees. Substantial contributions were also made by Governments and private donors for projects intended to supplement those included in the High Commissioner's Programme.
85. As shown in annex IV, a total number of approximately 98,000 refugees benefited as a direct or indirect result of the Current Programme of Complementary Assistance. The extent to which UNHCR was called upon to deal with the new groups of refugees continued to vary from one problem to another. In Africa, further measures were taken towards the consolidation of the situation of former Algerian and of Angolan refugees. Increased efforts, on the other hand, were necessary on the part of the Office in dealing with the newly emerging problems of refugees from Rwanda. In Asia, the High Commissioner continued to follow closely the problems of the Chinese and Tibetan refugees.
86. In considering the results achieved under the current Programme of Complementary Assistance for 1963, the Executive Committee of the High Commissioner's Programme, at its eleventh session, expressed the view that the programme which had been launched in 1963 as an experiment, had proved its value and that it constituted an appropriate basis for the High Commissioner's future work of assistance to refugees.
87. Taking into account the number, variety and scope of the problems facing the Office of the High Commissioner in 1964, the Executive Committee noted that the financial target for the 1964 Programme which had been set by the High Commissioner at $2,600,000 might have to be raised to $3,100,000 so as to include new projects for assistance to refugees in Uganda, and it decided that parts of the allocation for some of the new projects outlined in the following sections of this chapter and amounting to $388,000 were to be included under the 1965 Programme, as shown in annex V to this report.
B. European refugees CURRENT PROGRAMME
88. As far as the European refugees are concerned the purpose of the current programme was to enable the Office of the High Commissioner to deal with the current and new problems of refugees as they present themselves. At its tenth session, the Executive Committee of the High Commissioner's Programme emphasized that a close watch should be kept on the problems of these refugees, and that in order to avoid a new accumulation of such problems, every step must be taken to solve them as rapidly as possible, the more so since the influx of new refugees was making itself particularly felt in some of the countries of first asylum.
89. As in the past, assistance to the refugees has been directed towards the three basic permanent solutions, i.e. voluntary repatriation, resettlement through emigration to another country, or economic integration in the country of residence, and has been complemented, as necessary, by legal assistance and supplementary aid.
90. The majority of the newly arriving refugees, i.e. some 6,000, many of them in the prime of life, were able rapidly to achieve solutions to their problems, particularly through resettlement in a country of final destination. On the other hand, a major effort had to be made to meet the emerging needs of nearly 1,900 non-settled refugees, nearly all of whom had to be assisted through local integration in a certain number of European countries and in Latin America.
91. Put into effect at a time when the Office of the High Commissioner and the voluntary agencies were still fully engaged on the major aid projects, that part of the current programme which was intended for European refugees gained its full momentum only towards the middle of 1963. A total of some 35,600 refugees were, nevertheless, assisted as a direct or indirect result of the programme, leaving by the end of 1963 several thousand non-settled European refugees. These may benefit from the UNHCR current programme for 1964, which includes an allocation of $500,000 plus a share in combined allocations totalling $813,000 for European refugees.
92. As shown in more detail below, the total amount of $604,339 committed for assistance to European refugees under the current programme for 1963 has been allocated as follows.
93. As in the case of other programmes, supporting contributions were required from countries where projects were put into effect. Considerable efforts were made in this direction by the Governments of several countries and particularly those where housing projects constitute the main part of the programme. Consequently supporting contributions amounted to over $1 million, i.e., an average of 62.7 per cent of the total value of projects amounting to $1,620,000. In certain cases UNHCR participation could thus be limited to less than 10 per cent of the total value of a given project.
94. The catalytic effect of the programme also made itself felt in that funds in an amount of approximately $190,000 were made available for projects outside the programme.
95. As in the case of the major aid programmes, voluntary agencies continued to play an essential role in the implementation of projects. While some of the international agencies withdrew or partly withdrew from certain areas, arrangements for assistance to the refugees were made with their counterpart agencies or with the local authorities in the countries concerned.
96. In accordance with the terms of his statute, the High Commissioner continued to facilitate the voluntary repatriation of refugees. Not taking into account those refugees who returned to their country of origin without financial support from UNHCR, the Office of the High Commissioner offered some 150 refugees financial assistance towards their repatriation, at their request. By the end of 1963, 135 of these had left for their country of origin, 3 had not yet departed and 12 had withdrawn their applications.
PROMOTION OF RESETTLEMENT
97. Resettlement through emigration has again proved to be a most important form of assistance in that it has enabled the Office to keep abreast of the influx of new refugees by dealing with their problems as and when they arose. Of the refugees presumed to come within the mandate of UNHCR who were moved by the Inter-governmental Committee for European Migration in 1963, 4,251 were resettled from Austria, the Federal Republic of Germany, Greece and Italy.
98. In accordance with the objectives endorsed by the Executive Committee of the High Commissioner's Programme at its tenth session, the High Commissioner has continued to encourage Governments which operate regular immigration programmes to include provisions for the continued admission of refugees within these programmes, and in addition to maintain special facilities and apply liberalized criteria for the admission of refugees, including the handicapped.
99. Special arrangements providing for the admission of a considerable number of refugees have been continued by the traditional overseas immigration countries, and in particular Australia, Canada and the United States. In Australia, all refugees, including able-bodied and handicapped, can be resettled under government or private sponsorship. They may be examined in all countries where an Australian migration mission has been set up and applications may be submitted on the basis of individual dossiers. In Canada a liberal admission policy has been continued whereby refugees, including the handicapped, may be admitted. In the United States refugees can continue to be resettled under the provisions of a special law PL 86648 which has now been indefinitely extended and is open to refugees in Austria, Belgium, Federal Republic of Germany, France, Greece, Italy and Lebanon. In New Zealand a scheme for the admission of handicapped and able-bodied refugees is still in operation.
100. A certain number of European countries also admitted refugees for permanent settlement, in particular Belgium, France and Sweden while Switzerland undertook to make 150 further vacancies available for physically handicapped refugees in institutions.
101. In view of their demographic characteristics, the majority of the newly-arriving refugees could be admitted by the traditional immigration countries with only limited international assistance. In order to facilitate the admission to immigration countries of an increasing number of refugees, some of whom do not meet normal immigration criteria or cannot be resettled without temporary help, it becomes more necessary than heretofore to provide them with necessary facilities for their reception, placement into employment and integration in their country of final destination. With this objective in view, a special centre was established in Australia with financial assistance from UNHCR, for those refugees who have no private sponsors and therefore do not qualify for admission under government-assisted passage schemes for migrants. In view of the successful experiment made with the first centre set up at Vincentville under the auspices of two Catholic voluntary agencies, steps have been taken for the setting up of a second centre near Sydney under the auspices of the Australian Council of Churches.
102. Of the non-settled new European refugees, nearly 2,000 were awaiting assistance towards their resettlement at the end of 1963. The number of these refugees has been increasing since the beginning of 1964, and an allocation of $250,000 for the promotion of their resettlement has accordingly been included in the UNHCR current programme for 1964.
103. The 1,896 refugees who received direct assistance from UNHCR under the current programme of course represent only a portion of the total number of applicants for assistance. In view of the financial limitations of the programme, and taking into account the primary responsibility of countries of residence for assistance to refugees, priority was given to those whose needs could only be fully met through assistance.
104. The majority, i.e., nearly 1,000 were assisted in Austria and France, and most of the others in the Federal Republic of Germany and Greece. Most of them needed mainly housing and establishment assistance. This latter form of aid consists in providing the refugees with the necessary tools and equipment to enable them to obtain gainful employment. It may also sometimes include provision of a limited amount of furniture, without which the refugees could not derive the full benefit of the new accommodation given them. A considerable number, i.e., over 200, were assisted through training and education, most of them in Austria. Assistance was also given to come seventy non-rehabilitable physically handicapped refugees, mainly in Greece and Italy, who have been granted annuities.
105. In Latin America, most of the 319 refugees assisted were persons in the higher age group who would become completely destitute if they were not given some assistance towards their housing and establishment.
106. In addition to the projects financed under the UNHCR Current Programme, special contributions made it possible to finance operations outside the programme, which help to bridge the gap between the total requirements of the non-settled refugees and their minimum needs mention should be made in this connexion of the special housing loan fund set up for refugees in France with the financial participation of the French authorities and of a private bank, which was made possible through a $100,000 contribution from the proceeds of the sale of the record "All-Star Festival". The object of the fund was to grant loans at a low rate of interest to enable badly-housed refugee families to obtain adequate accommodation. The investment made by UNHCR so far has resulted in the acquisition of some 100 dwellings representing a total sum of approximately $800,000. As the UNHCR contribution to the fund is used on a revolving basis, more refugees will be able to benefit in the future once reimbursements have started.
107. While all the above measures have made it possible to help the refugees most in need during 1963, new cases are emerging daily, and further provision for local integration has therefore been included in the 1964 Programme in an amount of $420,000.
108. In 1963, legal assistance was given to nearly 6,500 refugees at a cost of $91,467. This type of assistance has again proved its value in that it greatly facilitates the achievement of permanent solutions by helping refugees to overcome legal or administrative difficulties. Nearly half of the beneficiaries of this type of assistance are in the Federal Republic of Germany where a highly developed system of legislation enables that part of the refugee population which originally entered the country as forced labour to benefit from certain pension rights which, when obtained, obviate the need for any other form of material assistance. Another sizeable number of refugees (1,500) benefited from legal assistance in Iran, where legal assistance activities were directed towards their naturalization. Nearly 400 refugee seamen covered by the 1957 Agreement Relating to Refugee Seamen benefited from the activities of counselling services made available in the port of Rotterdam in order to enable them to regularize their status and to facilitate their admission to the countries with which they have their closest ties. A considerable number of refugees also benefited from this form of assistance in Austria and in Latin America where the expert help given to them has contributed towards the consolidation of their economic and social position and thus reduced the risk that they might again require international help.
109. Allocation amounting to a total of $92,500 for this purpose have been included in the 1964 programme.
110. As under previous programmes, a limited amount, i.e., $19,017 was used to give supplementary aid to the most needy cases until such time as a more permanent solution could be found to their problems. Over 1,400 refugees were so assisted. Taking into consideration increased needs in certain countries, an allocation of up to $50,000 was included for this type of assistance in the UNHCR Programme for 1964.
C. Cuban refugees
111. At the beginning of 1963, there were an estimated 9,000 Cuban refugees living in Spain, between 20,000 and 30,000 in various Latin American countries, and towards the end of that year some 260,000 had entered the United States, of whom nearly 170,000 had registered for assistance. In Spain, where the Office of the High Commissioner had already previously concerned itself with this problem, and in Latin America, the High Commissioner has been called upon to lend his good offices to assist the Governments concerned in dealing with the problem with a view to preventing it from growing into unmanageable proportions. In the United States, the Government, assisted by numerous voluntary agencies, has assumed the full burden of assistance for these refugees.
ASSISTANCE IN 1963
112. In accordance with the general pattern of the current programme, the High Commissioner's functions have been limited to bringing the problem to the attention of the international community and to giving limited assistance where this could not be provided by the Government or voluntary agencies in the country of residence of these refugees.
113. In conjunction with ICEM, the Office is seeking to facilitate solutions to the problems of these refugees. Within the total of $98,600, $71,600 was allocated from the UNHCR current programme, and $27,000 from other sources4 for assistance to these refugees in 1963.
114. In Spain, where the Government and local voluntary agencies are making a considerable effort to assist the refugees, three projects were put into effect under the current programme in order to assist the neediest among them. Under these projects, 1,175 refugees received temporary shelter pending their resettlement, and benefited from counselling services. Under a second project, a students' hostel was equipped through UNHCR assistance so that it could accommodate over forty Cuban refugees. Under a third project, over 150 refugees, mostly compassionate cases, were resettled from Spain with the co-operation of ICEM. Furthermore, the High Commissioner encouraged the offer to Cuban refugees in Spain of similar employment opportunities in other European countries as those given to Spanish nationals.
115. In Latin America, projects were put into effect under the current programme at a cost of $60,000, whereby 1,930 Cuban refugees were resettled through migration, with a view to joining relatives and friends. In addition, a small number of these refugees were assisted in establishing themselves in their country of residence.
116. In the United States, the government has provided the Cuban refugees with all the basic necessities. By the end of 1963, over 71,000 of them had been resettled in various parts of the United States while a limited number had been resettled in twenty-four European and Latin American countries where they had an opportunity of establishing themselves. The 100,000 registered in the Miami region were receiving assistance under the United States programme for Cuban refugees which, up to the beginning of 1964, amounted to not far from $100 million.
117. The High Commissioner has also been called upon to facilitate the resettlement of a limited number of Cuban refugees who wished to emigrate from the United States to Latin America, where they would be able to find more appropriate employment opportunities, taking into account their professional qualifications and previous training as well, of course, as the question of language.
ASSISTANCE UNDER THE 1964 PROGRAMME
118. The limited participation of UNHCR in the work of assistance for Cuban refugees went some way to solve their problems in 1963. It would seem, however, that particularly in Spain and Latin America, further efforts will be required in order to keep abreast of the growing number of these refugees.
119. The Executive Committee of the High Commissioner's Programme therefore decided to include an allocation of $159,000 in the 1964 Programme for two projects for assistance to these refugees in Spain. One of these will enable the refugees to receive the advice and guidance of qualified social workers. Under the other, a fund for permanent solutions will be set up, through which some of the refugees will be established in crafts and trades, others will be given vocational training and some fifty aged refugees will be provided with a small annuity . aid will also be made available, mainly for destitute refugees, upon their arrival in Spain, and will consist primarily of the provision of shelter.
120. As regards Latin America, the Committee decided that the Cuban refugees should benefit from a share in a combined project of $420,000 for assistance to refugees in that area. Of this amount, $250,000 is to be available for individual solutions, such as the provision of housing, establishment in agriculture, establishment in professions, crafts and trades, and the provision of scholarships, and an amount of $150,000 has been allocated for group solutions, such as the creation and extension of old-age homes, the establishment of annuity schemes, and the promotion of facilities for the care of the chronically and mentally ill; while $20,000 is to be used to provide refugees with legal assistance.
D. Assistance to former Algerian refugees
121. A full account of the operation undertaken by UNHCR jointly with the League of Red Cross Societies of Algerian refugees in Morocco and Tunisia, and which was successfully completed in June 1962, is contained in the report of the High Commissioner to the eighteenth session of the General Assembly (A/5511/Rev.1). Prior to the completion of that operation, the General Assembly, in resolution 1672 (XVI), requested the High Commissioner to consider the possibility of facilitating the resettlement of the refugees in their homeland as soon as circumstances permitted. Pursuant to this resolution, the High Commissioner sought to ensure continuity between the joint operations of the League of Red Cross Societies and UNHCR in Morocco and Tunisia, and the more extensive operation subsequently undertaken by the League in Algeria.
122. At the time of the repatriation of the refugees in June 1962, the High Commissioner appealed to the international community for funds. As a result of the generous response to that appeal, substantial sums remained after the repatriation had been completed. In accordance with the General Assembly's directives, therefore, the High Commissioner used these funds to support the measures taken in Algeria to assist the displaced population including the former refugees. These funds, together with contributions and pledges received subsequently for the benefit of former Algerian refugees, ultimately reached a total of $1,241, 000 which form part of the contributions channelled through UNHCR for operations outside its programmes. UNHCR was therefore able to transmit to the League of Red Cross Societies some $755,000 for its relief action in Algeria, and to make available a further amount of $423,000 as follows: at the request of the Government of Algeria and the League of Red Cross Societies, over $103,000 to the Algerian Red Crescent Society which undertook responsibility for continuing and developing certain aspects of the League's activities in Algeria, including the opening of milk stations and dispensaries; $80,000 to a number of voluntary agencies which are assisting the destitute, including many former Algerian refugees, and a further sum of $240,000 through the United Nations technical assistance office in Algeria to the Algerian Government for large-scale rehabilitation and reconstruction work in the area of residence of the displaced population, including in particular the establishment of educational centres and dispensaries. A further sum of $61,950 has been pledged or announced but not yet paid to UNHCR, and this amount will be used when available for projects which the United Nations technical assistance office in Algeria is now considering, in conjunction with the Algerian Government.
E. Refugees from Angola
123. An account of the programme of assistance undertaken by the High Commissioner pursuant to General Assembly resolution 1671 (XVI) for some 150,000 refugees from Angola in the Congo (Leopoldville) was given in the reports to the seventeenth and eighteenth sessions of the General Assembly (A/5211/Rev.1 and A/5511/Rev.1). Following the completion of that programme in 1962 limited assistance continued to be provided by voluntary agencies on an individual basis to those among the original 150,000 refugees who were not self-supporting, or who had subsequently become unsettled. This assistance was continued during 1963. At the same time the refugees benefited from general measures of assistance undertaken for the population in the area, and UNHCR, in co-operation with ONUC, kept a close watch on the situation in an effort to forestall the development of any serious new problems.
124. Further projects were put into effect by two voluntary agencies with a view to assisting some 13,000 Angolan refugees, including a certain number of newcomers, to establish themselves in agriculture.
125. Under the first of these projects, which was completed in March 1963, some 7,5000 refugees who had had an unsuccessful harvest, were assisted by the Congo Protestant Relief Agency (CPRA) through the provision of tools and additional seeds.
126. Under the second project, which was put into effect in the course of 1963 by CARITAS Congo, provision was made for the transportation of a few thousand refugees to a new settlement area within the Congo, where necessary land, tools and seeds would be made available to enable them to establish themselves in agriculture. A limited number of refugees availed themselves of the opportunities offered under this project, to which UNHCR contributed some $11,500 under the current programme for 1963.
127. In the course of 1963, the High Commissioner was able to give further, limited, support for assistance to Angolan refugees, mostly for medical care and educational assistance.
128. The High Commissioner thus provided financial assistance in an amount of $2,000 to the Congolese Red Cross towards the programme for the settlement of 800 refugees who had been evacuated from an island in the Congo River which was in danger of being flooded.
129. The High Commissioner further provided $12,200 towards the enlargement of a dispensary at Kibentele and towards the building of six dispensaries in the Province of Congo Centrale where the majority of Angolan refugees are living.
130. In order to extend the benefit of existing educational facilities to the refugees, the High Commissioner also agreed to make a contribution of $19,200 to two projects put into effect by the Congo Protestant Relief Agency and CARITAS Congo, for the establishment of a vocational training school, in which places will be reserved for refugees, and for the building of simple schools for primary education in areas where large numbers of refugees are living.
131. The total of funds committed by UNHCR under the current programme for 1963 for assistance to refugees from Angola in the Congo (Leopoldville) amounted to $44,911.
F. Refugees from Rwanda
132. The question of refugees from Rwanda still remains the most critical problem facing the Office of the High Commissioner in Africa. As stated in the report presented by the High Commissioner to the General Assembly at its eighteenth session there were, in February 1963, some 130,000 refugees from Rwanda in Burundi, the North and Central Kivu provinces of the Congo (Leopoldville), Tanganyika and Uganda, of whom some 95,000 required further assistance towards their local settlement at that time. These refugees were being established in agriculture under programmes launched by, or with the co-operation of the local government authorities, UNHCR and the League of Red Cross Societies, at the request of the Governments directly concerned.
133. In the course of 1963 a total amount of $3,169,000 was made available from all sources for assistance to the refugees from Rwanda. This amount includes $679,150 allocated from the current programme,$38,100 from the Emergency Fund and $63,000 from funds made available to the High Commissioner for projects outside the current programme. The amount of $3,169,000 also included substantial contributions from the Governments of the countries of asylum in the form of land and other services, large-scale bilateral aid from the Government of the United states, as well as assistance in cash and in kind, and services from the League of Red cross Societies, other voluntary agencies and religious missions operating in the area, as shown in annex III to this report.
134. In the course of 1963 continued progress has been made in all areas of operation in promoting the local settlement of the refugees. Towards the end of 1963, unfortunate events took place which were to affect the whole problem of Rwandese refugees. A group of refugees attempted an unsuccessful attack against Rwanda. This event was followed by a new exodus of refugees from Rwanda into Burundi and Uganda. As a result, the number of refugees from Rwanda increased by approximately 20,000 as shown in the following table:
|Country||Situation at the end of 1963||New influx||Situation in March 1964|
|North and Central Kivu provinces of the Congo (Leopoldville)||60,000||60,000|
135. The new refugees placed an increased burden on the Governments of the receiving countries which requested UNHCR assistance in dealing with this problem. Pursuant to the provisions of his Statute, the High Commissioner concentrated his efforts on the resulting humanitarian problem and every effort was made by his Representatives in the field to ensure that the necessary relief was given to these refugees.
136. At its second special session held at the end of January 1964, the Committee considered the problem of new refugees from Rwanda and expressed in particular deep concern at the possibility that the existing difficulties might endanger international co-operative efforts in favour of these refugees. It voiced the hope that these difficulties would be settled soon enough to enable the High Commissioner to pursue his humanitarian task for the benefit of these refugees. It authorized an allocation of $100,000 within the $2.6 million financial target of the 1964 programme to enable the High Commissioner to assist in the financing of immediate emergency relief for the new refugees from Rwanda in Burundi and Uganda and authorized the High Commissioner to draw up further projects for assistance to these refugees.
137. In the course of the eleventh session, the observer from Rwanda stated that his Government had made the necessary arrangements to receive those Rwandese refugees who wished to return to their country of origin. As for the other refugees, his Government would like to encourage them to go to work and lead a peaceful existence in the neighbouring countries which had so generously admitted them. He expressed appreciation for the asylum policy followed by the host Governments and for the demonstration of international solidarity through which the necessary assistance was being given to the refugees concerned. A tribute was paid by the Executive Committee to the generous asylum policy followed by the Governments of countries in Africa which were admitting considerable numbers of refugees from Rwanda, and to the co-operative effort of the international community in contributing towards the financing of the work of assistance for these refugees.
138. Taking into account projects already approved by the Committee at its tenth session, those approved at the second special session and further projects approved by the Committee at its eleventh session for the local settlement of refugees from Rwanda, for their resettlement in other countries and for the consolidation of their economic and social position, allocations in a total amount of $1,623,000 were approved for assistance to these refugees, the breakdown of which may be found in annex V.
ASSISTANCE DURING 1963
139. During 1963, 58,500 refugees form Rwanda were directly assisted under UNHCR programmes while another 22,500 refugees benefited from assistance made available by Governments, voluntary agencies and religious missions on the spot. At the same time as urgent requirements for food and medical care to avoid starvation and disease continued to be met, the refugees were given land, tools and seeds to enable them to grow crops and to become self-supporting as rapidly as possible. They were also assisted in building their traditional-type dwellings and arrangements were made to improve medical care through the setting-up of dispensaries or simple clinics in or near the refugee centres. The refugees are taking full advantage of the facilities offered to them and their state of health is reasonably good.
140. It was realized at an early stage in the operation that the provision of land, seeds and tools, help in constructing dwellings, and the availability of basic medical facilities, would not in all cases be sufficient to encourage the refugees to strike roots in their new environment. As stated in the Report to the eighteenth session of the General Assembly the joint UNHCR/League programmes of assistance in Burundi and the North and Central Kivu provinces of the Congo (Leopoldville) were divided into two parts; a basic programme covering the above-mentioned types of assistance and a supplementary programme designed to help the refugees consolidate their precarious economic position. They were thus encouraged to engage in simple crafts and trades as well as other new activities such as the growing of cash crops, the breeding of poultry and hogs and the establishment of small enterprises. In Tanganyika and Uganda the Governments at first planned and carried out their own programmes with financial help from UNHCR.
141. Difficulties were encountered in the implementation of the settlement programmes in all four countries. By the middle of 1963 experience had shown that certain of the settlement areas were unsuitable for the large number of refugees, in that they could not, under the prevailing conditions, become self-supporting in those areas. The main problem was the lack of suitable land required to grow sufficient crops. New settlement centres had therefore to be established, to which refugees were moved from those centres which were overcrowded.
142. Difficulties of a psychological nature were also encountered. Many of the refugees, particularly those in Burundi and Tanganyika, felt uncertain as to their future and at first did not make full use of the opportunities offered to them. Nevertheless, progress continued to be made in all areas of operations, though rather more slowly than had been hoped for at the beginning of the year.
143. While measures for local settlement were being carried out, it became clear that in order to ensure the firm settlement of the refugees in some of the areas where they were established, it would be necessary to offer them additional opportunities within the framework of the development plans for their areas of location. The ILO. which had agreed to co-operate with UNHCR in the implementation of a regional development project similar to one successfully launched and completed by the ILO in Latin America, dispatched a mission to Kivu in the Congo (Leopoldville) and to Burundi in May 1963 to investigate the situation on the spot, and submitted plans for such projects, which were adopted by the Executive Committee subject to certain conditions in respect of the procedure to be followed for their financing and for their co-ordination with participating specialized agencies of the United Nations.
ASSISTANCE IN 1964
144. The work of assistance to refugees from Rwanda was continued during 1964 through the implementation of the local settlement projects adopted by the Executive Committee in an amount of $170,000 in the framework of the UNHCR 1964 Programme. At the same time, new projects were put into effect for immediate relief to the new refugees from Rwanda and, at the time of writing this report, measures are being taken for the rapid implementation of the projects adopted by the Committee at its eleventh session for the settlement of these refugees. Under the "Armand Kuijpers" project5, in an amount of $624,000 temporary care is being continued as from June 1964 for 13,000 refugees in Burundi; 10,000 of them will subsequently be moved by truck and boat, together with their cattle, to Tanganyika, and the remaining 3,000 will be moved to an existing settlement area in Burundi where they will receive establishment assistance. The project further provides for the movement of the above-mentioned 10,000 refugees from the Tanganyika border to the settlement area and for their local settlement in agriculture. The project also provides for the movement within Uganda of some 7,000 of the new refugees with their 10,000 head of cattle to two areas suitable for cattle-raising, and for the local settlement of the refugees in those areas.
145. Later in the year it is expected that the two projects for the consolidation of the position of Rwanda refugees in Burundi and in Kivu in the Congo (Leopoldville), within the framework of an ILO Integrated Rural Development Programme, will be put into effect as described in more detail in the country sections below.
DEVELOPMENTS IN BURUNDI
146. The relief and settlement operation in Burundi, carried out by the League of Red Cross Societies, was begun in June 1962 and was originally planned for a period of six months. It was later extended until 30 June 1963 in order to give the refugees sufficient time to harvest the crops they needed to become self-supporting. The programme provided for the settlement of some 15,000 refugees in agriculture in three centres in eastern Burundi. The Government subsequently admitted a further number of refugees and their cattle to the centres, so that by the end of 1963 they were accommodating some 21,000 refugees.
147. The League of red Cross societies carried out a basic programme aimed at enabling the refugees to reach a minimum subsistence level of living as soon as possible, as well as a supplementary programme designed to consolidate their settlement and to offer them an opportunity to participate to some extent in the future development of their country of asylum.
148. By 30 June 1963, when the League of Red Cross Societies withdrew from the operation, the basic vital needs of the 21,000 refugees in the centres had largely been met. Each refugee family was by that time cultivating an average of one to one and a half acres of land; they had access to dispensaries and their children could benefit from simple educational facilities.
149. The joint operation represented a truly international effort. The Government of Burundi made an important contribution by providing land for the settlement of the refugees, while assistance was forthcoming from the Government of the United States which provided a major part of the food requirements. The costs involved in transporting the refugees and the food supplies was met partly out of the balance of $168,000 made available by the Government of Belgium for assistance to the refugees from Rwanda before Burundi had acquired independence Tools and seeds were provided by FAO and the Oxford Committee for Famine Relief, and medical supplies and medical supplies and ambulance services by the League of Red Cross Societies. Effective support was given by various groups of missionaries, particularly in arranging for the education of refugee children.
150. the Government of Burundi took over the management of the three settlement centres in early July 1936. at the request of the Government, the Office of the High Commissioner continued to provide assistance to ensure the consolidation of the settlement of the refugees. This assistance covered the cost of transportation of food made available by the United States Government and of an extra provision of necessary seeds. In addition, the Office contributed towards expenses connected with the distribution of food and the operating of trucks, ambulances and water tankers until March 1964. Funds were also made available for some self-help projects such as the raising of chickens and the planting of cash crops, and supplementary aid was provided for individual hardship cases.
151. During,1963 UNHCR provided a total of $142,500 in cash towards meeting the costs of the joint operation with the League in Burundi. Following the assumption of responsibility for the refugee centres by the Government of Burundi, the High Commissioner made available a further amount of $62,650. Both the above-mentioned allocations were committed within the framework of the 1963 current programme. An additional amount of $31,500 was contributed to UNHCR by the Oxford Committee for Famine Relief for operations outside the programme, thus bringing the combined total of funds committed by UNHCR in Burundi during 1963 to $236,650.
152. As mentioned above, a number of refugees from Rwanda attempted in November and December 1963 to return by force to Rwanda. While this unavoidably created a certain unrest in the three refugee settlements in Burundi, the work in these centres nevertheless continued constructively. The maintenance of law and order being the responsibility of the Government, the High Commissioner drew the attention of the Government of Burundi to the fact that his work could only be carried out effectively if peace and stability reigned in the area.
153. As a result of these events, there was a new influx of some 10,000 refugees from Rwanda in Burundi and the Government requested the High Commissioner's assistance in dealing with this new problem. The Government stated that the over-populated country could not absorb this additional number of refugees and requested UNHCR's good offices to find another country of asylum for them.
154. A further amount of $20.000 had already been allocated within the 1964 Programme towards the local settlement of the refugees already living in Burundi. Pursuant to decisions taken by the Executive Committee at its second special and eleventh sessions, an amount of $50,000 was made available for immediate relief to the new refugees from Rwanda in the early part of 1964, and an amount of $80,000 was subsequently allocated in the framework of the "Armand Kuijpers" project in order to achieve solutions to the problems of these refugees through the settlement of some of them in Burundi and the resettlement of the others in Tanganyika. Under the Emergency programme which was put into effect at the beginning of the year, they were provided with food, blankets and other essentials. Furthermore, the Government of Tanganyika generously acceded to the request addressed to it by the High Commissioner for the admission of 10,000 new Rwanda refugees who could not be settled in Burundi. The refugees will be transported by road to Bujumbura, where they will embark on lake steamers for Kigoma in Tanganyika. From there, they will go by rail and road to the settlement area (which will take three or four days). During the movement, food rations will be provided. It is expected that the movement of the entire 10,000 refugees will be completed by August or September 1964. Some 3,000 refugees, together with their cattle, will be moved from their present location in Burundi to Kigamba, in one of the three existing settlement centres in Burundi, where they will be settled. Provision has been made in the project for the transportation of the refugees to the centre, their installation, the supply of seeds and tools, establishment of a dispensary with equipment and medicaments and a simple school, as well as relief supplies.
155. A further project, planned in co-operation between UNHCR and the ILO within the framework of an ILO zonal development and integration programme for one area in Burundi, is intended to benefit some 24,000 of the Rwanda refugees in Burundi along with the local inhabitants of the area concerned, numbering some 29,000. The aim of the project is to improve conditions of life in the area, to consolidate the position of the refugees, and to raise productivity in order to obtain surpluses which can be absorbed by the national economy. to achieve this end assistance will be given to farmers and stock breeders, community centres will be established and public works serving the economic interests of the community as a whole, as for example, the draining of an extensive swampland, will be undertaken. A handicraft centre is proposed, and encouragement will be given to small-scale rural industries. The total amount required for the over-all ILO project is estimated at $635,000. Since about one half of the persons to be assisted are refugees, UNHCR might participate to about one half of the identified costs. Through the generosity of a British voluntary agency, an amount of over $157,000 was available to UNHCR as at 31 March 1964 which can be used for this project in 1964. The Executive Committee, at its eleventh session, approved an allocation of $160,000 to cover the balance of the cost in the framework of the 1965 Programme.
DEVELOPMENTS IN THE NORTH AND CENTRAL KIVU PROVINCES OF THE CONGO (LEOPOLDVILLE)
156. On 1 January 1963, it was estimated that of the 60,000 refugees from Rwanda loving in the North and Central Kivu Provinces of the Congo (Leopoldville), some 28,000 still required assistance from the international community in order to become self-supporting. These refugees were established in the settlement centres of Bibwe, Ihula in North Kivu, Lemera-Mulenge and Kalonge in Central Kivu where land had been made available by the Government. By arrangement with the Congolese authorities and at the request of UNHCR, the League of Red Cross Societies acted as the operational partner of UNHCR. In the two centres of Bibwe and Ihula, the settlement of some 12,500 refugees had progressed satisfactorily to the extent that they no longer required food rations during the latter part of 1963. such assistance as was given to these refugees therefore was aimed at consolidating their settlement.
157. A further 15,500 refugees were provided with assistance in the centres of Lemera-Mulenge and Kalonge. These centres, however, were found to be overcrowded to the extent that the refugees living in them could not become self-supporting, and it was necessary in the course of 1963 to establish three new centres for those refugees who did not have sufficient land to cultivate at Lemera-Mulenge and Kalonge. The movement of the refugees and the subsequent settlement operation was carried out by the League of Red Cross Societies. Particular attention was paid in the new settlement centres to initiating self-help projects as soon as possible to ensure that the refugees would quickly reach a subsistence level of existence, and if possible, surpass it. Thus, in addition to the provision of relief supplies and seeds and tools, projects such as poultry farming, community cultivation of cash crops, and small workshops for handicrafts were introduced at an early stage in the operation.
158. The High Commissioner also participated in the establishment of a boarding school at Katobwe, in Central Kivu Province, and as a result of the UNHCR contribution of $28,000, 100 places were reserved in this school for refugee students.
159. Under the current programme for 1963, a total of $330,500 was made available by UNHCR for assistance to the Rwanda refugees in the North and Central Kivu provinces, including an amount of $96,800 which was set aside to meet the cost of continuing the joint operation of UNHCR and the League of Red Cross Societies until 30 June 1964. An additional amount of $24,500 was contributed to UNHCR by the Oxford Committee for Famine Relief for assistance to the refugees outside the programme, thus bringing to $355,000 the combined total of funds committed by UNHCR during 1963 for assistance to Rwandese refugees in the North and Central Kivu provinces.
160. In the course of 1963 serious difficulties arose, particularly in North Kivu Province, between the refugee population and the local residents, which at one time threatened the stability of the entire area. The consolidation of the settlement programme for the refugees living in North Kivu Province was therefore delayed. However, measures were taken to improve relations between the refugees and the local inhabitants, and by early 1964 stability had been largely restored.
161. As a result of the conditions encountered in 1963, through the instability in North kivu and the necessary change of location of the refugees in Central Kivu, the joint UNHCR/League operation progressed less quickly than originally anticipated. The League of Red Cross Societies, therefore, agreed to continue the joint operation until 30 June 1964.
162. Further funds for the local settlement of refugees in the North and Central Kivu provinces were made available in an amount of $40,000 under the 1964 programme. Furthermore, the Executive Committee, at its eleventh session, approved a project which is to be implemented in co-operation with the ILO within the framework of the ILO Integrated Rural Development Programme for Kivu and which will offer the refugees an opportunity of overcoming their precarious living conditions, as well as taking part in the future economic development of their country of asylum. As in Burundi, both the refugees, of whom there are some 15,600 in the area covered by the project and the local inhabitants numbering some 13,000 will be assisted under the ILO plan. In this way, they will be provided with certain minimum services in the fields of education, training and social assistance. Under the project improvements will be made in the economic infrastructure, agricultural production will be increased and vocational training offered in community craft services. The project will also cover the educational needs of the refugees and provision has been made for taking over and improving the existing health programmes in the areas. The amount required from UNHCR for this project is $198,000, including $120,000 allocated within the 1964 Programme and $78,000 to be allocated within the 1965 Programme of UNHCR.
DEVELOPMENTS IN TANGANYIKA
163. At the beginning of 1963, some 12,000 refugees were being established in agriculture by the Government of Tanganyika in two settlement centres. The Government had at that time requested financial support from the High Commissioner to help meet the costs of the operation. After an on-the-spot investigation, the High Commissioner contributed $33,600 to meet urgent requirements. Additional help was forthcoming from the United States Government in the form of food supplies, while further assistance was given by FAO and UNICEF.
164. In the course of 1963 the Government of Tanganyika was faced with increasing difficulties of an administrative and technical nature in carrying out the settlement operation. It invited UNHCR to help plan and co-ordinate the task. At the High Commissioner's request the League of Red Cross Societies, in agreement with the Government, took charge of the programme for the settlement of some 8,000 refugees in the Muyenzi centre. Following a special consultation with members of the Executive Committee in July 1963, and their subsequent approval of UNHCR participation, the operation was started on 1 August 1963. By the end of 1963 the necessary seeds and tools had been provided and the refugees had planted crops. The extent to which these refugees will become self-supporting depends upon the harvest in the Spring of 1964. The operation is scheduled for completion on 30 June 1964. Its estimated cost was $140,000 in cash requirements, of which UNHCR provided $55,000 in 1963, and $50,000 in 1964, while the balance was made available by the Oxford Committee for Famine Relief.
165. In the other settlement centre at Karagwe, housing some 3,300 refugees, progress was very satisfactory. This centre is run by the Tanganyikan Government and the refugees have successfully planted crops of beans, maize, sweet potatoes and bananas and are now virtually self-supporting. Part of the cost of this settlement operation has been met from the UNHCR contribution of $33,600.
166. The total amount of funds committed by UNHCR in 1963 for assistance to refugees from Rwanda in Tanganyika amounted to $88,600.
167. A further allocation of $70,000 has been included for the local settlement of refugees from Rwanda in Tanganyika within the framework of the 1964 Programme. Following the recent influx of some 13,000 refugees from Rwanda into Burundi, and the request by the government of that country for assistance in dealing with the problem, the Government of Tanganyika generously responded to the High Commissioner's appeal by agreeing to accept some 10,000 of these refugees for settlement on its territory. Within the framework of the "Armand Kuijpers" project adopted by the Committee at its eleventh session, an allocation of $260,000 was made within the 1964 Programme to cover the cost of resettling these refugees in the Mwazi Highlands of Tanganyika. The funds will be used for the transportation of the refugees within Tanganyika, the establishment of the centre, including blankets, cooking utensils, tools and seeds, as well as a basic medical programme comprising three dispensaries, and an educational programme calling for the establishment of some thirty classrooms. An allocation of $56,000 had already been approved earlier this year to allow the Government of Tanganyika to make the necessary preparations to receive the refugees. The Lutheran World Federation, department of World Service, has agreed to co-operate with the Government of Tanganyika and UNHCR and has contributed an amount of over $80,000 towards the resettlement programme in Tanganyika.
DEVELOPMENTS IN UGANDA
168. Some 40,000 refugees were estimated to be in Uganda at the beginning of 1963, approximately 20,000 of whom were being assisted by the Government in establishing themselves in agriculture, while some 10,000 were raising cattle as they had done in Rwanda. Many of the remaining refugees had managed to settle with friends or relatives.
169. At that time the government of Uganda had provided some 10,000 refugees with land in the Oruchinga Valley and was carrying out a settlement programme by providing tools, seeds, elementary medical facilities and food supplies pending the refugees' first harvest. In the course of 1963, it became apparent that there was not sufficient land available in the Oruchinga Valley to enable all the refugees who had been settled there to become self-supporting. The Government therefore requested the assistance of UNHCR to move some 5,500 refugees to a new settlement area. By the end of 1963, this transfer was virtually completed. The High Commissioner allocated in 1963 an amount of $100,000 to help meet the costs of the programmes of the Government of Uganda in 1963.
170. In assisting the refugees, the Government of Uganda has assumed a considerable burden, in spite of its limited absorptive capacity. The problem is further complicated by the fact that the refugees brought with them over 15,000 head of cattle which require to be inoculated, at considerable cost to the local authorities, if they are not to become a source of disease for the cattle already in camp. For the 10,000 refugees who brought these cattle with them, the Government had to find an area with suitable grazing land, and it was subsequently decided that they should settle in the Lake Nakivali area which, though handicapped by the presence of tsetse fly, was considered to be the best land available. Before the refugees could be moved in to this area, however, a programme had to be put into effect for the clearing of the tsetse fly which is an involved and costly operation. The Government has undertaken to clear the entire area of sixty-eight square miles by using tractors dragging lines of chains to uproot all brushwood and trees in the area, and subsequently to burn them in order to destroy the tsetse fly egg. By the end of 1963 good progress had been made with this programme, but it will only be completed in the course of 1964.
171. In addition to the allocation of $40,000 included in the 1964 Programme towards the local settlement of refugees in Uganda, an amount of $117,000 was allocated within this programme at the beginning of 1964, including $100,000 to help the Government to meet the cost of clearing the Lake Nakivali area from tsetse flies - the total cost of which is estimated at $200,000, and $17,000 for the repair and consolidation of the water supply system in the Oruchinga Valley by repairing the gap which had occurred in the natural barrier of the lake and reinforcing the irrigation channels.
172. Further international support for the work of assistance to the refugees in Uganda became necessary at the beginning of 1964, particularly in view of the new influx of 7,000 refugees resulting from the events in Rwanda, and of another new problem of refugees in Uganda. In response to requests for further assistance put forward by the Government of Uganda, the High Commissioner submitted to the Executive Committee a plan which was adopted, for the local settlement of these 7,000 refugees at a cost of $320,000. This plan envisages the movement of the refugees to the Toro and Bunyoro area from the Oruchinga Valley, where they are at present temporarily housed, a temporary relief programme, which has already been instituted with the allocation of $50,000 authorized by the Executive Committee at its second special session, the movement of the refugees to their new settlement areas, the distribution of rations, the purchase of blankets, provision of seeds, tools and vehicles, the inoculation of some 10,000 cattle which the refugees brought with them, and the clearing of tsetse fly from the new grazing areas.
173. An allocation of $20,000 was also authorized for assistance in the field of education.
G. Chinese refugees
CHINESE REFUGEES IN HONG KONG
174. It will be recalled that the General Assembly, in resolutions 1167(XII) and 1784 (XVII), expressed its concern over the situation of Chinese refugees in Hong Kong and requested the High Commissioner to use his good offices on their behalf.
175. The Government of Hong Kong has undertaken the main responsibility for assisting responsibility for assisting Chinese refugees and for integrating them into the economic and social life of the community. Pursuant to the above-mentioned resolutions, the High Commissioner continued on 1963 to channel to the Hong Kong Government contributions to be used for projects benefiting Chinese refugees. The Hong Kong Government has pursued the large-scale housing and economic integration programme which was started several years ago, and from which refugees benefit on the same basis as local residents.
176. In 1963, an amount of $452,678 was made available to the High Commissioner for assistance projects for Chinese refugees in Hong Kong. This sum was transmitted to the Hong Kong Government. It includes $268,817 for the building of an infirmary, $70,559 for the construction of a TB sanatorium, $28,000 for the building of a village community centre, $25,000 for the extension of a "sea-school" and $22,660 for the government-administered revolving loan fund for assistance to refugees in their establishment in agriculture. In addition, funds were made available for the transportation of forty-four Chinese refugee orphans to New Zealand and the resettlement of ten Chinese refugees in Colombia.
CHINESE REFUGEES IN MACAO
177. At the end of 1963, it was estimated that 70,000 refugees were living in Macao, approximately 35 per cent of the total population of the territory. The proportion of unfit, unskilled and handicapped persons among the refugees is very high, owing to the fact that many of the able-bodied have been able to move to neighbouring areas offering better possibilities of employment.
178. Owing to the very high population density, one of the greatest problems facing the lower income categories in Macao, to which the majority of refugees belong, is housing. In order to improve the situation, however, employment possibilities need to be increased in order that these people have adequate means of subsistence.
179. Great efforts have been made by the government of Macao, church and religious organizations as well as voluntary agencies to cope, very often on limited means, with this refugee problem. While the Government allocates a substantial percentage of its annual budget to welfare activities, the private agencies provide for food and other relief supplies and support the efforts of the authorities in the field of education, vocational training and medical assistance. Due to the magnitude of the problem, it has so far not proved possible to undertake projects aimed at real rehabilitation of local settlement of the refugees.
180. A contribution of $22,050 received in 1963 towards assistance to these refugees was channelled, in accordance with the wish of the donor, to a governmental mission in Macao.
181. Pursuant to a request from the government, the High Commissioner investigated the position of the refugees and considered the measures of assistance to which he might usefully contribute with a view to facilitating their settlement. On the basis of this study, the High Commissioner submitted to the Executive Committee at its eleventh session projects in an amount of $259,000 for the local integration of the Chinese refugees in Macao. These projects provide inter alia for the building of fishing-boats, the development of certain areas where the refugees can be settled, the provision of housing and the extension of a social rehabilitation centre, so that it can be used for the refugees.
182. Towards the above mentioned total of $259,000 UNHCR has already received over $45,000. in addition, the Executive Committee approved an immediate allocation of $100,000 under the 1964 Programme to enable the projects to be started forthwith. The remainder will be financed through fund-raising efforts or through a further allocation from the 1964 or 1965 Programme.
H. Tibetan refugees
REFUGEES IN NEPAL
183. In 1963, the High Commissioner continued to follow closely the problem of refugees from Tibet in Nepal. The International Committee of the Red Cross had concerned itself actively with this problem from June 1960 until May 1963. Since then this group of refugees benefited greatly from technical assistance provided by the Government of Switzerland in cooperation with the Swiss Red Cross under bilateral arrangements.
184. At the beginning of 1964, the High Commissioner was asked by the Government of Nepal to investigate the position of these refugees with a view to lending his good offices in favour of arrangements for assistance being given them.
185. According to the best available estimates, there were, early in 1964, some 11,000 Tibetan refugees in Nepal including 4,000 in the northern part of the country, whom it is very difficult to reach; 3,700 living on the Nepalese borders to the north and north-east of Kathmandu, who are in immediate need of assistance, and 3,300 who receive assistance in the form of medical care, food and welfare from the Swiss Red Cross. In addition, the Swiss Association for Technical assistance is helping some thousand of the latter group in becoming self-supporting by organizing technical training for them in carpet-weaving, cotton-spinning, boot-making, building and agriculture.
186. As the High Commissioner informed the Executive Committee at its eleventh session, it is proposed that the Nepalese Red Cross should undertake a relief operation for group of 3,700 refugees north and north-east of Kathmandu, and the Swiss Association for Technical Assistance had declared itself prepared to extend its training programme as far as possible to these refugees in order to assist them in becoming self-supporting.
187. For the time being, the High Commissioner has reserved an amount of $50,000 from his Emergency Fund for the Tibetan refugees in case it should be required.
REFUGEES IN INDIA
188. Towards the end of 1963, agreement was reached with the Government of India, according to which proceeds from the sale of the "All-Star Festival" records in India and part of the proceeds in other countries would be used for the benefit of groups of refugees in India. Any outside support which UNHCR, under its good offices, may be able to stimulate for projects in favour of refugees from Tibet would be considered welcome by the Indian authorities.
189. An amount of $100,000 is being reserved by the High Commissioner from the proceeds of sales of "All-Star Festival" records in other countries for Tibetan refugees in India. It is envisaged that this amount will be transmitted partly to the Central Relief Committee in India, and partly to the Indian Red Cross, on the basis of projects to be received from these organizations.
CHAPTER V FINANCING OF UNHCR ACTIVITIES
190. The financing of UNHCR activities in 1963 reflected the changes that had taken place in the work of this Office.
191. In 1962, when the new problems of refugees appeared, assistance for the solution of their problems was financed from funds contributed outside the Programme. It was in 1963, for the first time, that provision could be made for these groups within the framework of the annual Programme. An amount of $800,000, within the over-all target of $1,400,000 for the new groups of refugees. In addition they also benefited from the major part of the funds made available to UNHCR for operations outside its regular programmes.
192. One of the major problems in financing the activities of UNHCR in 1963 resulted from the fact that, in order to ensure financial provision for the completion of the last major aid projects for "old" European refugees, for which a target of $5,400,000 was set, the over-all target of $6,945,0006 was higher than in the two previous years. However, as explained in more detail below, this financial target was not far from being reached at the time of writing this report. This result is largely due to the international solidarity which developed after the High Commissioner's request for special governmental contributions, and which was strongly supported by the Council of Europe. It is also due to the results of the sale of the UNHCR record "All-Star Festival" and to the spectacular success of the fund-raising campaign which was held in the Netherlands, in October 1963. As at 31 May 1964 these special efforts had resulted in additional contributions in a total amount of approximately $3,240,000 including some $1,116,000 from Governments, approximately $829,000 from the fund-raising campaign in the Netherlands, and some $1,285,000 from the proceeds of the sale of the record "All-Star Festival" in thirty-six countries throughout the world. Part of the proceeds of the latter two schemes were made available for operations outside the Programme, and enabled the Office to provide additional assistance to certain new groups of refugees.
193. As far as the 1964 Programme is concerned, contributions in a total amount of $2,648,000 had been announced as at 31 May 1964. More funds will be required, particularly since it may prove necessary to raise the financial target of $2,600,000 to $3,100,000. Funds will also be needed for operations outside the Programme, so that a further contribution may be made towards the work of assistance for those new groups of refugees whose needs could not be covered in the framework of UNHCR's current programme.
Financing of the 1963 Programme
194. As at the time of writing this report, further headway had been made in reaching the financial objectives of the 1963 Programme, amounting to $6,945,000.
195. Contributions to the 1963 Programme and other income available for this Programme as at 31 May 1964 amounted to a total of $6,612,376 - the details of which may be found in annex VI to this report. This figure includes governmental payments or pledges in an amount of $4,122,744 and $324,616 in terms of governmental promises not yet converted into pledges or payments. It further includes an amount of $983,405 paid or pledged to the Programme from non-governmental sources and other income in an amount of $1,181,6117 There thus remains a gap of some $330,000 which it is hoped will be bridged by further special contributions at present under consideration.
196. Support by the Council of Europe has played an important role in bringing UNHCR close to the target set for the 1963 Programme. Both the Committee of Ministers and the Consultative Assembly of the Council of Europe appealed for a demonstration of European solidarity in support of the Major Aid Programme for the remaining "old" European refugees. The movement rapidly gained momentum as reflected by the fact that by 31 May 1964 special contributions for this programme had been paid, pledged or promised by sixteen Governments in an amount of over $1,430,000, as shown in the following table.
|Paid or pledged (US dollars)||Promised (US dollars )||Total (US dollars)|
|Federal Republic of Germany||250,000a||250,000|
|Sovereign Order of Malta||1,000||1,000|
a Through the Protestant Central Office for Development Aid.
b This sum together with the amount contributed by the United Kingdom to UNHCR for transfer to ICEM represents a doubling of the United Kingdom contribution for 1963.
197. The 1963 Programme also benefited to a considerable extent from the generosity and interest displayed in the private sector. Thus, proceeds in an amount of $548,758 from the public sale of the UNHCR long-playing record "All-Star Festival" were earmarked for the 1963 Programme, and the major part of the proceeds of the fund-raising campaign in the Netherlands, i.e., $645,856, were earmarked for the financing of assistance projects for refugees on Greece and Turkey within the 1963 Programme.
Financing of operations outside the 1963 Programme
198. Until the end of 1962, considerable amounts were channelled through UNHCR for assistance to new groups of refugees under the terms of the "good offices" resolutions. As from the beginning of 1963, an amount of $800,000 was foreseen in the current programme for assistance to these groups of refugees.
199. In addition, however, the High Commissioner was able to obtain considerable further sums which enabled him to provide additional assistance for the new groups of refugees, and to contribute to the work of assistance undertaken by the Governments and local authorities of certain countries or areas for the purpose of assisting the refugees in their territory. At the beginning of 1963, the Office had an amount of $831,055 available for this purpose. Taking into account adjustments and transfers, resulting in a reduction of $9,269, further contributions received for this purpose by 31 May 1964 totalled $1,211,020, including $213,887 from governmental sources and $997,133 from non-governmental sources, broken down as follows:
$277,720, Part of the proceeds of the sale of the record "All-Star Festival";
$182,873, Part of the proceeds of the Netherlands Fund-raising Campaign;
$536,540, Contributions from other non-governmental sources
Of the total amount of $2,032,806 available as at 31 May 1964, $1,628,771 was committed during 1963 as indicated in annex III to this report. The remaining amount of $404,035 is being applied to assistance projects in 1964.
Financing of the 1964 Programme
200. At the meeting of the Ad Hoc Committee of the General Assembly for the announcement of pledges of voluntary contributions, held in New York on 29 November 1963, twenty-seven Governments announced contributions totalling $1,423,640 to the UNHCR's 1964 Programme, the financial target for which, at that time, was expected to be about $2,600,000. Further pledges or promises by Governments, announcements made at the eleventh session of the Executive Committee of the High Commissioner's programme, and income from other sources have brought the total to $2,648,786 towards the financial target of the 1964 programme which, as explained above, may have to be raised to $3,100,000.
201. As in 1962, the Emergency Fund, which was established with a ceiling of $500,000 under the terms of resolution 1166 (XII), afforded the Office of the High Commissioner an opportunity to meet refugee emergencies, pending further decisions being taken by the Executive Committee of the High Commissioner's Programme. In the course of 1963, a total amount of $153,600 was thus drawn from the Emergency Fund, of which $50,000 subsequently reverted to the Fund since it proved possible to make the necessary financial provision from other sources. As at 31 December 1963 the Emergency Fund stood at $500,000. An obligation of $100,000 was incurred from the Fund in June 1964, upon a decision taken by the Executive Committee at its eleventh session in respect of assistance to refugees in Uganda.
202. The question of the ceiling of the Emergency Fund and of the financing of UNHCR assistance programmes in general was considered by the Executive Committee in the course of its tenth session, and the Committee decided to defer consideration of the subject to its twelfth session, which is scheduled to be held in October 1964.
CHAPTER VI PUBLIC INFORMATION AND PROGRAMME SUPPORT
203. The main fund raising and public information project for the year 1963 was the launching of a long-playing record in co-operation with the phonographic industry. Many famous international artists donated a song as their personal contribution to refugee work, most of the composers and text writers waived their royalties, while the industry itself produced and distributed the record commercially at cost price. The net result by the end of 1963 had already exceeded the $1.3 million allocated to a series of projects in all parts of the world.
204. As the Secretary-General of the United Nations had authorized the sale to take place under United Nations seal and label, it enabled the Office to benefit from tax waivers and free imports in many countries. Other countries marked their sympathy for the humanitarian work on behalf of refugees by passing special laws authorizing duty free imports of sale where such privileges were not automatically granted to United Nations material.
205. A great many occasions arose for leading personalities throughout the world to associate themselves publicly with refugee work on the occasion of receiving "first records". The presentation of the "All-Star festival" record gave good opportunities for radio, television and press to devote considerable space to the discussion of refugee problems. Particularly noteworthy was the co-operation received from voluntary agencies. In several countries, notably in Scandinavia, the sale of the record was undertaken with the support of impressive promotional information action. It may be mentioned that the millionth copy was sold in Iceland be the Icelandic Red Cross.
206. As a result, considerable quantities of printed or visual material had to be distributed to meet the extensive demand for information. Interest centred especially around the refugee problems in Africa.
207. Another major event was the organization in the Netherlands of a fund raising campaign by a national committee presided over by a former Prime Minister, which received the co-operation of radio, press and television. A special film was made concerning the situation of pre-war refugees in Greece. This film was shown to illustrate the urgent need for action, and was followed by an appeal by a well-known Netherlands sportsman in a one-hour programme relayed by radio and television. At the same time, 80,000 volunteers throughout the country went to collect the private donations which within an hour had passed the one million dollar mark, of which the major share was donated to or through UNHCR.
208. The production of a full-length feature film was started in September by an independent Norwegian film company with the support of the Norwegian Refugee Council. This film, devoted to the problem of refugee seamen and the international protection of refugees, is planned to be given commercial distribution throughout the world, with an important part of the net proceeds to net proceeds to be donated to UNHCR.
209. In addition to these two major fund raising and public relations events, the Office continued to supply the press, radio and television and other media with information material concerning the operations in the field. Of particular importance was the close relationship maintained with the Office of Public Information of the United Nations. During 1963 a special effort was made to obtain photographic material from the Far Eastern refugee areas and Africa.
210. The Office also extended the distribution of its printed monthly paper UNHCR Reports..., with a view to increasing public knowledge about the new refugee situations.
(Note: Statistical and financial tables not included in this online version. See your nearest UN Depository Library.)
APPENDIX I Report on the second special session of the Executive Committee of the High Commissioner's Programme8 (Geneva, 28-29 January 1964)
Opening of the session
1. The Executive Committee of the High Commissioner's Programme held its second special session on 28 and 29 January 1964 at the Palais des Nations, Geneva. Mr. H. F. Ala am (Turkey), the Chairman in office, opened the session.
2. Before beginning its proceedings, the Committee paid a tribute to the memory of John F. Kennedy, the late President of the United States of America.
3. In conformity with rule 10 of the rules of procedure, under which the officers of the Committee are appointed at the first regular session of the year, Mr. H. F. Alaçam (Turkey) remained in office as Chairman. In the absence of Mr. H. Gleissner (Austria). Mr. J. Desy (Belgium) was elected Rapporteur.
4. The Governments of the following members of the Executive Committee were represented:
|Federal Republic of Germany||Turkey|
|France||United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland|
|Greece||United States of America|
5. The Governments of New Zealand, Portugal and the United Arab Republic, and also the Sovereign Order of Malta, were represented by observers.
6. The International Labour Organisation (ILO), the World Health Organization (WHO), the Council of Europe and the Inter-Governmental Committee for European Migration (ICEM), were also represented by observers.
7. The Chairman welcomed the members of the Committee, and particularly the five new members recently elected to the Committee by the Economic and Social Council: Algeria, Lebanon, Madagascar, Nigeria and Tanganyika.
Adoption of the agenda
8. On the proposal of the representative of Turkey, the Committee added the item "Note on the use of the Emergency Fund" to the agenda, which was adopted in the following form:
1. Election of Rapporteur.
2. Adoption of the agenda (A/AC.96/217/Rev.1).
3. Action taken by the General Assembly at its eighteenth session and by the Economic and Social Council at its resumed thirty-sixth session (A/AC.96/220).
4 Completion of Major Aid Projects - New and Revised Projects (A/AC.96/218).
5. Projects in the 1964 Programme (A/AC.96/219).
6. Note on the use of the Emergency Fund (A/AC.96/221).
7. Other questions.
8. Consideration of the draft report.
Action taken by the General Assembly at its eighteenth session and by the Economic and Social Council at its resumed thirty-sixth session (agenda item 3)
9. The High Commissioner, introducing the summary of the actions referred to above (A/AC.96/220), said that, by enlarging the membership of the Executive Committee, the General Assembly had reaffirmed the universal character of the functions of UNHCR.
10. The High Commissioner said that it was gratifying to note that the proposals relating to his activity had been adopted unanimously by the General Assembly and that the Assembly had recognized the importance of an appropriate programme of refugee aid as a means of action tending to facilitate the work of UNHCR as a whole.
11. The High Commissioner said it was essential that it should be possible to modify programmes in the light of new circumstances; it was for that purpose that he had convened the Committee in special session.
12. During the debate, speakers expressed satisfaction at the re-election of the High Commissioner and at the admission of five more States, which would surely make a valuable contribution to the Committee's work, particularly with regard to the most recent refugee problems.
13. In the course of the eighty-ninth meeting, the representatives of Nigeria and Algeria thanked the Committee for the warm welcome it had given to the new members and stated that they would be glad to make the fullest contribution to the work of the Committee.
14. Several representatives stressed the importance of the function of international protection referred to in General Assembly resolution 1959 (XVIII), They pointed out that a growing number of persons coming within the High Commissioner's mandate were not eligible for the benefit of the provisions of the Convention relating to the Status of Refugees, 1951 by reason of the restrictive provision in article 1. A (2) concerning the time limit of 1 January 1951. One of the representatives added that for this reason, and also because the Convention appeared to apply mainly to refugees of European origin, a number of countries of Asia and Africa had not considered it worthwhile to become parties to the Convention.
15. It was suggested that this time limit should be dropped or amended. In view of the implications of this suggestion it was recommended that the problem should be considered at the Committee's next session.
DECISION OF THE COMMITTEE
16. The Committee noted document A/AC.96/220 relating to the action taken by the General Assembly and the Economic and Social and welcomed the admission of five more States to the Executive Committee.
Completion of Major Aid Projects - new and revised projects (agenda item 4)
17. The Committee considered document A/AC.96/218, in which the High Commissioner submitted new and revised projects, involving the sum of $1,103,000, as part of the series of major aid projects put into effect from 1955 to 1963.
18. Introducing this report, the High Commissioner stated that in all probability the financial target for the completion of major aid projects for "old" European refugees would be reached shortly. It was, however, essential that those programmes should be completed financial limitations. He had therefore submitted a number of new and revised projects to the Committee suited to the refugees' needs, while remaining within the budgetary limits previously fixed.
19. The completion of that great enterprise would strengthen international co-operation on behalf of refugees and would make it possible to enlist whatever assistance was required to cope with the new refugee problems in Europe and other parts of the world.
20. The representative of the High Commissioner explained the purpose of the projects described in the documents submitted to the Committee. In reply to questions he gave further particulars of the needs of refugees in the countries in which the projects were to be carried out and information about the financial aspects of the programme (see the summary records of the 85th and 86th meetings).
21. During the general debate, several representatives asked whether it was advisable to submit new and revised projects costing so much at that stage of the 1963 Programme. One of them said that the Programme for the Completion of Major Aid Projects for the "old" refugees had been described earlier as a one-time operation and "a last effort". Although generally endorsing the projects submitted to the Committee these representatives nevertheless thought that it might be desirable to budget more strictly. They expressed satisfaction with the financial data given them in document A/AC.96/218 and hoped that they would receive analogous reports in future regarding expenditure on, and changes in, programmes approved by the Executive Committee.
22. In reply to a number of delegations, the representative of the High Commissioner explained that the projects submitted to the Committee would be financed in a manner in keeping with the financial target for the major aid programmes, the 1963 Programme being the last of its kind. He added that the funds made available through the cancellation of obligations and the refund of unspent balances came from the total of the programmes of material assistance put into effect from 1955 to 1963 at a total cost of some $45 million.
23. The Italian representative said that there was some danger of giving the impression that the problem of the European refugees was solved; that was certainly not true in Italy, where there had been a record influx of new refugees in 1963. He suggested that a report on the situation of the refugees in each European country should be submitted to the Committee at its next session.
24. The Committee gave a good deal of attention to the problem of refugees living outside the camps in Germany. Several representatives asked for explanations of the "drop of oil" which the High Commissioner's Office might be required to supply in order to speed up the integration of such refugees. The United Kingdom representative, in particular, expressed misgivings about the completion of the housing programme planned by the German authorities to solve their problems and expressed the hope that the Federal German authorities would be able to grant the necessary funds during 1964.
25. The hope was expressed that the programme could be completed by the proposed time limit.
26. The representative of the Federal Republic of Germany replied that, of 4,200 heads of refugee families whose names had been given to the German authorities, 2,500 had qualified for the benefit of the housing programme. One hundred and fifty cases were still under consideration. An initial sum of 1,700,000 DM had been appropriated in the federal budget for 1964 and was to be submitted to the legislature. The complementary contributions from the Länder were not yet included in the budgets. The programme could, however, be expected to begin in the course of the year. He made it clear that an increase in the contribution by the Federal authorities and the Länder was not likely because of the present budgetary situation. The Federal Government had the fervent desire to ease the way for the integration of the refugees into the Federal Republic and would do everything it could to procure them the housing they needed.
27. During its detailed consideration of the projects, the Committee heard statements by the representatives of Austria and France, which are reported in the summary record of the eighty-sixth meeting.
28. The Austrian representative supplied information on the housing assistance mentioned in chapter II of document A/AC.96/218 and outlined the very substantial aid that his country had given hundreds of thousands of refugees living in camps, especially since 1955.
29. The representative of France described the precarious situation of many handicapped refugees in France, among whom the proportion of aged invalids was increasing to such an extent that, in the new projects, the number of places reserved for refugees in this category exceeded the places reserved for other old people. The proposed programme should enable this situation to be considerably improved.
30. During the discussion of the projects for aid to refugees in Latin America, one representative suggested that the High Commissioner's Office should supply more detailed information on the situation of refugees in that region.
DECISIONS OF THE COMMITTEE
31. The Committee took note of document A/AC.96/218 (Completion of Major Aid projects) submitted by the High Commissioner. It approved the projects involving the sum of $1,103,000 described in chapters II to VII of that document, and authorized the High Commissioner to implement them by using the funds made available through the cancellation of obligations and the refund of unspent balances under the major aid programmes put into effect between 1955 and 1963.
32. It was, of course, understood that these projects would be implemented as funds become available for the purpose, priority being given, however, to earlier projects approved within the 1963 Programme. In addition, to the balances from earlier projects which could be set aside to cover revised allocations and which on 30 November 1963 amounted to $730,176.69, the reserve provided in the 1963 Programme itself could, after the funds required become available, also partly be used to finance these revised needs.
33. After considering document A/AC.96/218, the Committee heard a statement by the High commissioner on the resettlement of refugees (A/AC.96/INF.20). The High Commissioner drew attention to the situation of Cuban refugees in Spain, now numbering from 8,000 to 10,000 persons. He gave a brief account of the numerous measures taken by the Spanish Government and by voluntary agencies to help them, and said that some of these refugees could be resettled in other countries. He was at present studying the problem and hoped to submit recommendations to the Committee at its next session.
Statements on financial contributions to the 1963 Programme
34. The Chairman drew the attention of the Committee to the "status Report on efforts to Reach the Financial Target for the High Commissioner's 1963 Programme", submitted in document A/AC.96/INF.19.
35. The representative of the United Kingdom recalled that Her Majesty's Government had decided to contribute an amount of £120,000 to the 1963 Programme, of which £20,000 was to be allocated to the Inter-governmental Committee for European Migration, and that furthermore the United Kingdom Government was prepared to subscribe on a 10 per cent matching basis a further sum of £80,000 which, if fully taken up, would raise the total United Kingdom contribution for 1963 to £200,000; double the annual United Kingdom contribution of recent years.
36. The United Kingdom Government had been favourably impressed by the response made by voluntary agencies and the general public to the High Commissioner's appeal, and had decided that, although governmental contributions had not been sufficient to attract more than £38,000 of the matching proportion of the United Kingdom contribution, it would nevertheless contribute the whole sum of £200,000 to the High Commissioner's 1963 Programme. The United Kingdom Government had taken this decision in order to assist the High Commissioner to carry out in full his programme to resolve the traditional refugee problems in Europe.
37. The representative of Austria informed the Committee that his Government had recently decided to make a special contribution of $30,000 to the 1963 Programme.
38. The representative of the Federal Republic of Germany announced that, with the co-operation of the Central Office for Development Aid of the Protestant Church in Germany, a sum of $250,000 had already been provided by the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany for the integration of refugees in Greece. It was hoped that a similar amount would be raised for the same purpose in the course of 1964.
39. in expressing his thanks, the High Commissioner stated that the new special contributions which had been announced would enable his Office to get closer still to the financial target established for the last Major Aid Programme for assistance to "old" refugees.
40. Referring to the assistance programme for Algerian refugees, the High Commissioner informed the Committee that he had just received a cheque for $22,000 from the Lebanese Government for the reestablishment of those refugees in Algeria.
41. In conclusion, the High Commissioner announced the spectacular results of the fund-raising campaign organized in the Netherlands in October 1963, which amounted to nearly $1,000,000, 80 per cent of which was intended for the assistance programme in Greece, and 20 per cent for assistance to refugees in Turkey.
DECISION OF THE COMMITTEE
42. The Committee took note with satisfaction of the new contributions announced during the session, and expressed its warm appreciation for the brilliant results of the fund-raising campaign which had been organized in the Netherlands.
Projects in the 1964 Programme (item 5 of the agenda)
43. The Committee considered documents A/AC.96/219, in which the High Commissioner outlined recent developments with regard to the problems presented by new refugee groups and submitted new projects involving the total sum of $117,000 for aid to refugees in Uganda. During the debate, the Committee also considered the difficulties existing in some of the areas in which the refugees from Rwanda had been received. The High Commissioner outlined a plan of action for which an initial allocation of $100,000 would be required for emergency relief to new refugees in Burundi and in Uganda with a view to enabling these two countries to deal with the new influx of refugees from Rwanda. Half of the allocation would be used in Burundi and the other half in Uganda.
DECISIONS OF THE COMMITTEE
44. The Committee took note of the information contained in document A/AC.96/219. It approved the two projects described in paragraphs 9 to 14 of the document. The Committee also approved an allocation of $100,000 within the financial target for the 1964 Programme, in order to enable the High Commissioner to finance emergency relief for the new refugees from Rwanda in Burundi and Uganda. It was understood that more detailed information concerning the cost of this assistance would be reported to members of the Committee.
45. The Committee also noted that other projects, drawn up by the High Commissioner, would be transmitted to its members who, in view of the urgency of the situation, would be called upon to give their views in writing.
46. The Executive Committee noted with anxiety the difficulties at present existing in those parts of Africa to which the refugees from Rwanda have been admitted and expressed deep concern at the possibility of these difficulties endangering co-operative international efforts on behalf of these refugees.
47. The Executive Committee recalled in this connexion the wish expressed in the preamble to the Convention relating to the Status of Refugees of 28 July 1951 "that all States, recognizing the social and humanitarian nature of the problem of refugees, will do everything within their power to prevent this problem from becoming a cause of tension between States".
48. Accordingly, the Executive Committee having approved the High Commissioner's request for $100,000 for immediate expenditure on emergency relief for new refugees from Rwanda who have fled to Uganda and Burundi, decided unanimously to record: (1) their admiration and support for the High commissioner himself in his task of leading and inspiring the international co-operative effort being made on behalf of these refugees, and (2) their earnest hope that the present disturbed situation in the general area in which Rwandan refugees have sought asylum would soon be settled enough to permit the High Commissioner's humanitarian work of relief to be of maximum benefit to these unhappy people.
Note on the use of the Emergency Fund (agenda item 6)
49. The Committee considered document A/AC.96/221 on the use of the Emergency Fund. Its attention was also drawn to document A/AC.96/INF.18 on assistance to refugees in Turkey, which had been submitted to it for information.
DECISION OF THE COMMITTEE
50. The Committee approved the use of the resources of the Emergency Fund, as set out in document A/AC.96/221 on the understanding that the sum of $50,000 referred to in paragraph 8 of the document would be returned to the Emergency Fund if the expenditure in question should prove unnecessary or if the Committee should decide to include the project in its regular programme for 1964, in accordance with a proposal made in the Committee.
DECISION OF THE COMMITTEE
51. The Committee noted the information supplied by the High Commissioner concerning the sale of the UNHCR long-playing record.
Statement by the representative of the International Council of Voluntary Agencies
52. In the course of the eighty-ninth meeting, the representative of the Refugee Commission of the International Council of Voluntary Agencies made a statement in which he conveyed the point of view of the voluntary agencies in respect of various aspects of the work of assistance to refugees.
APPENDIX II Report on the eleventh session of the Executive Committee of the High Commissioner's Programme9 (Geneva, 18-25 May 1964)
OPENING OF THE SESSION AND ELECTION OF OFFICERS
1. The Executive Committee of the High Commissioner's Programme held its eleventh session from 18 to 25 May 1964 at the Palais des Nations, Geneva.
2. The Committee elected the following officers by acclamation:
Chairman: Miss A. F. W. Lunsingh Meijer (Netherlands)
Vice-Chairman: H. E. Mr. R. W. Furlonger (Australia)
Rapporteur: Dr. S. Azimi (Iran)
3. The Governments of all the members of the Committee were represented at the session as follows:
|Federal Republic of Germany||Tunisia|
|Greece||United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland|
|Holy See||United States of America|
4. The Governments of Argentina, New Zealand, Portugal, Rwanda, Uganda and the United Arab Republic were represented by an observer, as was the Sovereign Order of Malta.
5. The Council of Europe, the European Economic Community, the Inter-governmental Committee for European Migration, the ILO, WHO and FAO were also represented.
6. The Chairman welcomed the participants, and particularly the five new members of the Committee who were taking part in a regular session for the first time: Algeria, Lebanon, Madagascar, Nigeria and Tanganyika. She emphasized the two main tasks of the Committee at its present session, namely, the examination of reports on progress made during the preceding year, and the new projects submitted under the 1964 Programme.
ADOPTION OF THE AGENDA
7. The Committee decided to adopt the following agenda on the understanding that the order in which the various items were dealt with could be modified during the session:
1. Election of officers.
2. Adoption of the agenda.
3. Statement by the High Commissioner.
4. Progress report on UNHCR Major Aid Programmes (1955-1963) at 31 December 1963.
5 Report on the implementation of the current 1963 Programme (including the Complementary Assistance Programme and other projects).
6. Report on the resettlement of refugees.
7. Provisional financial statements for 1963.
8. Amendments to the Financial Rules for Voluntary Funds.
9. Note on the use of the Emergency Fund.
10. 1964 Programme - new projects:
(a) Projects for refugees from Rwanda;
(b) Projects for Cuban refugees;
(c) Projects for Chinese refugees.
11. Co-operation between the Office of the High Commissioner for Refugees and other intergovernmental organizations.
12. Situation of refugees in Europe in particular in countries of first asylum.
13. Report on international protection.
14. Status of contributions.
15. Administrative expenditure for 1965.
16. Other questions.
17. Draft report on the session.
8. Following the death of the representative of Belgium, which occurred during the session, the Committee decided to continue at its twelfth session its consideration of item 12 of the agenda and to postpone consideration of items 13 and 15 to that session.
INTRODUCTORY STATEMENT BY THE HIGH COMMISSIONER AND GENERAL DEBATE
9. The High Commissioner made an introductory statement the text of which is annexed to this report. He emphasized in particular the progress of the Major id Programmes and of the current programme instituted in 1963, the supplementary projects which had had to be submitted to the Committee under the 1964 Programme to meet urgent needs, and the nature and increased importance of the co-operation established between the Office of the High Commissioner and other intergovernmental organizations.
10. The representatives who spoke in the general debate expressed great satisfaction with the work done by the Office of the High Commissioner with respect both to the specific achievements on which the High Commissioner had reported to the Committee and to the general policy pursued by the Office, and they stressed the importance they attached to the universal, non-political and humanitarian character of the work of the Office.
11. They observed that, as a result of the untiring efforts made by the Office and by the Governments and the other organizations concerned, a solution to the problem of material assistance for the "old" European refugees was now in sight. Although the problem had become less urgent, new refugees were continuing to arrive in Europe, and the Office, together with the Intergovernmental Committee for European Migration, would have to continue their efforts to settle the new problems as and when they arose. The members of the Committee also welcomed the assistance which the High Commissioner had been able to organize for the new groups of refugees in Africa and Asia. They paid a tribute to the generous treatment accorded to those refugees in the countries of asylum, not all of which were economically in a position to provide the refugees with substantial assistance.
12. Referring to the financing of assistance, speakers congratulated the High Commissioner on having almost reached the financial target for the 1963 Programme and on having succeeded in finding the financial and other resources necessary for dealing with the many refugee problems with which he had to concern himself in various parts of the world. One speaker suggested in that connexion that, in view of the increased number of new problems, the High Commissioner might make an appeal for wider support.
13. With regard to the policy followed by the High Commissioner, several representatives thought that the general principles he had outlined at previous sessions of the Committee had been successfully applied. As his function required him to do, he had stimulated and co-ordinated assistance and had given the governments which had requested him to do so every possible help in drawing up programmes whose implementation had then been entrusted to the local authorities or to other organizations.
14. Those programmes of assistance had already benefited by substantial support in the form of contributions from voluntary agencies and of surplus food which the Governments of the host countries of new groups of refugees had received under United States bilateral aid.
15. In that connexion, several speakers drew attention to the desirability of establishing close co-operation between the Office of the High Commissioner and other intergovernmental organizations, while, of course, avoiding any duplication or over-lapping. With regard more particularly to the new refugee problems in Africa, they stressed the importance of the part which could be played by such specialized agencies as the ILO, FAO, WHO and UNESCO and also by the Organization for African Unity, which had recently established contact with the Office of the High Commissioner.
16. Several representatives also emphasized the important part played by the voluntary agencies, whose support was more necessary than ever in providing assistance for new groups of refugees.
17. During the discussion, the Committee learned with satisfaction than an agreement had been concluded for the establishment of an emigration centre in Yugoslavia with the financial support of the Office of the High Commissioner and of the Government of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. The centre was intended to facilitate the departure of refugees who had been received by Yugoslavia and wished to resettle elsewhere. The High Commissioner stated in this connexion that he was seeking to promote special aid so that the necessary funds might be made available.
18. In the course of the session, the Committee heard a statement by the representative of the International Council of Voluntary Agencies, the details of which may be found in the summary record of the ninety-eighth meeting, and paid a tribute to the invaluable work of the voluntary agencies.
Decisions of the Committee
19. The Executive Committee:
(a) Took note with satisfaction of the High commissioner's introductory statement;
(b) Expressed its appreciation of the manner in which the High Commissioner was performing his functions in co-operation with Governments, other intergovernmental organizations and the voluntary agencies.
II. Reports on the activities of UNHCR
PROGRESS REPORT ON UNHCR MAJOR AID PROGRAMMES (agenda item 4)
20. The Committee examined the progress report on UNHCR Major Aid Programmes (1955-1963), document A/AC,96/228, in which the High Commissioner set out the position as at 31 December 1963.
21. In introducing the report, the representative of the High Commissioner stated that the number of refugees who had been permanently settled through the Major Aid Programmes since 1955 totalled over 81,000. Progress in 1963 had been slightly less than in the two previous years largely because the number of beneficiaries included a higher proportion of handicapped refugees. He also gave information on the problems still outstanding in France, the Federal Republic of Germany and Latin America.
22. Speakers expressed their great satisfaction at the progress made by the High Commissioner in implementing the Major Aid programmes. Referring more particularly to the form of the progress report, the representative of Australia said that the report, which had, indeed, been prepared along the lines which the Executive Committee had earlier requested, would gain by being presented in a more succinct form. In his delegation's opinion, the report should concern itself essentially with progress during the current year and the programmes put in to effect previously should be firefly summarized. It might also be useful to re-examine the whole of the documentation submitted to the Committee so as to avoid overlapping and to provide the Committee with information on the whole of the aid given to refugees in each of the areas in which the High Commissioner's Programme was being carried out.
23. Most of the representatives who spoke on the item were of the opinion that the report was consistent with the recommendations made in the Committee at its previous sessions and met the needs of the authorities in their countries. Some representatives thought that the report might be a little more concise, but that it would be undesirable to change its structure now that the programmes were approaching completion. Other representatives considered that the report provided useful documentation where all the necessary information could easily be found and that it would be appropriate to maintain it in its present form.
24 . The High Commissioner pointed out that the progress report was intended to sum up the situation and to give the Committee an annual review of the work the Committee had entrusted to his Office, indicating what had been done and what still remained to be done. As the Committee had instructed the High Commissioner's Office to complete the Major Aid Programmes, the progress report should give a clear idea of the stage projects had reached so that the international community could make a final effort to ensure the completion of the programmes in the full knowledge of the facts.
25. On the proposal of the High commissioner, it was agreed that the report submitted to the eleventh session would be used as a basic document and that subsequent reports would be presented in the form of follow-up documents.
26. The criterion adopted for aid to "old" refugees was also discussed. One representative asked how far the High Commissioner's Office was bound to provide assistance to the "old" refugees. Another representative expressed the view that when "old" refugees became destitute, it was primarily the authorities of the country of residence which were responsible for assisting them. The representative of the High Commissioner explained that the Major Aid Programmes were designed to provide permanent solutions for the problems of non-settled refugees, or, to use the current terminology, of refugees who were unable to provide for their own needs and who were unable to provide for their own needs and who were inadequately housed. Refugees who had become destitute after 31 December 1960 could nevertheless become beneficiaries of the programmes, provided that the cost of assistance remained within the budgetary limits fixed for the programmes. The Committee also noted that the purpose of the assistance given to refugees was to enable them to achieve a level of living similar to that of the nationals of their country of residence.
27. Replying to questions on the very important matter of the closure of the last camps in Germany, the representative of the High Commissioner explained that their clearance depended on the rate at which accommodation was built; this could non, unfortunately, be made available to the refugees soon enough for all the camps to be cleared by the end of 1964.
28. During the consideration of the report country by country, the representative of Austria made a statement on the Australian parallel housing programme for refugees, the total cost of which is $15.5 million. Details of the programme are given in the summary record of the ninety-first meeting.
29. The Austrian representative announced that a ceremony would be held shortly at Linz upon the completion of the last UNHCR housing project in Austria, to which the heads of the diplomatic missions accredited to Vienna by the member countries of the Executive Committee would be invited.
30. During the discussion, other questions were asked about progress in various areas. These questions and the replies to them are reported in detail in the summary record of the ninety-first meeting.
Decisions of the Committee
31. The Executive Committee, having considered the progress report submitted by the High Commissioner in document A/AC.96/228:
(a) Took note with satisfaction of the progress achieved in bringing the Major Aid Programmes to a successful conclusion;
(b) Expressed the hope that every effort would continue to be made to ensure its completion;
(c) Agreed that future reports should take the form of supplementary information bringing the present report up to date.
REPORT ON THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE CURRENT 1963 PROGRAMME (agenda item 5)
32. The Executive Committee considered the report submitted by the High Commissioner in document A/AC.96/229 on the implementation of the current Programme, the financial target for which had been fixed at $1,400,000 and which dealt with the action taken by the High Commissioner's Office to settle new refugee problems as they occurred. In submitting the report, the High Commissioner's representative pointed out that almost all the total of $1,400,000 allocated to the current programme had been committed and actually spent in the course of the year.
33. He stated that the principal beneficiaries of the Programme in Europe and Latin America were refugees whose needs had not been previously known. As to new refugees in Europe, it had been possible to solve their problems to a large extent by resettling them in other countries. In Africa, progress had been made in the installation of refugees from Rwanda. Their state of health was now satisfactory. The March and April harvest had not been bad, and most of the refugees settled under the 1963 Programme were practically in a position to fend for themselves.
34. The members of the Committee felt satisfied with the implementation of the 1963 Programme. As regards assistance given to European refugees whose needs had not been previously known, a representative expressed the view that it would be preferable either to grant them assistance under the Major Aid Programmes or to leave that responsibility to the authorities in their country of residence.
35. During the discussions, the representative of Madagascar made a general statement in which he stressed the importance which his country attached to refugee problems from the humanitarian angle. A considerable number of refugees had been settled in Madagascar and his country would be ready to receive others, particularly technicians, on such terms as might be settled with the High Commissioner's Office.
36. Before dealing with the Latin American section of the report, the Deputy High Commissioner gave an account of his recent mission to Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Peru and Venezuela, details of which will be found in the summary record of the ninety-second meeting.
37. Retracing the history of assistance to refugees in Latin America, the Deputy High Commissioner recalled that the first wave of immigration of refugees to that area since the end of the Second World War had taken place at the beginning of the fifties, when the economic situation had been relatively good. Some 130,000 refugees had thus been able to emigrate, mainly from Europe to those countries under the auspices of the International Refugee Organization and ICEM, Ten years later the economic situation had changed. Moreover, the proportion of aged and physically handicapped refugees had grown considerably, whilst voluntary agencies had not sufficient resources available to give the refugees the necessary assistance. The World Refugee Year had brought into prominence the needs of refugees in Latin America, and since 1961 a sum of $50,000 had been assigned to them in UNHCR's programme. Later, provision for more considerable allocations had been made, particularly for legal assistance and aid to the handicapped.
38. The Deputy High Commissioner stressed that the situation, of course, varied from country to country. Thanks to its regional office at Bogota, to its correspondents in Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Venezuela, and to the goodwill of the authorities of the countries where the refugees were living, it had been possible to give assistance to the most necessitous among them. But more and more requests for help were coming in, particularly in Argentina, and the situation of the refugees was also very difficult in Brazil, which the Deputy high Commissioner intended to visit later. In view of that situation and of the large number of refugees, priority must be given to those most handicapped.
39. The High Commissioner added that the problem was a very considerable one which his Office could not solve alone. In virtue of the role of catalyser assigned to it, it could however act effectively in active co-operation with the Governments of the countries of residence and the voluntary agencies concerned.
40. The representatives of Colombia and Venezuela and the observer for Argentina stressed the great importance of the work of the High Commissioner's Office for the countries of Latin America. The representative of Colombia pointed out in that connexion that his Government would shortly submit to Parliament a bill proposing an increased contribution to the work of assistance to refugees. The representative of Venezuela stated that his Government would shortly be considering the possibility of making a financial contribution to the work of UNHCR.
41. In connexion with the examination of the section of the report dealing with new refugee groups in Africa, the regional representative of the High Commissioner's Office in Africa gave an eye-witness account of the situation of refugees from Rwanda. He explained that about half of them were Bahutu and the others Watutsi, mostly farmers. Three conditions were necessary for settling those refugees: firstly they should be welcome in the host countries - apart from some difficulties in the North Kivu province of the Congo, that had in fact been the case; secondly, the refugees should be ready to resume a normal life; thirdly, each family should have enough land to be able to meet its own needs, in the sense that each harvest should enable the refugees to feed themselves, to sow their land again and to sell the surplus in order to buy clothes and in general to improve their standard of life by introducing new crops offering a higher return. He added that very great efforts would still be required in order to assist the refugees to consolidate their present situation.
42. The representative of Belgium and a number of other representatives in the course of the session expressed their satisfaction at the work done to assist the refugees from Rwanda.
43. Referring to aid for Chinese refugees in Hong Kong and Macao and for refugees in India and Nepal, the representative of China recalled that his Government as well as the voluntary agencies in China were continuing to provide all the assistance in their power.
Decisions of the Committee
44. The Executive Committee, having considered the report on the implementation of the current 1963 Programme (including the Complementary Assistance Programme and other projects) submitted by the High Commissioner in document A/AC.96/229:
(a) Expressed its appreciation of the results achieved by the High Commissioner under the current Programme;
(b) Considered that the Programme, which was launched in 1963 as an experiment, had proved its value and that it constituted an appropriate basis for the High Commissioner's future work of assistance to refugees.
REPORT ON THE RESETTLEMENT OF REFUGEES (agenda item 6)
45. The Committee had before it the report on the resettlement of refugees (A/AC.96/230 and Add.1) which gave an account of the main developments in the field of resettlement during 1963.
46. Addressing the Committee, the Deputy Director of ICEM, Mr. J. B. McFadden, said that the trend in the activities of ICEM during the last six months had followed the pattern of the previous two years: a decline in the movement of national migrants, an increase in the movement of refugees and greater efforts to bring skilled migrants, both nationals and refugees, to countries in the process of development. For 1964, emigration had been planned for 34,000 refugees, at a cost of nearly $7,000,000. He pointed out that the present financial resources of ICEM still fell short of that amount. As emigration would in the future represent numerically the most important solution for European refugees, it was vital that ICEM receive the resources necessary to enable it to ensure the immediate onward movement of refugees. He emphasized the need for continued close co-operation between UNHCR, the United States Escapee Program (USEP), ICEM and the voluntary agencies, and assured the Committee that ICEM would continue to give the fullest attention to refugee problems.
47. The representative of the High Commissioner, introducing the report, said that the mechanism of international solidarity, which involved the participation and close co-operation of the governments and local authorities of the countries of asylum, of the Governments and people of the countries of immigration, USEP, ICEM, UNHCR, the voluntary agencies and numerous social workers, which had evolved over a period of many years, had now reached a stage where the effectiveness of resettlement of refugees through migration had reached a high degree of perfection. It had proved possible to find resettlement opportunities for the great majority of new asylum seekers, and progress had been made in finding solutions for severely handicapped refugees, including many Jensen cases. However, despite the liberal policy of many Governments, there still remained certain categories of severely handicapped refugees, such as those with penal records and mental disturbances, for whom it had so far been practically impossible to find a country of permanent settlement.
48. Members of the Committee expressed their satisfaction at the fact that the migration mechanism had made it possible for the problem of new arrivals to be dealt with rapidly and for substantial numbers of handicapped refugees to be admitted to immigration countries, thus alleviating the burden of countries of first asylum.
49. The representative of Australia suggested that UNHCR's partnership with ICEM might profitably be applied to new areas as regards UNHCR's co-operation with other organizations, for the benefit of refugees. He further suggested that UNHCR's contacts with community organizations and specialized institutes in various countries might be expanded with a view to increasing the resettlement opportunities for certain categories of seriously handicapped refugees.
50. The representative of Italy stated that the resettlement of refugees from Italy was the more important for his country since the influx of refugees into Italy continued.
51. The representative of Canada informed the Committee of his Government's continued willingness to admit refugees. Those already admitted, far from being a burden, were already contributing to the economic prosperity of Canada.
52. Several representatives expressed their satisfaction with the fact that, as indicated in the addendum to the report on resettlement, the first group of refugees from the Sinkiang Province had arrived in Hong Kong, thereby bringing the Far Eastern operation nearer to completion. They paid a tribute to the generosity of the Australian Government which had admitted and would continue to admit substantial numbers of European refugees from China.
53. The representative of Belgium announced that his Government had recently decided to accept 128 refugees from Morocco, including some handicapped cases, as well as 40 refugees from the United Arab Republic, who would be cared for by voluntary agencies in Belgium.
Decisions of the Committee
54. The Executive Committee, having considered the report presented by the High Commissioner on the resettlement of refugees (A/AC.96/230) and the additional information on the resettlement of refugees of European origin from the Far East (A/AC.96/230/Add.1), aware of the important role which resettlement continued to play as a solution to the problems of refugees:
(a) Recommended that every effort continue to be made to speed up the resettlement of European refugees from the Far East and that Governments be kept closely informed on the subject;
(b) Expressed the hope that all Governments would continue to follow a liberal attitude with regard to the selection and admission of refugees, and particularly the handicapped;
(c) Took note with appreciation of the report submitted by the High Commissioner and of the action he had taken in the field of resettlement.
SITUATION OF REFUGEES IN EUROPE, IN PARTICULAR IN COUNTRIES OF FIRST ASYLUM (agenda item 12)
55. In this connexion the Committee heard a statement by the representative of Italy as well as the reply by the High Commissioner, details of which may be found in documents A/AC.96/243 and A/AC.96/244, respectively.
56. In view of the death of the representative of Belgium, which occurred during the session, the Committee decided to shorten its discussions and to continue the consideration of the situation of refugees in Europe at its twelfth session.
III. 1964 Programme - new projects (agenda item 10)
PROJECTS UNDER CONSIDERATION
57. The Committee considered new projects submitted to it by the High commissioner within the framework of the 1964 Programme amounting to a total of $1,241,000, broken down as follows:
|(a) Settlement of 20000 refugees from Rwanda hereafter referred to as the "Armand Kuijpers" project (A/AC.96/235 and Add.1 and 2)||624,000|
|(b) Proposal for assistance to refugees from Rwanda in the Kivu Province of the Congo (A/AC.96/236)||198 000|
|(C) Proposal for assistance to refugees from Rwanda in Burundi (A/AC.96/240)||160 000|
|(d) Projects for assistance to Cuban refugees in Spain (A/AC.96/233)||159 000|
|(e) Projects for assistance to Chinese refugees in Macao (A/AC.96/237)...||100 000|
58. Furthermore, in response to a statement by the observer for Uganda, the High Commissioner in the course of the session submitted to the Committee the problem of other refugees in Uganda, for which an expenditure of approximately $500,000 would be required.
"ARMAND KUIJPERS" PROJECT
59. In presenting the proposals submitted by the High Commissioner in document A/AC.96/235 for the settlement of approximately 20,000 refugees from Rwanda in Burundi, Tanganyika and Uganda, the representative of the High Commissioner recalled that the allocation of $100,000 approved by the Committee at its second special session had enabled the Governments concerned to give the refugees immediate relief. The new programme was intended to assist the recently arrived 20,000 refugees in settling in agriculture through the same methods as those which had been applied in the case of the previous 130,000 refugees from Rwanda. While the host Governments were generously contributing land, it would still be necessary for the international community to provide substantial funds to ensure the settlement of the refugees.
60. Referring to his last visit to Africa, the representative of the High Commissioner informed the Committee that the refugees had indicated that they were now willing to return to their former homeland. With regard to the actual projects, Burundi did not have land available to settle more than the 25,000 refugees already in the country, and the Government had requested that resettlement opportunities be found for the newly arrived 10,000 refugees. The Government of Tanganyika had generously acceded to the High Commissioner's request to admit these 10,000 refugees, and thus large-scale resettlement through migration was also playing a role in Africa's refugee problems. As indicated in document A/AC.96/235/Add.2, the Lutheran World Federation would act as the High Commissioner's operational partner, and had already agreed to a substantial participation in terms of financial contributions and services.
61. The representative of the High Commissioner stated that the other major project before the Committee concerned the settlement of 7,000 new refugees in Uganda, who were being moved to new settlement areas with their cattle. Another 7,000 refugees were being moved from the border areas to other parts of the country by the Government of Uganda, pursuant to the conclusions of a recent report submitted to the Secretary-General of the United Nations by his representative. The burden for this additional move would fall on the Uganda Government.
62. The observer from Rwanda stated that his Government had made the necessary arrangements to receive those Rwandese refugees who wished to return to their country of origin. As for the other refugees, his Government would like to encourage them to go to work and lead a peaceful existence in the neighbouring countries which had so generously admitted them. He expressed appreciation for the asylum policy followed by the host Governments and for the demonstration of international solidarity through which the necessary assistance was being given to the refugees concerned.
63. The Chair welcomed the presence of the Hon. J. A. Nzunda, representing the Government of Tanganyika, and of His Excellency Mr. A. Nekyon, Minister of Planning and Community Development of Uganda and observer for that country, who both made a statement in respect of the assistance given to refugees in their countries, full details of which may be found in the summary record of the ninety-sixth meeting.
64. The representative of Tanganyika stated that, in a spirit of Pan-African unity, his Government wished to give asylum to the refugees from Rwanda so that they could settle down in Tanganyika and live there in peace. In rendering the Committee an account of the assistance give to these refugees, to enable them to settle in agriculture and become self-supporting, the representative stated that good progress was being made and he wished to pay tribute to the united States Government and voluntary agencies - in particular The League of Red Cross Societies - which, through their considerable contributions in cash, kind and services, were facilitating the settlement of the refugees. Expenditure from the Tanganyikan Government itself had totalled over £26,000, for the nine months up to the end of March, and was expected to reach £38,000 by the end of June 1964.
65. The representative declared that his Government had acceded to the High Commissioner's request to accept a further 10,000 refugees who had fled from Rwanda to Burundi in December 1963, thus acting in the interests of the country of origin of the refugees and of Burundi, which could not absorb them. His Government also considered that the settlement of the refugees would be to the advantage of the refugees themselves and of the local population of the country.
66. Referring to other categories of refugees on Tanganyika, the representative pointed out that the refugee students in his country were proving to be a heavy and increasing burden. Considerable educational facilities were given to them, and he hoped that this responsibility would, in the future, be shared by others.
67. The observer for Uganda explained that his country, which was of limited size and still at the agricultural stage, was dealing with some 48,000 refugees, including 36,000 from Rwanda and 12,000 from the Sudan. In accordance with its humanitarian principles, the Government of Uganda was anxious to give every assistance to the refugees who had sought asylum in his country. Since 1962, it had already spent £475,000 for assistance to them. There was also the problem of the thousands of cattle and goats which the refugees had brought with them, all of which had to be inoculated at considerable cost to the Uganda Government. In view of the unemployment and underemployment prevailing in Uganda, it would not be easy for the refugees to become permanently settled in this country where the main economic problem at present was the lack of capital and not of labour. He could not help feeling that repatriation might be the best solution.
68. In addition to the humanitarian problem of assistance to the refugees, there was the more fundamental problem of how the influx of refugees had arisen, and this problem, which could be regarded as falling outside the terms of reference of the Office of the High Commissioner, might be referred to the Secretary-General.
69. Most of the representatives who spoke in the ensuing debate paid a high tribute to the generous asylum policy followed by the host Governments, and to the considerable efforts they were making towards the settlement of refugees. They also emphasized the considerable ability and effectiveness with which some of these Governments had assumed responsibility for the work of assistance and expressed their confidence in the value of the "Armand Kuijpers" project submitted by the High Commissioner.
70. Importance was attached to the fact that the refugees were being moved inland in their country of asylum. One representative drew attention to the complexity of the refugees problems in Central Africa, and wondered if it would be possible for the refugees to become permanently settled outside their country of origin. One representative also emphasized the importance of the political, economic and social and financial problems arising from the arrival of large numbers of refugees in various countries of Africa. It was suggested by one of the representatives that there should be a link between immediate relief measures and the long-term solutions to the problem of the refugees, and that the assistance projects for the refugees should allow for a measure of flexibility to cover unforeseen circumstances.
71. In the course of the discussions, various questions were asked, and replies received from the representative of the High Commissioner in respect of the technical aspects of the "Armand Kuijpers" project, details of which may be found in the summary records of the ninety-fourth and ninety-sixth meetings.
72. The question was raised as to whether responsibility for the education of the refugees should not devolve on UNESCO rather than on the Office of the High Commissioner, and one representative suggested that the matter be raised at the next meeting of the Executive Council of UNESCO. The representative of the High Commissioner explained that, under UNESCO projects, experts were made available to Governments to deal with educational problems, but that in the case of the refugees what was required were primary and secondary school facilities.
73. With regard to the question of refugee students in Tanganyika, the representative of Sweden indicated that his country was about to start a scheme for assistance to African students, and that projects for the education of refugees in Tanganyika had been forwarded to his Government for consideration.
74. The High Commissioner stated that the generous asylum practice of the Governments of Tanganyika and Uganda was a source of satisfaction to his Office.
75. With reference to the unsolved problem of 12,000 other refugees in Uganda, the task of his Office, when confronted with such a problem was first to assist the country of asylum in its effort towards finding a satisfactory solution and, secondly, to encourage that country to follow the established pattern of generous asylum practice.
76. As for voluntary repatriation, which had been suggested as a solution, he was aware that the return of refugees to their own country constituted the best solution, as had been the case with the Algerian refugees, and he welcomed the statement made by the observer for Rwanda in this connexion. It appeared, however, that at the present time the majority of refugees from Rwanda wished to be settled in their present countries of residence.
Decisions of the Committee
77. The Executive Committee, having considered the "Armand Kuijpers" project for the settlement of approximately 20,000 refugees from Rwanda, presented by the High Commissioner in documents A/AC.96/235 and Add.1 and 2:
(a) Confirmed approval of the allocation of $56, 000 referred to in document A/AC.96/235/Add.1;
(b) Approved the "Armand Kuijpers" project for the settlement of approximately 20,000 refugees from Rwanda included in paragraphs 9 to 26 of document A/AC.96/235, and authorized the further new allocations required in an amount of $624,000 for the carrying out of these projects.
OTHER REFUGEES IN UGANDA
78. In connexion with the problem of 12,000 other refugees in Uganda raised by the observer for Uganda, the High Commissioner stated that funds of an order of magnitude of over $500,000 would be required in order to provide assistance to these refugees. In view of the urgency of the matter, he requested authority from the Committee to submit these projects to members of the Committee for a mail poll. It was essential, however, that arrangements be made for immediate relief before the projects could be worked out in detail. A sum of $100,000 would be required for that purpose, which could either be drawn from the Emergency Fund or allocated under the 1964 Programme.
79. The representatives who spoke agreed that an amount of $100,000 be immediately made available from the Emergency Fund for assistance to other refugees in Uganda. In addition, the United Stated representative expressed his Government's willingness to contribute food commodities for assistance to these refugees.
Decisions of the Committee
80. The Executive Committee authorised the High Commissioner:
(a) To expend an amount of up to $100,000 from the Emergency Fund for the purpose of assistance to other refugees in Uganda;
(b) in consultation with the observer for Uganda to draw up a programme for assistance to these refugees which would be submitted to members of the Committee for a mail poll prior to the twelfth session of the Committee, it being understood that this programme, in addition to the allocation of $100,000 mentioned above, might reach an amount of up to $500,000.
PROPOSALS FOR ASSISTANCE TO REFUGEES FROM RWANDA IN THE KIVU PROVINCE OF THE CONGO (LEOPOLDVILLE) AND IN BURUNDI
81. The Executive Committee considered proposals for assistance to refugees from Rwanda submitted by the High Commissioner and including the plans of operation prepared by the International Labour Office for zonal integration in the two countries concerned (A/AC.96/236 and A/AC.96/240).
82. In presenting these proposals, the representative of the High Commissioner explained that the aim of the plans of operation was to provide a basis for the integration of refugees from Rwanda within the local population amongst whom they were living in certain rural areas in the Kivu Province of the Congo and in Burundi. Under the proposed plan, it was intended to raise the standard of living by the expansion of agricultural and other activities and to provide refugees with education and training facilities and improved medical care. The local population and the refugees alike would benefit. The World Health Organization and the United Nations Technical Assistance Administration had approved the plans, and FAO had agreed on the projects in principle. The co-operating agencies would provide experts and equipment and other support within their respective fields of competence. It was proposed that UNHCR should make a one-time contribution from programme funds to cover the cost of experts and equipment and the operational expenditure required to launch the two projects.
83. The representative of the High Commissioner further stated that the cost of the proposals in respect of the Kivu project was estimated at $400,000 including $198,000 from UNHCR. If the over-all Integrated Rural Development project for the Congo, at present under preparation by the ILO at the request of the Government, did not come into effect before the completion of this project, the latter could be continued in its present form until the end of 1966 as far as the availability of experts was concerned, if, as expected, the necessary provisions were made in the 1965-1966 TAB programme. An additional amount of some $60,000 to $70,000 would be required to permit of the continuance of operational activities until the end of 1966.
84. The representative of the High Commissioner added that the Burundi project was different in that it was not proposed that it should be absorbed into a national or large-scale project. The project included in particular the draining of marshes with a view to creating fertile farmlands and at the same time increased employment opportunities for refugees. The main purpose of the project was to secure the optimum use of available land, to diversity economic activities of the local communities and to provide basic training facilities and social services.
85. It was intended that the High Commissioner's Office should make its contributions through the Governments of the Congo (Leopoldville) and Burundi, in the form of trust funds and review the expenses and commitments as necessary.
86. The representative of the ILO made a statement, the details of which may be found in the summary record of the ninety-seventh meeting (see A/AC.96/247). He emphasized the three following factors which would be essential during the operational stages: political stability in the areas concerned; appropriate provision of expert services and, as regards the Kivu project, appropriate financial and administrative arrangements in connexion with the proposed rural development programme in the Congo. He informed the Committee that technical assistance funds were already available to cover the cost of experts until the end of 1966 in Burundi and programming for the same period was in hand as far as Kivu was concerned. Among the various activities that would be promoted under the plan, he drew attention to the question of training, and informed the Committee in that connexion that a workers' union of the Federal Republic of Germany intended to finance the establishment in the Congo of several training centres for workers in the building industry, while an associated German housing organization would make a financial contribution towards the construction of housing blocks for land settlement projects. The ILO had been asked to organize and supervise the training centres and consultations were under way with a view to placing some of those facilities at the disposal of the Kivu project.
87. He emphasized that plans of operation for the Kivu and Burundi projects had been established at the request of the two Governments concerned. On behalf of the Director-General of the ILO he pledged his organization's continued co-operation in the achievement of the objective of these two projects.
88. Form a statement made by the representative of FAO at the Committee's ninety-fourth meeting (see A/AC.96/242), the Committee noted that that organization was also interested in participating in the projects. In his statement the representative of FAO outlined some of the basic conditions which would have to be met in order to make the projects successful as far as food and agriculture were concerned.
89. Members of the Committee who spoke on the subject agreed on the necessity to consolidate the situation of the refugees who were settling in the two areas concerned. They also felt that development aid should benefit the refugees and the indigenous population alike.
90. Several members asked questions relating to the technical soundness of the two plans of operation; the competence of the High Commissioner to engage in operations having to some extent the character of development aid, the co-ordination of responsibility between the High Commissioner and the other participating United Nations agencies, the need to ensure wherever possible that financial responsibility be assigned to the agency or agencies which had undertaken operational responsibilities in respect of all or a part of the projects concerned and the necessity for obtaining the full co-operation of the host Government. These questions and the answers given are to be found in the summary records of the ninety-sixth and ninety-seventh meetings.
91. The representative of Sweden stated that the Swedish delegation had for many years advocated the approach which was now being adopted by the High Commissioner and would support any projects such as those which he had submitted for the integration of refugees from Rwanda. It was clear that in certain areas refugees could only be integrated with the local population through comprehensive development programmes. The High Commissioner's new approach would entail a closer co-ordination of his activities with the specialized agencies and regional organizations such as the Organization of African Unity. He felt that a procedure should be worked out to enable the High Commissioner to undertake such programmes in emergencies and he thought that the United Nations Administrative committee on Co-ordination might be the right organ for this purpose.
92. The representative of Belgium gave his delegation's warm support to the projects before the Committee and to the policy adopted by the High Commissioner in respect of the integration of refugees in Africa. As regards the technical aspects of these projects, he thought that the Office of the High Commissioner could no doubt benefit from the expert advice of the specialized agencies concerned. Furthermore, the financial participation required by the High Commissioner was limited, considering the large number of refugees involved.
Decisions of the Committee
93. The Committee:
(a) Approved the High Commissioner's proposals in connexion with the Preliminary Programme (1964-1965) of Integrated Rural Development in the Kivu Province of the Republic of the Congo (Leopoldville), contained in document A/AC.96/236, and in connexion with the Preliminary Plan of Operations for an Integration and Development Project in Burundi (1964-1966), contained in document A/AC.96/240, as being urgently necessary for the long-term integration of the refugees in question in the societies of their country of asylum;
(b) Authorized the High Commissioner, upon the understanding that these were solely emergency measures and implied no widening of the High Commissioner's terms of reference:
(i) To assist the Government of the Republic of the Congo by making, as part of his 1964 Programme, a contribution of $120,000 towards the financing of the first project mentioned in paragraph (a) above;
(ii) To assist the Government of the kingdom of Burundi by making a contribution towards the financing of the second project mentioned in paragraph (a) above, in respect of the budget year 1964, from the non-programme funds generously contributed for expenditure in the interests of refugees in Burundi by the Inter-Church Aid and Refugee Service of British Council of Churches;
(c) Took note with satisfaction of the assurances given by the representatives of the ILO and FAO that the projects mentioned in document A/AC.96/236 and A/AC.96/240 would be subjected to final technical scrutiny before the work was started and thereafter would be reviewed periodically as appropriate, and agreed that participation in these or similar projects should not involve UNHCR in operational responsibility in the wider field of technical assistance and development;
(d) Invited the High Commissioner to prepare, after consultation as appropriate with the Secretary-General and the participating specialized agencies, a paper for eventual consideration by the ACC containing proposals for procedures to be followed in future when Governments request, at sort notice, urgent action in the field of economic and social development affecting refugees which involves the technical, managerial and financial participation of the United Nations and its specialized agencies, particular attention being paid to the principle that financial responsibility should wherever possible be assigned to the agency or agencies which have under taken operational responsibilities in respect of all or a part of the projects concerned.
PROJECTS FOR CUBAN REFUGEES IN SPAIN
94. The Committee considered document A/AC.96/233 in which the High Commissioner submitted projects in an amount of $159,000 for assistance to Cuban refugees. These projects were fully supported by members of the Committee in the course of the session.
Decision of the Committee
95. The Executive Committee approved the projects submitted by the High Commissioner for assistance to Cuban refugees in Spain in an amount of $159,000.
PROJECTS FOR ASSISTANCE TO CHINESE REFUGEES IN MACAO
96. The Committee considered the projects submitted by the High Commissioner in document A/AC.96/237 for assistance to Chinese refugees in Macao.
97. The Representative of China expressed his satisfaction with these projects, which reflected the spirit of international solidarity so necessary to the solution of refugees problems. He recalled that 36,000 out of the 75,000 Chinese refugees in Macao were in a critical situation and, although the local authorities had been co-operating for years with voluntary agencies with a view to assisting these refugees, a further concerted effort was essential.
98. The observer for Portugal stated that the High Commissioner's initiative was most welcome to his Government and would no doubt stimulate further action for the benefit of these refugees. In the course of the session, members of the Committee fully supported these projects.
Decision of the Committee
99. The Executive Committee approved the projects submitted to it by the High Commissioner in document A/AC.96/237 in respect of assistance to Chinese refugees in Macao, and approved the proposed allocation of $100,000.
ASSISTANCE TO REFUGEES IN NEPAL
100. The Executive Committee noted from a statement by the High Commissioner the action which had been taken in respect of refugees in Nepal, as well a the further measured which the High Commissioner had under consideration.
FINANCING OF THE NEW PROJECTS SUBMITTED TO THE COMMITTEE
101. The Committee considered a proposal put forward by the High Commissioner to the effect that whilst approving the new projects in their totality, amounting to a total of $1,241,000, to which might have to be added an estimated amount of $500,000 for new refugees in Uganda, the Committee might wish to authorize him to fund part of some of the projects in 1965 to the extent that the expenditure involved would permit of such an arrangement.
102. In considering this proposal, the Committee noted that if accepted it would result in the target for the 1964 Programme being raised from $2.6 million to an order of magnitude of $3.1 million, leaving an amount estimated at $540,000 to be included in the 1965 Programme, which would be submitted as a whole to the Committee at its twelfth session.
Decisions of the Committee
103. Having considered the proposals put forward by the High Commissioner in respect of the financing of new projects submitted within the framework of the 1964 Programme, the Executive Committee:
(a) Took note of the High Commissioner's statement according to which the financial target for the 1964 Programme might have to be raised to $3,100,000 and requested the High Commissioner to report fully on this matter at the Committee's twelfth session;
(b) Decided to authorize the High Commissioner to apportion between the 1964 and 1965 Programme an amount of $1,241,000 representing the value of new projects and allocations submitted to the Committee as follows:
|Projects||Allocations within the 1964 Programme||Allocations within the 1965 Programme||Total value of allocations|
|"Armand Kuijpers" project for new refugees from Rwanda (A/AC.96/235)-$780,000 minus $156,000 approved prior to eleventh session i.e. $624,000||474,000||150,000||624,000|
|Assistance to Rwandese refugees in the Kivu province of the Congo (A/AC.96/236)||120,000||78,000||198,000|
|Assistance to Rwandese refugees in Burundi (A/AC.96/240)||160,000||160,000|
|Cuban refugees in Spain (A/AC.96/233)||159,000||159,000|
|Chinese refugees in Macao (A/AC.96/237)||100,000||100,000|
(c) Decided that the envisaged projects for assistance to other refugees in Uganda which will be submitted for a mail poll, be apportioned to the 1964 and 1965 Programmes in a ratio of 70 and 30 per cent respectively.
IV. Administrative and financial questions
NOTE ON THE USE OF THE EMERGENCY FUND (agenda item 9)
104. The Committee examined the note on the use of the Emergency Fund submitted by the High Commissioner (A/AC.96/231) in accordance with the existing directives.
Decision of the Committee
105. The Committee approved the note on the use of the Emergency Fund (A/AC.96/231).
PROVISIONAL FINANCIAL STATEMENTS FOR 1963 (agenda item 7)
106. In introducing the provisional financial statements for 1963 (A/AC.96/239), the High Commissioner's representative drew attention to the changes made in the presentation of financial statements. He pointed out, in addition, that most of the loans made to refugee students had been reviewed during 1963 and that, in line with the opinions recently expressed on the subject in the Executive Committee, those loans which were not expected to be repaid had been written off.
107. During the debate, several representatives drew attention to the large amount of commitments entered into in previous financial periods which remained unliquidated as at 31 December 1963. They emphasized the desirability of clearly identifying the different accounts which constituted the total amount in question.
108. The High Commissioner's representative explained that, in accordance with the data given in paragraph 28 of the progress report on Major Aid Programmes (A/AC.96/228), a substantial part of the commitments entered into during previous financial periods would be liquidated in the course of 1964 and 1965, and that the Indemnification Fund would be virtually liquidated during the current financial period. He added that the High Commissioner's Office had done its utmost to complete the Programmes of the previous years. However, some projects, particularly those involving housing construction, required longer periods for completion. In accordance with the Financial Rules for Voluntary Funds, aid programmes could not be implemented before the necessary funds became available. In the specific case of housing projects, payments were, of course, made as the construction work went forward. With regard to the current Programme, the time required would probably be shorter, since that Programme included a smaller proportion of projects for housing construction.
Decision of the Committee
109. The Executive Committee took note of the provisional financial statements for 1963 submitted by the High Commissioner in document A/AC.96/239 and expressed its appreciation of the improvement which had been made in the manner of presentation.
AMENDMENTS TO THE FINANCIAL RULES FOR VOLUNTARY FUNDS (agenda item 8)
110. The Committee considered the amendments to the Financial Rules for Voluntary Funds submitted to it by the High Commissioner (A/AC.96/226) as well as the subsequent amendments proposed by the Advisory Committee on Administrative and Budgetary Questions (A/AC.96/227/Add.1).
111. In introducing the amendments to the Financial Rules for Voluntary Funds, the representative of the High Commissioner explained that their object was to enable the financial statements to be presented as clearly and simply as possible, taking into account the new procedures resulting from the development of existing programmes and from the adoption of new programmes. The Advisory Committee on Administrative and Budgetary Questions had already adopted the revised Rules and, in accordance with the provisions of article XIII, they would be promulgated by the High Commissioner after their adoption by the executive Committee.
112. A discussion took place on whether the amendment proposed to article VIII, paragraph 7.3, did not deprive the Executive Committee of its authority with regard to the determination of priorities between the various programmes. The High Commissioner's representative stated that such was not the case and that the Committee retained the power to settle priorities whenever it wished to do so.
Decision of the Committee
113. The Executive Committee approved the amendments to the Financial Rules for Voluntary Funds.
STATUS OF CONTRIBUTIONS (agenda item 14)
114. The Committee studied the reports on the status of contributions to UNHCR's Programmes for 1963 and 1964, and also the information note on the Netherlands campaign for funds and the sale of the long-playing record "All Star Festival". In introducing these reports, the High Commissioner's representative said that they were still $333,000 short of the financial target for the 1963 Programme, and that it was to be hoped that Governments which proposed to make special contributions would announce them in the near future. In that connexion, he paid tribute to the important part played by the Council of Europe and to the spectacular results of the campaign for funds held in the Netherlands in October 1963.
115. A number of representatives expressed their satisfaction at the progress achieved by the High Commissioner in approaching the financial target for the 1963 Programme. As regards governmental contributions, one speaker pointed out that a third of the States Members of the United Nations participated financially in UNHCR's work, and that it was desirable that a larger number of countries should contribute.
116. The representative of the Holy See announced in the course of the debate that the Holy See had decided to make a special contribution of $10,000 to the 1065 Programme for refugees from Rwanda. That contribution would be in addition to its ordinary contribution of $1,000 to that Programme, and to its contribution of $1,000 for aid to refugees from Palestine.
117. The United Kingdom representative said that his Government had decided, subject to parliamentary approval, to contribute $224, 000 to the 1964 Programme.
118. The representative of Iran announced that his Government had decided to contribute $2,000 to the 1964 Programme.
119. The Committee was also informed by the observer for Portugal that his Government would contribute an additional sum of $1,000 to the 1964 Programme.
120. During the session, the High Commissioner informed the Committee that it appeared that the necessary steps had been taken by the Argentine authorities to contribute $36,000 to the 1964 Programme.
121. The Belgian representative indicated that the authorities in Belgium were considering the possibility of contributing a substantial sum to the work of assistance for refugees in Africa.
122. In response to recognition given by the representatives of Nigeria and Tanganyika to the gifts of food by the Government of the United States, the United States representative stated that his Government would be prepared to continue to make food commodities available for the various groups of refugees.
123. The Committee was also informed by the Chinese representative that a non-governmental organization, the Free China Relief Organization, would contribute $10,000 to the new projects for Chinese refugees in Macao. Lastly, it was informed of the fund-raising campaign that was contemplated by the Norwegian Refugee Council.
124. Some representatives urged the desirability of standardizing as far as possible the financial documents submitted to the Committee and of arranging for the committee to be able to ascertain at any moment the status of the financial resources available. It would thus be able, at its next session, to make any new plans that might be necessary for the remainder of 1964.
125. In reply to questions raised during the debate, the High Commissioner's representative said that the amount of non-governmental contributions for 1963, including those which had been received for projects outside the programme, amounted to approximately $2.5 million, as compared with $1,263,000 for 1962. At the Committee's twelfth session, the High Commissioner's Office would be in a position to supply more detailed projects on the state of resources. On the basis of the contributions announced during the session, and of a further contribution of $140,000 promised by the Oxford Committee for Famine Relief, the contributions to the 1964 Programme amounted to $2,750,000.
Decisions of the Committee,
126. The Executive Committee:
(a) Took note with appreciation of the action taken by the High Commissioner with a view to reaching the target for the 1963 Programme;
(b) Paid tribute to the Governments, organizations and peoples who had generously contributed to that achievement;
(c) Took note of the report submitted by the High Commissioner on the status of contributions to the 1964 Programme;
(d) Expressed its appreciation for the additional contributions announced during the session;
(e) Expressed the hope that further contributions would be forthcoming from Governments and from non-governmental sources, in order to enable the High Commissioner to finance all the projects included in his 1963 and 1964 Programme.
V. Co-operation between the Office of the High Commissioner for Refugees and other inter-governmental organizations (agenda item 11)
127. In connexion with the examination of the note submitted by the High Commissioner concerning co-operation between the Office of the High Commissioner for Refugees and other organizations (A/AC.96/INF/23), the Executive Committee received a special delegation of the Council of Europe, consisting of the Chairman in Office of the Committee of Ministers' Deputies, the Special Representative for National Refugees and Surplus Population and the Chairman and Rapporteur of the Committee on Population and Refugees.
128. The High Commissioner said that the Council of Europe, like the Inter-governmental Committee for European Migration, constituted a vital link in the mechanism of international solidarity which was the only means of achieving a rapid solution of the problem of refugees. Over the last ten years, numerous efforts had been made by the various organs of the Council to support the work of assistance to refugees. The Council of Europe, which was taking such a keen interest in the completion of major aid programmes, also deserved credit for having given the first impetus in 1955 to the Programme of the United Nations Refugee Fund.
129. Mr. Pierre Schneiter, Special Representative for National Refugees and Surplus Population, gave the Committee a summary of the action undertaken by the Council of Europe to help national refugees, of whom there were over 12 million in the Federal Republic of Germany. The problem of these refugees had been solved to a large extent owing to the efforts of their countries of residence, in conjunction with the help of the Council of Europe which, in a spirit of international solidarity, had set up the Resettlement Fund. That Fund had enabled loans amounting to over $30 million to be granted for the construction of housing, the setting up of training centres and other forms of assistance to the settlement of national refugees. In addition to these activities of its own, the council had unfailingly supported the work of the Office of the High Commissioner for Refugees, and while its sphere of action was, by definition, limited to Europe, the council would always be ready to support the High Commissioner in the accomplishment of his humanitarian task.
130. Mr. Ernst Paul, Chairman of the Committee on Population and refugees, described the support which the Consultative assembly and the Committee on Population had been able to give to the work of assistance to refugees for many years. That support took the form particularly of resolutions aimed at facilitating the work of the High Commissioner's Office, both in the field of international protection and in that of material assistance. For example, the Consultative Assembly had taken various steps to awaken the interest of its members in the World Refugee Year. More recently, it had adopted a number of recommendations and resolutions aimed at encouraging the countries members of the Council of Europe to increase their contributions to the UNHCR's 1963 Programme so as to enable the High Commissioner to bring to a successful conclusion the major aid projects for "old" European refugees. Among the various resolutions and recommendations concerning the legal status of refugees, Mr. Paul drew attention in particular to the recommendation adopted by the Assembly in 1961, the aim of which was to improve the status of refugees to the greatest possible extent within the framework of European integration.
131. During the debate, the representatives of various countries represented on the Committee expressed satisfaction at the fruitful co-operation existing between the High Commissioner's Office and other intergovernmental organizations, including in particular the Council of Europe. They also expressed their warm appreciation of the contribution the Council was making to the solution of the problems of national refugees, and of its unstinting support for the High Commissioner's work.
132. The Chairman thanked the Council of Europe for its constant devotion to the cause of refugees, and stressed the spirit of sincere co-operation which governed the relations between the High Commissioner's Office and the Council.
133. In conclusion, the Chairman in Office of the Council of Europe Committee of Ministers' Deputies expressed the hope that the fruitful co-operation which had been established between the two organizations would be further developed.
134. In the course of the session, and particularly in connexion with the consideration of new projects for refugees in Africa the members of the Committee stressed the importance they High Commissioner's Office and the specialized agencies and other organs of the United Nations, including TAA, UNICEF, the ILO, WHO, FAO and UNESCO. The Committee heard with great interest the statements of the FAO and ILO representatives concerning the integration of refugees in Africa.
Decision of the Committee
135. The Executive Committee, having considered the note submitted by the High Commissioner in respect of co-operation between his Office and other intergovernmental organizations, and having heard the statements made by representatives of the organs of the Council of Europe in respect of the Council's activities in the field of aid to refugees:
(a) Reaffirmed the importance of international co-operation for the benefit of refugees;
(b) Expressed its appreciation for the close relations which have been established between the High Commissioner's Office and other intergovernmental organizations which can contribute to the solution of the problems of refugees;
(c) Paid a high tribute to the Council of Europe for its participation in the humanitarian task of international assistance to refugees and for the unfailing support it is giving to the Office of the High Commissioner;
(d) Expressed the hope that co-operation between the Office of the High Commissioner and other organizations will be continued and, where necessary and possible, further extended in other geographical areas with a view to the rapid solution of the problems of refugees.
VI. Other questions (agenda item 16)
TWELFTH SESSION OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE
136. The representative of Italy, on behalf of his Government, invited the Executive Committee to hold its twelfth session in Rome. The High Commissioner informed the Committee that the Director-General of FAO had kindly agreed to place a conference room and technical services at the disposal of the Executive Committee and that the session could be held during the last week of October.
Decision of the Committee
137. The Committee accepted the proposal of the Italian delegation and expressed its warm appreciation.
AGENDA OF THE TWELFTH SESSION Decision of the Committee
138. The Committee decided to include in the agenda of its twelfth session items 12, 13 and 15 which it had been unable to consider or to complete in the course of its present session.
ANNEX Opening statement by the High Commissioner
Of the various questions which the Committee will be called upon to consider at its present session, there are three which I should like to single out for attention because of the special importance which I attach to them. They are: the progress made with earlier programmes, on which my Office has duly reported; supplementary aid projects which we have been obliged to propose to the Committee for inclusion in the 1964 Programme in order to meet particularly urgent needs; finally, the contribution which certain organizations - such as the Council of Europe - may be called upon to make and the importance which we attach to their co-operation.
You will have seen that the periodic report on the implementation of the aid programme has for the first time been divided into two separate documents, one dealing with the last major aid projects on behalf of those whom we usually describe as the "old" refugees, and the other dealing with the current programme for 1963. This division has not been made solely in the interests of clarity; it is rather a reflection of the fact that we are now effectively within reach of the target that we set ourselves in 1961 when, in accordance with the Committee's wishes and with the policy which it established, it was decided to make a final effort to complete the work done since 1955 on behalf of the "old refugees. As a result of the World Refugee Year, among other factors, the problems which my predecessors had tackled with so much energy were reduced to dimensions which suggested that a final solution was now in sight. This gave us the idea of defining the scope of the task still to be done, so that it could be clearly distinguished from the current work of the High Commissioner's Office and earmarked for decisive action.
This action has, on the whole, produced the results anticipated. The whole of the necessary financial support, estimated at $6.8 million ($5.4 million for the last major air programmes and $1.4 million for the first current programme), can now be regarded as virtually assured. It will be completely assured when we receive the last of the large special contributions which are still outstanding and which - as I have every reason to believe - will be forthcoming. The implementation of this final programme on behalf of the "old" refugees can thus go ahead in accordance with the established plans. The periodic reports which we shall continue to submit until the programme has been completed will enable the Committee to supervise its implementation right to the very end.
As the specific task which the High Commissioner's Office inherited from past years is now well on the way to completion, the Office will in future be able to concentrate its attention more and more exclusively on current problems and to try to solve each one of them as it arises, on the principle that prompt action will prevent them from increasing in scope or gravity. The report on the implementation of the current programme for 1963 will give the Committee some idea of the way in which we have been approaching this day-to-day task. Any comments or discussions on the report will be particularly useful to us, as they will help us to determine the lines along which the work of the High Commissioner's Office should develop both now and in the future.
I should remind you that the objectives of the current programme are not - and cannot be - anything other than limited, as are the resources at its disposal. The current programme is not the sole and major source of assistance; it rather provides support, guidance and stimulus for all the measures which must be taken to meet the needs of refugees and solve the problems which their presence in any given country may cause. But, however modest it may be, the current programme is still the mainspring of the machinery of international solidarity, and its essential function is to keep this machinery constantly in working order.
In this context, it is clear that the report before the Committee provides only a very incomplete picture of the direct or indirect effects of the programme. To give an accurate picture of the functioning of this machinery of international solidarity on behalf of refugees, it would be necessary to list all the measures taken and all the work done outside the programme itself both by the Governments of countries of asylum and by all the public and private organizations which participate in this great humanitarian endeavour.
If you will allow me, I should like just to give a few examples of the part which the current aid programme is still playing in various branches of the work of my office.
In Europe, first of all, international co-operation on behalf of refugees is now assuming an increasingly practical form. Most of the new refugees who receive asylum in Europe are able to move on to the traditional countries of immigration without undue delay, if they cannot or do not wish to settle in the country of asylum. This essential balance between a policy of asylum and a policy of immigration, reinforced by practical measures to facilitate the selection and reasonably early departure of refugees wishing to emigrate, is one of the basic features of the work done on behalf of refugees. In countries such as Austria and Italy, for instance, the emigration machinery is now functioning satisfactorily, with ICEM naturally playing a major role and with each of the partners assuming very adequately the responsibilities they are normally required to undertake.
Another essential element in the machinery of solidarity to which I referred a moment ago is the aid given for the resettlement of handicapped refugees or particularly difficult cases and the aid occasionally given for the local integration of certain refugees. This kind of assistance encourages Governments to assimilate refugees more fully to the nationals of their respective countries for the purpose of the application of social legislation, and on some occasions it enables them to make a special effort on behalf of refugees which would have been impossible without external assistance, no matter how modest. This, then, is the significance and scope of our programme in Europe, which, in spite of the relatively small allocations it receives, is still as important as ever.
In Latin America, too, where the Deputy High Commissioner was recently given a very encouraging reception, we hope that the stimulus provided by the current aid programme will result in a gradual strengthening of the machinery of international solidarity, and thus make it possible to improve the lot of needy refugees. There are many refugees who have been compelled by old age or illness to give up work and no longer have an income sufficient for a normal life. Some of them, it is true, are receiving help under projects organized for their benefit in the earlier programmes and particularly in the 1963 Programme; it must, however, be recognized that these projects, like those included in earlier programmes, fall far short of meeting all requirements; and the requirements themselves are difficult to estimate with accuracy. It is to be hoped therefore that, starting with the current programme, it will be possible to find a suitable basis for more extensive co-operation with our usual partners, the Governments and the voluntary agencies. To a very great degree, it is only in so far as they are willing and able to provide the necessary basis for this kind of co-operation that the High Commissioner's Office can take effective action to help them in solving the undoubtedly difficult and often distressing problems which confront them.
In the other parts of the world, and particularly in Africa, the results obtained are, I think, no less impressive as regards the effectiveness, the essentially practical and realistic character, and the catalytic effect of the current aid programme. If we take, for example, the refugees form Rwanda who are still our major concern, we find that great progress has been made in spite of the relatively small sums allocated under the programme. It will soon be possible to discontinue the distribution of food-stuffs to all refugees whom we have been trying to settle in their country of asylum. The main objective - which is to enable these refugees to provide for themselves as soon as possible - is now well on the way towards being achieved, the assistance provided by the High Commissioner's Office having had a snowball effect in inducing the various Governments and organizations concerned to provide further aid on a much larger scale; in short, because this assistance set in motion the machinery of international solidarity and provided it with an opportunity and a setting in which it could do useful work. Another equally encouraging fact is that, as hope has been born again in the hearts of tens of thousands of men and women who have been uprooted from their homes and have now regained a sense of their own responsibilities, the Governments of the countries of asylum have also recognized the value of these additional human resources. The attitude adopted by Tanganyika, for instance, and by other countries of asylum shows that Governments realize that these refugees, so far from being a long-term burden, are rather a valuable asset for the future economic and social development of their countries.
The report on the implementation of the current programme for 1963 also stresses another significant aspect of the part played by the current aid programme, namely, the size of the contributions which it has stimulated other bodies to make "outside the programme"-contributions, that is, earmarked for financing projects that are not included in the basic programme but represent a valuable supplement and reinforcement to it. One example is the case of the Chinese refugees in Hong Kong and Macao, for whom the High Commissioner's Office received the sum of $475,000 in 1963. This sum was immediately transmitted to the competent authorities for financing the various projects which are listed in paragraphs 140 and 141 of document A/AC.96/229.
I should like to conclude these few remarks on the current programme for 1963 by making one observation which is obviously rather of a technical nature - since it refers to the financing of the programme - but which seems to me nevertheless to illustrate the very essence of the programme. It is interesting to note that, contrary to the practice usually adopted with the former aid programmes on behalf of European refugees, the commitment of funds has nearly always been followed by immediate action. This also help to demonstrate the special character of the new programme.
These are the lessons which, in my view, may be drawn from past experience. But the Committee will certainly wish me to deal, without further delay, with the second point to which, as I said at the beginning of this statement, these preliminary remarks relate. The subject is indeed an important one, since it concerns the supplementary projects submitted to the Committee for the new groups of refugees.
I shall not describe each of these projects in detail, since we shall have occasion to revert to them, but I should like to give the Committee some general information which, I hope, will help it understand the circumstances which led us to submit these various projects to it in a somewhat unsystematic manner.
I should first like to emphasize one fact of which the Committee is obviously aware and which has inevitably affected the work of the High Commissioner's Office, namely, the growing number and diversity of the tasks assigned to the Office. This is on of the most characteristic features of the present situation and one to which the Office had to adapt itself as soon as events compelled it to act in an area far from its customary theatre of operation. But there are other new features. Never before has the Office had to deal with situations as fluid as those now confronting it, particularly in Africa. It must therefore be ready to review its activities continually, in order to adapt them to new needs. Another consequence of this situation is that valid forecasts cannot now be made for at least a year ahead, as was generally the case in Europe. The only possible approach, therefore, is to try to determine needs by appraising the probable outcome of a given situation. This is not easy to do, since our desire for economy is coupled with a desire to remain realistic. The first of our current programmes, estimated to cost $1.4 million, ran concurrently with the last major programme for the "old" European refugees, for which $5.4 million has been requested. I do not think that I shall lay myself open to criticism by the Committee if I say that the resulting total of $6.8 million probably represented, in the prevailing circumstances, the maximum amount which I could reasonably hope would be contributed. Despite these circumstances, the allocation of $1.4 million has, on the whole, been sufficient to meet the needs of this period in which our current assistance programme was getting under way.
On the other hand, new problems have arisen during 1946 and have presented us with important and unforeseeable tasks, which, of course, have financial implications. Some additional effort has also proved necessary to consolidate the results of last year's work. With your permission, I should like to review very rapidly the various projects which we have had to put in hand in order to meet needs which were either quite new or virtually unpredictable, having regard to the context in which they arose. These projects concern, firstly, 20,000 new refugees who left Rwanda following the tragic events of December 1963 and for whose resettlement projects in the total amount of $780,000 - $156,000 of which has already been authorized by the Committee - have been found necessary. Secondly, Cuban refugees, joining the 11,000 Cubans who had already found asylum in Spain, continued to arrive throughout last year at a rate exceeding that of emigration to other countries. A project in the amount of $159,000 has therefore had to be drawn up for assistance to the most destitute of these refugees who are compelled to remain in Spain. The Committee will also remember the information I have given it on various occasions on the distressing in Macao are living, despite the efforts of the local authorities. After a thorough study made on the spot, four projects have been prepared to facilitate the integration of a number of these refugees; the cost of these projects in $259,000 less $64,000 obtained form special contributions already received and from extra-budgetary funds. Lastly, as indicated in document A/AC.96/241 negotiations are in progress with a view to finding a suitable basis of operations for a much needed programme of assistance to the Tibetan refugees in Nepal. If as I hope, a practical arrangement can be worked out for a concrete, limited and progressive programme, we shall, in the near future, be submitting to the Committee proposals for additional expenditure, the amount of which, in the circumstances, is bound to be relatively low.
These are certainly - and the Committee will, I think agree - real and pressing needs which the High Commissioner's Office could not disregard without failing in its task.
Lastly, two projects should be added to this list; they are intended to complete the settlement in Kivu and Burundi of some 40,000 refugees from Rwanda who have been assisted under previous projects. Although these refugees are, by and large, already self-supporting, it has been found that their settlement on the land placed at their disposal will remain extremely precarious unless some steps are taken to better their lot. These refugees, who have been uprooted form their environment, will no lose their fear of the future or become truly settled, unless they feel protected against disastrous and immediate consequences of, say, a bad harvest and unless they have access to a minimum of the services, particularly educational services, to which they were accustomed in their own country. But such assistance could, of course, not be provided for the refugees alone without the risk of rousing resentment among the local population. The only possible solution and the one most consistent with the ultimate purposes of UNHCR - which would like to see the refugees fully integrated in the community receiving them and living in complete harmony with it - was, therefore, to consult the Governments and the competent authorities concerned regarding the possibility of organizing a programme from which the refugees would benefit on the same terms as the local population. This is precisely the purpose of the two projects which are now before the Committee and which have been prepared in close collaboration with the ILO. The latter organization will be responsible for their execution, with financial support and the participation of experts from the United Nations Technical Assistance Board, FAO, WHO, UNESCO and UNICEF. The financial participation of the High Commissioner's Office in these two projects amounts to $198,000 for Kivu and $160,000 for Burundi.
The few facts I have given, I think, made it sufficiently clear that the projects in question in no way affect the basic philosophy underlying the current assistance programme. Far from meeting all needs in itself as will be readily seen, it remains a stimulant, and adjuvant, a catalyst and co-ordinating element, in the absence of which international co-operation on behalf of refugees would often have no opportunity of come into play. The prudent, pragmatic and, I think, constructive approach which we have adopted towards these new problems in past years, therefore, is still, more than ever, our guiding principle.
The total cost of the various projects which I have briefly outlined is $1.2 million. When added to the total of previously approved projects, it raises the over-all financial target for the present year to about $3.1 million, as compared with the original estimate of $2.6 million. This increase does, of course, raise a financial problem. If, however, Governments can, by their normal contributions, finance the 1964 Programme to the extent of last year's estimate of $2.6 million, I hope that it will be possible to solve the problem. For this purpose, I hope to be able to draw on special contributions from certain Governments which are more directly concerned and from some other sources which may be available. I might add that my first tentative enquiries already seem to justify a degree of optimism. Since I shall report to the Committee on the results of my efforts in due course, I would suggest that it approve the new projects submitted which, I repeat, correspond, in my view, to very real and imperative needs that the High Commissioner's Office cannot disregard.
In conclusion, I should like to say a few words on our increasingly close collaboration with the other inter-governmental organizations and the specialized agencies of the United Nations, a collaboration which is growing as the tasks of the High Commissioner's Office become more diverse and extend over a wider geographical area. The note distributed on this subject to the members of the Committee shows the organizations with which we are in particularly close contact. It also gives a brief outline of the contributions which the Council of Europe has made, within its sphere of competence, to the work of the High Commissioner's Office since its establishment.
In the next few days, when we shall have the pleasure of welcoming a delegation from the Council of Europe in our midst, I shall have a further opportunity of saying how much we owe to that institution. What I should like to stress particularly today is the importance of that collaboration at a time when the need is being emphasized for greater co-ordination of the efforts of international organizations in all fields.
The Committee will, I think, appreciate our desire to go as far as possible along that road, a desire reflected in the constant search for new partners to co-operate with us Among these partners the voluntary agencies occupy, as you know, a privileged place. This is because they regularly participate in the work of the High Commissioner's Office and are intimately associated with its humanitarian task, helping, in accordance with their basic principles, to make that work possible and effective.
Despite the fresh difficulties which are constantly arising, this modest effort continues, thanks to the generous support of Governments, having no aim other than that of helping to relieve distress and of serving everywhere, within its limited field, the cause of peace among nations.
1 Official Records of the General Assembly, Assembly, Eighteenth Session, supplement No. 11 (A/5511/Rev.1).
2 The other twenty-five members are: Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, Denmark, Federal Republic of Germany, France, Greece, Holy See, Iran, Israel, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, Tunisia, Turkey, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, United states of America, Venezuela and Yugoslavia.
3 Le projects financed from funds contributed for operations outside the programme.
4 Not including the funds spent by the Government of the United States and by the Governments of other countries of residence of these refugees for the purpose of assistance to them.
5 This project has been named after Mr. A. Kuijpers, representative of Belgium, whose death occurred in the course of the Committee's eleventh session, when he was pleading for assistance to refugees from Rwanda.
6 This figure includes the original financial target of $6.8 million and an amount of $145,000 representing the value of one project which the Executive Committee of the High Commissioner's Programme authorized to be carried over from 1962.
7 Including, in particular, proceeds from the record "All-Star Festival" ($548,758), interest and difference on exchange ($385,596) and surplus and adjustments ($135,520).
8 Previously circulated under the symbol A/AC.96/222.
9 Previously circulated under the symbol A/AC.96/248 and Corr.1.