The majority of people at risk of statelessness in Bosnia and Herzegovina as well as across the region are Roma. This is linked to poverty, marginalization, and lack of education, which result in problems in accessing birth and civil registration. In BiH, the majority of vulnerable Roma live in informal settlements in the Federation of BiH, without a registered address.  Under the 2015 amendments to the Law on Permanent and Temporary Residence this could cause problems in obtaining ID cards, which could further exacerbate access to rights and birth registration for children.

During the 1992 – 1995 conflict over half of the 4.3 million population of Bosnia and Herzegovina had to leave their homes. Many have returned or integrated in their places of displacement but, despite significant efforts and progress, the displaced population remains substantial. Currently, 98.574 people hold formal IDP status in BiH and 20.000 are registered refugees from BiH outside the country. UNHCR assesses that one-third of IDPs and some 47.000 minority returnees are still vulnerable and in need of comprehensive solutions. Further to those, there is an unknown number of people who are de facto displaced and who are often the most vulnerable.