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Refugees Magazine Issue 108 (Afghanistan : the unending crisis) - Dark side of the moon

Refugees Magazine, 1 June 1997

The civil war has reached even the most remote parts of Afghanistan. When fighting spread to Badghis province last year, efforts to help the displaced proved particularly difficult.

By Arafat Jamal

It is one of the most remote spots on earth. A harsh, empty lunar landscape stretches unendingly into the distance. Semi-nomadic Afghans, known as Koochies, graze herds of camels and goats on the dusty wastes in a ritual of nature unchanged for centuries. There are no major roads, just a few rutted dirt tracks carved out by the perpetual movements of the herds. If anything of significance does happen in the north-western Afghan province of Badghis, it may take days, weeks or even months for word to filter to the outside world.

The civil war which has engulfed much of the rest of the country swept across Badghis in the second half of last year. The fighting was vicious and many of the inhabitants, primarily Pashtun Koochies, fled for their lives. At first aid workers heard only whispers of the fighting and of populations on the move. It was not until streams of exhausted people, carrying few possessions but many tales of their suffering, reached Herat, the principal city in western Afghanistan, that the world began to learn of this latest humanitarian crisis.

Provincial officials and humanitarian agencies such as UNHCR braced to help the estimated 40,000 people on the move. "The situation in Badghis is worse than Ethiopia in 1984" one local official insisted. That was an obvious exaggeration. Several million people perished in eastern Africa in that famine, but the situation in Badghis was, nevertheless, critical.

Afghanistan's harsh winter was closing in, threatening the lives of the displaced still in Badghis. Luckily, perhaps, UNHCR was able to intervene decisively. Several camps in the Herat region had already been established to accommodate Afghan refugees returning from Iran, but at this time they were mostly empty and were quickly reopened for the Badghisis. When these camps filled, UNHCR and the local repatriation department established the Shaidai camp on the outskirts of Herat. ICRC set up two more camps and NGOs such as Médecins Sans Frontières, Médecins du Monde and an Afghan NGO opened clinics.

The people who reached these camps were the lucky ones. They received shelter, food and blankets. But as winter snows swept the region, passes through the Safed Koh mountains which link Badghis and Herat became impassable, trapping pockets of displaced people in the deep drifts. In February, UNHCR and WFP sent a 28-truck convoy to the region. It often stalled in snow banks and sank in mud lakes, but it did succeed in delivering food, biscuits and blankets to marooned pockets of people.

One old woman saved herself by snuggling deeply into a gunny sack stuffed with straw. A group of men, typical of so many lost groups, reached a distribution centre after a two-day struggle through huge snow drifts. Families survived on boiled water and bread scraps. Even as the convoy helped an estimated 13,000 people, new fighting erupted. Warplanes bombed the provincial capital of Qala-i-Nau and additional waves of people fled their homes deeper into the forbidding countryside or through the stormy Sabzak Pass to reach Herat.

By mid summer, some 25,000 Badghisis remained displaced in Herat, receiving local and international help. Some have erected protective mud walls around their tents, signifying a degree of permanence to their suffering. Most, however, insist they want to go home as soon as their security can be guaranteed. Given the unpredictable nature of the internal situation, that may not be for a very long time.

Source: Refugees Magazine issue 108 (1997)




UNHCR country pages

Cold, Uncomfortable and Hungry in Calais

For years, migrants and asylum-seekers have flocked to the northern French port of Calais in hopes of crossing the short stretch of sea to find work and a better life in England. This hope drives many to endure squalid, miserable conditions in makeshift camps, lack of food and freezing temperatures. Some stay for months waiting for an opportunity to stow away on a vehicle making the ferry crossing.

Many of the town's temporary inhabitants are fleeing persecution or conflict in countries such as Afghanistan, Eritrea, Iraq, Sudan and Syria. And although these people are entitled to seek asylum in France, the country's lack of accommodation, administrative hurdles and language barrier, compel many to travel on to England where many already have family waiting.

With the arrival of winter, the crisis in Calais intensifies. To help address the problem, French authorities have opened a day centre as well as housing facilities for women and children. UNHCR is concerned with respect to the situation of male migrants who will remain without shelter solutions. Photographer Julien Pebrel recently went to Calais to document their lives in dire sites such as the Vandamme squat and next to the Tioxide factory.

Cold, Uncomfortable and Hungry in Calais

Afghan Refugees in Iran

At a recent conference in Geneva, the international community endorsed a "solutions strategy" for millions of Afghan refugees and those returning to Afghanistan after years in exile. The plan, drawn up between Afghanistan, Iran, Pakistan and UNHCR, aims to support repatriation, sustainable reintegration and assistance to host countries.

It will benefit refugee returnees to Afghanistan as well as 3 million Afghan refugees, including 1 million in Iran and 1.7 million in Pakistan.

Many of the refugees in Iran have been living there for more than three decades. This photo set captures the lives of some of these exiles, who wait in hope of a lasting solution to their situation.

Afghan Refugees in Iran

More focus needed on reintegration of former Afghan refugees

Many of the more than 5.5 million Afghan refugees who have returned home since 2002 are still struggling to survive. Lack of land, job opportunities and other services, combined with poor security in some places, has caused many returnees to head to urban areas. While cities offer the promise of informal day labour, the rising cost of rental accommodation and basic commodities relegate many returnees to life in one of the informal settlements which have mushroomed across Kabul in recent years. Some families are living under canvases and the constant threat of eviction, while others have gained a toe-hold in abandoned buildings around the city.

UNHCR gives humanitarian assistance to the most vulnerable, and is currently rallying support from donors and humanitarian and development agencies to redouble efforts to help returning refugees reintegrate in Afghanistan.

More focus needed on reintegration of former Afghan refugees

Pakistan: Returning HomePlay video

Pakistan: Returning Home

Since the beginning of November, UNHCR has been offering an enhanced package to every registered refugee in Pakistan choosing to go home to Afghanistan.
Afghanistan HomecomingPlay video

Afghanistan Homecoming

Since 2002, UNHCR has helped nearly 4 million Afghan refugees to return home from Pakistan. Recently, Ahmed Shafiq made the journey with his family after 15 years as a refugee. This is his story.
Afghanistan: Mariam's StoryPlay video

Afghanistan: Mariam's Story

Mariam was a refugee in Iran for six years. The widow and mother returned in 2002 and has been internally displaced ever since. Her situation is very uncertain.