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Feature: Fresh start for mixed community in Kosovo

News Stories, 8 May 2003

© UNHCR/R.LeMoyne
Kosovo's residents returning home to the ethnically-divided Mitrovica in 1999.

KODRA E MINATOREVE/MIKRONASELJE, Kosovo (UNHCR) Zeqir Rushiti decided to call his business "Start" because he hoped that "coming back would mean a new start, after the war, the bombing, the hate, the suffering."

Rushiti, a 55-year-old Kosovo Albanian, says, "It's difficult, but so far we've managed somehow." In 2000, he opened a little shop selling coffee and roast chicken in Kodra e Minatoreve/Mikronaselje, an ethnically-mixed neighbourhood up on the hill in North Mitrovica.

Divided by the Ibar river, Mitrovica became a symbol of the ethnic divide between the Albanians living in the city's south, and the Serbs concentrated in the northern sector. In the complex North Mitrovica, however, the community in Kodra e Minatoreve/Mikronaselje offers an interesting example of co-existence among Albanians, Serbs and Bosniaks (a Serbo-Croatian-speaking Muslim minority group).

Like many of his neighbours, Rushiti had fled his home in the summer of 1999. But he returned immediately after the conflict, when NATO troops entered Kosovo. "Since then, we've managed to lead a normal life without major problems. We worked a lot by ourselves, and we didn't receive much help or support from our politicians or the international community," he says.

Neno Maric, 37, is Rushiti's counterpart in the Kosovo Serbian community in Kodra e Minatoreve/Mikronaselje. They have been friends for a long time, working together for the community to function as a whole. Maric owns the only bakery in the neighbourhood and employs one Serb, one Albanian and one Bosniak.

"There are still many extremists who don't like what we are trying to do," says Maric. "But they don't live here as we do. We need to build a future for ourselves."

The ethnic balance in the community is delicate more than 1,000 people comprising 52 Kosovo Albanian, 65 Serb and 47 Bosniak families and the two men know how important it is to maintain it. Rushiti notes there are still 200 Albanian families currently displaced from Kodra e Minatoreve/Mikronaselje, adding that balance is key for the safety of the community.

"We would like everyone to have the chance to return home, but they have to be from here. We don't want people from other places to show up and try to settle here," says Maric. "We need to think about the community and what we have achieved so far. That's why we refused any project benefiting only one side. If something is done, it has to be for everyone."

The two men are currently working with the UN refugee agency to raise funds to build a bigger community centre after the old one was burned down. They are also planning to set up a small restaurant.

UNHCR protection officer Marie-Noelle Little observes, "What is important here is the fact that the two leaders work closely together to protect the interests and the well-being of the community as a whole."

But co-existence remains a daily challenge. In Kodra e Minatoreve/Mikronaselje, children under sixth grade attend different classes in the small community school. Aside from language differences between the ethnic groups, there is also a different school system Kosovo adopted its own curriculum in 2001, while the Serbian areas have retained the Belgrade curriculum.

The small clinic in the neighbourhood employs two nurses, one Kosovo Albanian and one Kosovo Serbian, which is handy because the ethnic Albanians do not use the hospital in Serb-populated North Mitrovica. "It's 200 metres from here, but in case of emergency, an ambulance goes south with a police escort," says Rushiti with a sad smile.

While the Kosovo Albanians are free to move around the neighbourhood, their movements elsewhere are limited. Three times a day, the international Kosovo Force (KFOR) escorts them south for shopping and other activities.

But in a sign of normalisation, KFOR removed fixed checkpoints at the two main entrances of the neighbourhood in January this year, replacing them with mobile control points. KFOR and police from the UN Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) patrol the area regularly, and there have been no major security problems so far.

© UNHCR/M.Ellena
UNHCR's Deputy High Commissioner Mary Ann Wyrsch (left) with community leaders Zeqir Rushiti (centre) and Neno Maric in Kodra e Minatoreve/Mikronaselje.

In April, UNHCR's Deputy High Commissioner, Mary Ann Wyrsch, visited Kodra e Minatoreve/Mikronaselje while on mission in the Balkans. "This community is an encouraging example of inter-ethnic dialogue and co-operation. Everyone should work for it to become a daily reality, not an exception," she said.

From the top of the hill, an imposing Yugoslav-era monument dedicated to miners from the area's Trepca industrial complex seems to keep a constant eye on the community. "A lot of people here used to work in the mines," says Rushiti. "They are all unemployed now, but we need stability if we want economy, and we are trying our best."

By Monica Ellena
UNHCR Kosovo




Refugee Women

Women and girls make up about 50 percent of the world's refugee population, and they are clearly the most vulnerable. At the same time, it is the women who carry out the crucial tasks in refugee camps – caring for their children, participating in self-development projects, and keeping their uprooted families together.

To honour them and to draw attention to their plight, the High Commissioner for Refugees decided to dedicate World Refugee Day on June 20, 2002, to women refugees.

The photographs in this gallery show some of the many roles uprooted women play around the world. They vividly portray a wide range of emotions, from the determination of Macedonian mothers taking their children home from Kosovo and the hope of Sierra Leonean girls in a Guinean camp, to the tears of joy from two reunited sisters. Most importantly, they bring to life the tremendous human dignity and courage of women refugees even in the most difficult of circumstances.

Refugee Women

Zero-Star "Hotel" that Asylum-Seekers Call Home in Dijon

France is one of the main destinations for asylum-seekers in Europe, with some 55,000 new asylum applications in 2012. As a result of the growing number of applicants, many French cities are facing an acute shortage of accommodation for asylum-seekers.

The government is trying to address the problem and, in February 2013, announced the creation of 4,000 additional places in state-run reception centres for asylum-seekers. But many asylum-seekers are still forced to sleep rough or to occupy empty buildings. One such building, dubbed the "Refugee Hotel" by its transient population, lies on the outskirts of the eastern city of Dijon. It illustrates the critical accommodation situation.

The former meat-packing plant is home to about 100 asylum-seekers, mostly from Chad, Mali and Somalia, but also from Georgia, Kosovo and other Eastern European countries. Most are single men, but there are also two families.

In this dank, rat-infested empty building, the pipes leak and the electricity supply is sporadic. There is only one lavatory, two taps with running water, no bathing facilities and no kitchen. The asylum-seekers sleep in the former cold-storage rooms. The authorities have tried to close the squat several times. These images, taken by British photographer Jason Tanner, show the desperate state of the building and depict the people who call it home.

Zero-Star "Hotel" that Asylum-Seekers Call Home in Dijon

A Place to Call Home(Part 2): 1996 - 2003

This gallery highlights the history of UNHCR's efforts to help some of the world's most disenfranchised people to find a place called home, whether through repatriation, resettlement or local integration.

After decades of hospitality after World War II, as the global political climate changed and the number of people cared for by UNHCR swelled from around one million in 1951, to more than 27 million people in the mid-1990s, the welcome mat for refugees was largely withdrawn.

Voluntary repatriation has become both the preferred and only practical solution for today's refugees. In fact, the great majority of them choose to return to their former homes, though for those who cannot do so for various reasons, resettlement in countries like the United States and Australia, and local integration within regions where they first sought asylum, remain important options.

This gallery sees Rwandans returning home after the 1994 genocide; returnees to Kosovo receiving reintegration assistance; Guatemalans obtaining land titles in Mexico; and Afghans flocking home in 2003 after decades in exile.

A Place to Call Home(Part 2): 1996 - 2003