Iraq Conference: After fleeing twice inside Iraq, a family receives refuge in Spain

News Stories, 12 April 2007

© Reuters/Thaier Al-Sudani
An Iraqi policeman outside a Catholic church in Baghdad. There were 1.4 million Christians in Iraq in 1987, but now there are less than a million in a country of 26 million people.

MADRID, Spain, April 12 (UNHCR) In a country where anyone can become a victim of violence, minorities in Iraq feel especially threatened. Among those forced to flee the danger was a family who had converted to Christianity and now live as refugees in Spain.

Palestinian refugees in Iraq have been attacked. Sunni Moslems have been forced from Shi'ite Moslem areas, Shias from Sunni areas. Kurds have fled Arab areas, Arabs from Kurdish areas. In this brutal environment, Christian Iraqis an ancient but dwindling part of the Iraqi population have frequently been targets.

Close to 2 million Iraqis are currently displaced internally while up to 2 million others have fled abroad. The UN refugee agency has invited all 193 UN member states to a conference on the humanitarian needs associated with displacement in Iraq and nearby countries in Geneva on April 17-18.

"Christians are leaving Baghdad and the whole centre of the country. The churches are empty," said Tessa*, who fled to Spain with her husband and two children in 2005. She worries that the Iraqi Christian community, almost as old as the religion, might soon disappear altogether.

For Tessa and Nabil*, the threat was greater because they had been Muslim. Nabil decided to convert to Christianity in 2001. The situation worsened when Tessa also converted in 2003 after she almost died from cancer. Tessa's Sunni family cut off contact.

Nabil started receiving threats and in January 2005 found a bomb in front of his house. His workers were threatened and his shop was burned. Their two children, baptised in 2005 at the ages of 10 and 12 years, faced the risk of kidnapping by groups who demand "taxes" for observing their religion.

In the 16th Century, Christians were half the population of Iraq. In 1987 there were still 1.4 million Christians, but now there are less than a million in a country of 26 million people. After a wave of violence against Christian churches in October 2004 five churches were bombed on a single day discrimination rose. Militants attacked liquor stores and warned Christian women to wear Islamic dress.

At 48-years-old, Nabil and his family were relatively wealthy. He owned an aesthetician centre, while his wife was a professor at the University of Agriculture in Baghdad. But they made the decision to flee. "Christians are being terrorised in Iraq. They have no peace and no safety with the death squads and car bombs," said Nabil.

With help from his church, the family moved to Dahuk in the north of Iraq. However, this city proved safe for only a few months before they started again receiving threats. Even local members of their church began to fear hosting them. Their children could not attend school.

Nabil and his family headed further north to Arbil in the Kurdistan region, which had become a haven for 20,000 Iraqis displaced from elsewhere in Iraq. After two months, it was clear Arbil was also not a sanctuary. Rumours spread around the city about the "danger" the family represented for Islam.

"Our presence was creating problems for the people surrounding us," Nabil said. He decided in May 2005 to leave the country. Wearing a disguise, Nabil returned to Baghdad alone and got visas. The day after he returned to Arbil, the family went by car to Syria. The next day they proceeded to Amman and after four days flew to Spain to request asylum.

Last November, Spanish authorities granted all Nabil's family refugee status under the 1951 Refugee Convention because of their well founded fear of persecution for their religion. Spain currently hosts 45 Iraqi refugees and during 2006 a further 42 Iraqis requested asylum.

"Spain gave us the opportunity to profess freely our religion, without feeling guilty. My children can go to school or play in the park without being surrounded by people with Kalashnikov rifles standing guard over them and my wife no longer feels in prison, thought she does not work anymore," said Nabil.

The family, now living near the centre of Madrid, are integrating slowly as they overcome the language barrier. There are no regrets about leaving. "When life is at risk you do everything to protect yourself and your family," Nabil says of the desperate measures Iraqis take to reach safety.

"I don't think violence and inequality in my country will cease in a few years. All the Iraqis Christians and Muslims are living in a situation without solutions," he said. "You find tragedy after tragedy and they are fleeing every day to look for safety in neighbouring countries or in another continent."

* Names changed for protection reasons

By Francesca Fontanini in Madrid, Spain




UNHCR country pages

Iraq Crisis: Urgent Appeal

Make a gift now to help protect and assist those fleeing violence in Iraq.

Donate to this crisis

CAR Crisis: Urgent Appeal

Make a gift now to help protect and assist those fleeing violence in Central African Republic.

Donate to this crisis

Crisis in Iraq: Displacement

UNHCR and its partners estimate that out of a total population of 26 million, some 1.9 million Iraqis are currently displaced internally and more than 2 million others have fled to nearby countries. While many people were displaced before 2003, increasing numbers of Iraqis are now fleeing escalating sectarian, ethnic and general violence. Since January 2006, UNHCR estimates that more than 800,000 Iraqis have been uprooted and that 40,000 to 50,000 continue to flee their homes every month. UNHCR anticipates there will be approximately 2.3 million internally displaced people within Iraq by the end of 2007. The refugee agency and its partners have provided emergency assistance, shelter and legal aid to displaced Iraqis where security has allowed.

In January 2007, UNHCR launched an initial appeal for US$60 million to fund its Iraq programme. Despite security issues for humanitarian workers inside the country, UNHCR and partners hope to continue helping up to 250,000 of the most vulnerable internally displaced Iraqis and their host communities

Posted on 12 June 2007

Crisis in Iraq: Displacement

Non-Iraqi Refugees in Jordan

After Saddam Hussein's regime was toppled in Iraq in 2003, groups of refugees who had lived in the country for many years tried to leave the chaos and lawlessness that soon ensued. Hundreds of people started fleeing to the border with Jordan, including Palestinians in Baghdad and Iranian Kurds from the Al Tash refugee camp in central Iraq.

Aside from a few Palestinians with family connections inside the neighbouring country, the refugees were refused entry and free movement in Jordan. Thousands were soon stranded in the no-man's land between Iraq and Jordan or at the desert camp of Ruweished, located 60 kilometres inside Jordan.

Since 2003, Palestinians, Iranian Kurds, Iranians, Sudanese and Somalis have been living there and suffering the scorching heat and freezing winters of the Jordanian desert. UNHCR and its partners have provided housing and assistance and tried to find solutions – the agency has helped resettle more than 1,000 people in third countries. At the beginning of 2007, a total of 119 people – mostly Palestinians – remained in Ruweished camp without any immediate solution in sight.

Posted on 20 February 2007

Non-Iraqi Refugees in Jordan

Iraqi Refugees in Jordan

The UN refugee agency has launched a US$60 million appeal to fund its work helping hundreds of thousands of Iraqi refugees and internally displaced people. The new appeal concludes that unremitting violence in Iraq will likely mean continued mass internal and external displacement affecting much of the surrounding region. The appeal notes that the current exodus is the largest long-term population movement in the Middle East since the displacement of Palestinians following the creation of Israel in 1948.

UNHCR has warned that the longer this conflict goes on, the more difficult it will become for the hundreds of thousands of displaced and the communities that are trying to help them – both inside and outside Iraq. Because the burden on host communities and governments in the region is enormous, it is essential that the international community support humanitarian efforts.

The US$60 million will cover UNHCR's protection and assistance programmes for Iraqi refugees in Syria, Jordan, Lebanon, Egypt and Turkey, as well as non-Iraqi refugees and internally displaced people within Iraq itself.

Posted on 10 January 2007

Iraqi Refugees in Jordan

Iraq: The Plight of the YazidisPlay video

Iraq: The Plight of the Yazidis

Tens of thousands of people, including ethnic Yazidis originating from the Sinjar area, have been forced to find shelter in schools and unfinished structures across northern Iraq since fleeing their homes. The UN refugee agency has been trying to help, opening camps to provide better shelter.
Iraq: Preparing for Winter in DohukPlay video

Iraq: Preparing for Winter in Dohuk

Efforts are under way in Syria, Iraq and neighbouring countries to prepare refugees and the internally displaced for winter. But UNHCR remains deeply concerned that a $58.45 million funding shortfall could leave as many as a million people out in the cold.
Iraq: The Generous GiverPlay video

Iraq: The Generous Giver

An estimated 1.8 million Iraqis have been internally displaced since the beginning of the year, with nearly half seeking refuge in the Kurdistan Region. As weary families began pouring into Dohuk, one local businessman built them a small camp equipped with tents, water, sanitation and electricity.