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Refugee status and clean water "change everything" for indigenous Colombians

News Stories, 26 December 2007

© UNHCR/M.-H.Verney
Colombian indigenous children in jungle settlements in Panama are healthier now that they have clean water.

DARIÉN GAP, Panama, 26 Dec (UNHCR) After months of hardship and fear, life took a turn for the better in December, 2006, for 11 families of the Wounaan community. In a landmark step by the national authorities, they became the first group of Colombian indigenous people ever to be granted refugee status in Panama.

"It changed everything. It was only when we got the news that we started to believe we could stay and leave the past behind," says José*, one of the 47 refugees who are now living in Vista Alegre, a small river settlement in Panama's Darién jungle.

The Wounaan families had reached Panama in May 2006, fleeing violence and persecution by an irregular armed group in their native Colombia. They crossed through the Darién Gap, a vast expanse of jungle that separates the two countries.

The decision a year ago to grant them refugee status gave them the stability they needed to begin anew. With the help of the UNHCR and the international community, among them the humanitarian aid department of the European Commission, ECHO, the group began to rebuild its life.

One of the first priorities was to provide the settlement with clean water. There's plenty of water in the Darién jungle's swamps and many rivers, but its remote communities lack even the most basic infrastructure to make it safe to drink.

Ruth* is the 23-year-old mother of two small children, the younger one born just days after Ruth arrived at the settlement. "The baby was fine at first because she only drank milk, but her brother was very sick," she remembers.

The installation of a water pump and tank has changed her life, not only because her children are healthier, but because she no longer has to spend hours every day carrying water from the river.

Shelter and clean water are always among the very first necessities for people fleeing their homes to escape violence. Such priorities are the core of ECHO's emergency help for those most in need. "That crucial period when refugees arrive in a new country is when the relationship between us and UNHCR is at its most active," explained José Maria Echevarría, ECHO's regional delegate for Colombia and Panama, on the occasion of an ECHO visit to the Darién.

Once basic needs are met, the UN refugee agency also supports local initiatives to help with children's schooling, and training the adults in basic professional skills such as carpentry and weaving.

The two organizations have also set up a clean water system in the community of Alto Playona, home to another Colombian indigenous group, 66 Embera people who reached the settlement after months of wandering to escape an irregular armed group in Colombia.

But unlike their Wounaan compatriots, the Embera families in Alto Playona, and 22 others in the nearby community of Canán, are still unsure of their future. They asked for asylum in Panama a year ago and are still waiting for the government to decide whether they can stay as refugees. The uncertainty makes it difficult at times to focus on the future.

"I still think every day about what happened to us in Colombia and it fills me with fear, even though here we live in peace," says a teenage Embera boy. At seventeen, he has made up his mind: He never wants to return to his home country and live in such terror again.

* Names changed to protect the refugees

By Marie-Hélène Verney in Panama

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UNHCR country pages

Water, Sanitation and Hygiene

Provision of clean water and sanitation services to refugees is of special importance.

Indigenous people in Colombia

There are about a million indigenous people in Colombia. They belong to 80 different groups and make up one of the world's most diverse indigenous heritages. But the internal armed conflict is taking its toll on them.

Like many Colombians, indigenous people often have no choice but to flee their lands to escape violence. Forced displacement is especially tragic for them because they have extremely strong links to their ancestral lands. Often their economic, social and cultural survival depends on keeping these links alive.

According to Colombia's national indigenous association ONIC, 18 of the smaller groups are at risk of disappearing. UNHCR is working with them to support their struggle to stay on their territories or to rebuild their lives when they are forced to flee.

UNHCR also assists indigenous refugees in neighbouring countries like Panama, Ecuador, Venezuela and Brazil. UNHCR is developing a regional strategy to better address the specific needs of indigenous people during exile.

Indigenous people in Colombia

Colombia: Life in the Barrios

After more than forty years of internal armed conflict, Colombia has one of the largest populations of internally displaced persons (IDPs) in the world. Well over two million people have been forced to flee their homes; many of them have left remote rural areas to take refuge in the relative safety of the cities.

Displaced families often end up living in slum areas on the outskirts of the big cities, where they lack even the most basic services. Just outside Bogota, tens of thousands of displaced people live in the shantytowns of Altos de Cazuca and Altos de Florida, with little access to health, education or decent housing. Security is a problem too, with irregular armed groups and gangs controlling the shantytowns, often targeting young people.

UNHCR is working with the authorities in ten locations across Colombia to ensure that the rights of internally displaced people are fully respected – including the rights to basic services, health and education, as well as security.

Colombia: Life in the Barrios

Panama's Hidden Refugees

Colombia's armed conflict has forced millions of people to flee their homes, including hundreds of thousands who have sought refuge in other countries in the region.

Along the border with Colombia, Panama's Darien region is a thick and inhospitable jungle accessible only by boat. Yet many Colombians have taken refuge here after fleeing the irregular armed groups who control large parts of jungle territory on the other side of the border.

Many of the families sheltering in the Darien are from Colombia's ethnic minorities – indigenous or Afro-Colombians – who have been particularly badly hit by the conflict and forcibly displaced in large numbers. In recent years, there has also been an increase in the numbers of Colombians arriving in the capital, Panama City.

There are an estimated 12,500 Colombians of concern to UNHCR in Panama, but many prefer not to make themselves known to authorities and remain in hiding. This "hidden population" is one of the biggest challenges facing UNHCR not only in Panama but also in Ecuador and Venezuela.

Panama's Hidden Refugees

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