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Farming and fishing folk return to villages in parts of north-west Sri Lanka

News Stories, 19 June 2009

© UNHCR/B.Baloch
A happy returnee holds a hurricane lamp in one hand and balances aid items on her head at a UNHCR distribution point.

ARIPPU, Sri Lanka, June 19 (UNHCR) The coastal village of Arippu in north-western Sri Lanka has been deserted for years, but people are coming back from nearby towns with the help of UNHCR now the long war with the rebel Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) seems to be over.

The villagers of Arippu, located in Mannar district, had fled their homes over the years to escape from fighting between the LTTE and government forces. Last month, the government declared it had defeated the LTTE, ending the 25-year-old conflict in the north and east of Sri Lanka.

The authorities are now encouraging and facilitating a return to Arippu and other nearby villages and on June 9 UNHCR brought back a first group of 1,676 people (about 390 families) to Arippu and some 555 people (about 150 families) to five other villages in an area where most people rely on farming or fishing.

Some of the returnees, like Pathmanathan Sivananthan, were brought back by the government in May on "go-and-see" visits, which helped them decide whether or not to return permanently.

"Most of the villages in this area were deserted. The only signs of life before the recent returns were soldiers or cattle left behind when people fled," said Sivananthan, who decided to return. "I thought it was time to come home."

Aside from bringing back the Arippu villagers, the UN refugee agency also distributed aid items to help them resume a normal life. The return packages included plastic sheeting and mats, buckets, shovels, kitchen items, clothing, hurricane lamps and more. The World Food Programme will be supporting the returnees with food rations for the next six months.

"UNHCR is helping the government to make these returns sustainable," said Roka Kudo, head of the UNHCR field office in Mannar district. He explained that people returning to damaged dwellings could use the sheeting to protect them from the elements until their red brick homes could be repaired or rebuilt.

"When you see our houses from afar they look fine, but when you get close you might find that the façade is okay, but the back has gone. In some cases, the rooves have collapsed," said Savion Irutharani, a 55-year-old woman among those in Arippu who made good use of the plastic sheeting.

In another part of the village, a 12-year-old returnee called Kaushalya was helping her father build the wooden framework of a family home that will be completed with the help of UNHCR and its partners.

"I always wanted to come back with my family and enjoy life in our own village and home," the young girl told UNHCR visitors as she hammered a nail into a post under the scorching sun. She and her family had been living in a rice mill in a safer area of Mannar for the past two years.

The returnees that UNHCR spoke to said they wanted to resume fishing or farming to make enough to feed their families. "The government has allowed us to bring back our fishing boats," said Kandasamy Tharshan, who was unloading nets that had just been delivered by truck. "Seventy-four boats will be here soon . . . I hope we can start fishing soon and earning a living in our ancestral place."

There are currently an estimated 550,000 internally displaced people in Sri Lanka. While supporting returns in the east and north-west, UNHCR continues to help the government improve conditions in 35 emergency shelter sites in northern parts of the country, where some 284,000 people displaced during the last months of the war are accommodated.

By Babar Baloch in Arippu, Sri Lanka




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Returnees in Myanmar

During the early 1990s, more than 250,000 Rohingya Muslims fled across the border into Bangladesh, citing human rights abuses by Myanmar's military government. In exile, refugees received shelter and assistance in 20 camps in the Cox's Bazaar region of Bangladesh. More than 230,000 of the Rohingya Muslims have returned since 1992, but about 22,000 still live in camps in Bangladesh. To promote stability in returnee communities in Myanmar and to help this group of re-integrate into their country, UNHCR and its partner agencies provide monitors to insure the protection and safety of the returnees as well as vocational training, income generation schemes, adult literacy programs and primary education.

Returnees in Myanmar

Sri Lanka: IDPs and Returnees

During Sri Lanka's 20-year civil war more than 1 million people were uprooted from their homes or forced to flee, often repeatedly. Many found shelter in UNHCR-supported Open Relief Centers, in government welfare centers or with relatives and friends.

In February 2002, the Sri Lankan government and the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) signed a cease-fire accord and began a series of talks aimed at negotiating a lasting peace. By late 2003, more than 300,000 internally displaced persons had returned to their often destroyed towns and villages.

In the midst of these returns, UNHCR provided physical and legal protection to war affected civilians – along with financing a range of special projects to provide new temporary shelter, health and sanitation facilities, various community services, and quick and cheap income generation projects.

Sri Lanka: IDPs and Returnees

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Shortly after the tsunami hit Sri Lanka, killing over 30,000 people and displacing nearly 800,000, UNHCR was asked to take a lead role in providing transitional shelter – bridging the gap between emergency tents and the construction of permanent homes. The refugee agency is not normally involved in natural disasters, but lent its support to the effort because of the scale of the devastation and because many of the tsunami-affected people were also displaced by the conflict.

Since the 26 December 2004 tsunami, UNHCR has helped in the coordination and construction of over 55,000 transitional shelters and has directly constructed, through its partners, 4,500 shelters in Jaffna in the north, and Ampara District in the east. These efforts are helping some 20,000 people rebuild their lives.

On 15 November, 2005, UNHCR completed its post-tsunami shelter role and formally handed over responsibility for the shelter sector to the Sri Lankan government. Now, UNHCR is returning its full focus to its pre-tsunami work of providing assistance to people internally displaced by the conflict, and refugees repatriating from India.

Tsunami Aftermath in Sri Lanka

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