Food shortages in South Sudan refugee camps stoke mounting anger

News Stories, 7 May 2014

© UNHCR/P.Rulashe
A Sudanese refugee in Yusuf Batil camp expresses her anger and frustration with the food shortages.

YUSUF BATIL REFUGEE CAMP, South Sudan, May 7 (UNHCR) After queuing for food in South Sudan's Yusuf Batil Refugee Camp, 25-year-old Sura Sirad is clearly unhappy with the meagre ration: two cups of lentils, a cup of oil and about two-and-a-half kilos of sorghum for her family. There's not even any salt.

"This food will last my family two days at most," the angry mother of four exclaims. "The last time we had a proper meal was in February. Since then, it's been a 10-day ration here and a five-day ration there, with long weeks of nothing in between!"

The transportation of vital aid to Yusuf Batil and other refugee camps in Upper Nile State's Maban County has been hindered by insecurity and fighting along supply routes. Unable to deliver critical food supplies, the World Food Programme and its partners, including UNHCR, were forced to distribute reduced rations to the tens of thousands of refugees from Sudan in Maban in March and April.

"We have to continue picking lolop leaves to cook because there is nothing else," Sura says, echoing the mounting frustration and anger of many other women here, who complain to humanitarian aid workers about the food shortages. The lolop tree is prevalent in the area and its leaves are edible but bitter in taste. Some young children get stomach aches after eating it.

It's an issue that UNHCR, the World Food Programme and their partners take very seriously. "We humanitarian actors share the refugees' frustration," stresses UNHCR official Adan Ilmi, adding that renewed fighting since mid-December between South Sudan government and rebels forces had made it very difficult to transport aid.

In a joint statement last Friday, UNHCR and WFP called on the rival sides to ensure safe humanitarian access for aid agencies to vulnerable displaced people, including the 125,000 Sudanese refugees in Maban County. The UN partners said there was still time to deliver substantial amounts of aid by road, rather than costly airlifts, before the rains made roads impassable.

Sura is blunt about the situation of the refugees in Yusuf Batil, who fled t South Sudan before the fighting blew up in December. "We are helpless," she says. "We have no land to cultivate. We cannot cut trees to sell because it is illegal. We don't have the skills or the education to get jobs."

She admits that she has thought of going back to Blue Nile state in Sudan. "At least I have land in Dereng, where I can cultivate food for my family," she explains. Some people have already returned, notes UNHCR's Ilmi, who heads the Bunj sub-office. "We are receiving reports that up to 2,000 refugees have returned from the Maban camps to war-torn Blue Nile state." He says this is a worrying trend, adding that Blue Nile is "itself food insecure due to continuing conflict."

In the Maban camps, refugees are supplementing food aid with wild roots and leaves. Others are selling or bartering items like soap in markets and neighbouring villages in exchange for food.

"Soap is of vital importance during the rainy season, when the highest standards of hygiene are necessary to prevent the outbreak and spread of disease," says Ilmi. "Regrettably, refugees are selling their soap and vandalizing sanitation installations, or selling plastic sheets, poles and other materials intended for latrine construction."

The UN refugee agency and its partners fear that continuing food shortages will adversely affect the health and nutritional status of the refugees. Children and older people as well as pregnant and lactating women are particularly vulnerable.

"We can still prevent further deterioration of this situation if the parties to the conflict would facilitate safe humanitarian access and enable us to bring food and other critical supplies to Maban," says Ilmi. "On the positive side, we have received reassurances from WFP that additional food stocks will be flown to Maban in the coming days," he adds.

Sura hopes he is right. "We want to believe the UN will fix this problem soon. We cannot go on living this way," the young woman warns.

By Pumla Rulashe in Yusuf Batil Refugee Camp, South Sudan




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Food cuts in Chad camps expose refugee women and children to exploitation, abuse

A funding shortfall has forced the World Food Programme (WFP) to cut food rations in refugee camps in eastern Chad by up to 60 per cent. As a result, Sudanese refugees in 13 camps in the east now receive about 850 calories per day, down from the minimum ration of 2,100 calories daily they used to get. The refugees are finding it difficult to cope. Clinics in the area report a significant spike in malnutrition cases, with rates as high as 19.5 per cent in Am Nabak camp.

WFP needs to raise US$ 186 million to maintain feeding programmes for refugees in Africa through the end of the year. Additionally, UNHCR is urgently seeking contributions towards the US$ 78 million it has budgeted this year for food security and nutrition programmes serving refugees in Africa.

In the meantime, the refugees experiencing ration cuts have few options. Poor soil quality, dry conditions and little access to water mean they can't plant supplemental crops as refugees in the less arid south of Chad are able to do. To try to cope, many refugee women in eastern Chad are leaving the camps in search of work in surrounding towns. They clean houses, do laundry, fetch water and firewood and work as construction labourers. Even so, they earn very little and often depend on each other for support. In the town of Iriba, for example, some 50 refugee women sleep rough each night under a tree and share their some of their meagre earnings to pay for a daily, communal meal.

They are also subject to exploitation. Sometimes, their temporary employers refuse to pay them at the end of the day. And some women and girls have resorted to prostitution to earn money to feed their families.

Ration cuts can have an impact far beyond health, reverberating through the entire community. It is not uncommon for children to be pulled out of school on market days in order to work. Many refugees use a portion of their food rations to barter for other essentials, or to get cash to pay school fees or buy supplies for their children. Small business owners like butchers, hairdressers and tailors - some of them refugees - also feel the pinch.

WFP supplies food to some 240,500 Sudanese refugees in the camps of eastern Chad. Many have been in exile for years and, because of their limited opportunities for self-sufficiency, remain almost totally dependent on outside help. The ration cuts have made an already difficult situation much worse for refugees who were already struggling.

Food cuts in Chad camps expose refugee women and children to exploitation, abuse

Emergency food distribution in South Sudan's Jonglei state

Humanitarian organizations in South Sudan are working to deliver emergency assistance to some of the tens of thousands of people displaced by armed conflict in Jonglei state. Most of those uprooted have fled into the bush or have walked for days to reach villages away from the fighting. Others have journeyed even greater distances to find sanctuary in the neighbouring countries of Kenya, Ethiopia and Uganda. Gaining access to those affected in an insecure and isolated area has been a significant challenge for aid workers. Since mid-July, an airlift has been providing food supplies to families living in two previously inaccessible villages and where humanitarian agencies have established temporary bases. As part of the "cluster approach" to humanitarian emergencies, which brings together partners working in the same response sector, UNHCR is leading the protection cluster to ensure the needs of vulnerable individuals among the displaced are addressed.

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Bonga camp is located in the troubled Gambella region of western Ethiopia. But it remains untouched by the ethnic conflicts that have torn nearby Gambella town and Fugnido camp in the last year.

For Bonga's 17,000 Sudanese refugees, life goes on despite rumblings in the region. Refugee children continue with school and play while their parents make ends meet by supplementing UNHCR assistance with self-reliance projects.

Cultural life is not forgotten, with tribal ceremonies by the Uduk majority. Other ethnic communities – Shuluks, Nubas and Equatorians – are welcome too, judging by how well hundreds of newcomers have settled in after their transfer from Fugnido camp in late 2002.

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