145,000 Syrian refugee women fight for survival as they head families alone.

Press Releases, 8 July 2014

One quarter of Syrian refugee women caught in a spiral of poverty, isolation and fear.

More than 145,000 Syrian refugee families in Egypt, Lebanon, Iraq and Jordan or one in four of all households are headed by women facing a lone fight for survival, a new UNHCR report reveals today.

The report lifts the veil on a daily struggle to make ends meet, as the women battle to maintain their dignity and care for their families in run-down overcrowded homes, insecure makeshift shelters and tents. Many live under the threat of violence or exploitation, and their children face mounting trauma and distress.

"Woman Alone the Fight for Survival by Syrian Refugee Women" is based on the personal testimony of 135 of those women, given over three months of interviews in early 2014. Forced to take sole responsibility for their families after their men were killed, captured, or otherwise separated, they are caught in a spiral of hardship, isolation and anxiety.

The number one difficulty reported by the women is a lack of resources. Most of the women are struggling to pay the rent, put food on the table and buy basic household items. Many have reached the end of their savings even selling off their wedding rings. Only one-fifth have paid work; many find it hard to get a job, or have too much else on their plate. Only one-fifth have support from other adult relatives. Some benefit from local generosity such as landlords who let them stay rent free, or mosques. Some send their children to work. A quarter receive cash assistance from UNHCR and other aid agencies; two-thirds of those who got assistance are entirely dependent on it. A third of the women say they do not have enough to eat.

UNHCR called for urgent new action from donors, host governments and aid agencies. "For hundreds of thousands of women, escaping their ruined homeland was only the first step in a journey of grinding hardship." said António Guterres, UN High Commissioner for Refugees. "They have run out of money, face daily threats to their safety, and are being treated as outcasts for no other crime than losing their men to a vicious war. It's shameful. They are being humiliated for losing everything."

"Syrian refugee women are the glue holding together a broken society. Their strength is extraordinary, but they are struggling alone. Their voices are an appeal for help and protection which cannot be ignored," said Angelina Jolie, UNHCR Special Envoy.

Life in exile for these women has meant becoming the main breadwinner and caregiver, fending for themselves and their families, away from their communities and traditional sources of support. For most, the burden is overwhelming, and many are entirely dependent on outside assistance.

Sixty per cent of the women interviewed expressed feelings of insecurity, and one in three were too scared or overwhelmed even to leave their homes. Nuha came to Cairo with her husband, but he was shot and killed while at work. "I don't want to leave the house because of the sadness in my heart," she said. "We left death in Syria only to find it waiting for us here in Egypt."

Many women complained of regular verbal harassment by taxi drivers, bus drivers, landlords, and service providers, as well as men in shops, at the market, on public transport, and even at aid distributions.

"A woman alone in Egypt is prey to all men," said Diala, who lives in Alexandria. Zahwa, in Jordan, says she was even harassed by refugees when collecting food coupons. "I was living in dignity, but now no one respects me because I'm not with a man," she said.

One woman reported being raped, but many were not prepared to discuss sexual and gender based violence. "I would never turn to an organisation for help," said Noor from Lebanon. "I would put salt on the wound and stay quiet, but I'd never ever say anything to anyone."

Most of the women were concerned about the impact on their children. "I have to worry about the finances and school. I have to protect them, provide for them, and give them a mother's love all at the same time. I feel pummelled," said Dina, in Egypt.

Over 150 organisations are providing services or support to Syrian refugee women and their families. The research found many examples of refugee women taking the initiative, supporting each other and working to find solutions to their daily struggle. It also highlighted many acts of kindness and generosity by host countries and communities.

But it found this assistance fell short of what was needed, and called on donors to do more to help Syrian refugee women get back on their feet and earn enough money to live. With visa or other restrictions separating one in five of the women from their husbands or families, the report also asked host governments to find solutions to reunite them with their families. Host communities also need massive support. Many of these women's difficulties and rising tensions reflect more general concerns in the communities around them.

With 2.8 million refugees and millions more internally displaced, Syria has become the largest displacement crisis in the world. Since the start of 2014, more than 100,000 Syrian refugees have registered in neighbouring countries every month. The total number of refugees is expected to reach 3.6 million by the end of the year.

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UNHCR country pages

Syrian Refugees in Lebanon

As world concern grows over the plight of hundreds of thousands of displaced Syrians, including more than 200,000 refugees, UNHCR staff are working around the clock to provide vital assistance in neighbouring countries. At the political level, UN High Commissioner for Refugees António Guterres was due on Thursday (August 30) to address a closed UN Security Council session on Syria.

Large numbers have crossed into Lebanon to escape the violence in Syria. By the end of August, more than 53,000 Syrians across Lebanon had registered or received appointments to be registered. UNHCR's operations for Syrian refugees in Tripoli and the Bekaa Valley resumed on August 28 after being briefly suspended due to insecurity.

Many of the refugees are staying with host families in some of the poorest areas of Lebanon or in public buildings, including schools. This is a concern as the school year starts soon. UNHCR is urgently looking for alternative shelter. The majority of the people looking for safety in Lebanon are from Homs, Aleppo and Daraa and more than half are aged under 18. As the conflict in Syria continues, the situation of the displaced Syrians in Lebanon remains precarious.

Syrian Refugees in Lebanon

Turkish Camps Provide Shelter to 90,000 Syrian Refugees

By mid-September, more than 200,000 Syrian refugees had crossed the border into Turkey. UNHCR estimates that half of them are children, and many have seen their homes destroyed in the conflict before fleeing to the border and safety.

The Turkish authorities have responded by building well-organized refugee camps along southern Turkey's border with Syria. These have assisted 120,000 refugees since the crisis conflict erupted in Syria. There are currently 12 camps hosting 90,000 refugees, while four more are under construction. The government has spent approximately US$300 million to date, and it continues to manage the camps and provide food and medical services.

The UN refugee agency has provided the Turkish government with tents, blankets and kitchen sets for distribution to the refugees. UNHCR also provides advice and guidelines, while staff from the organization monitor voluntary repatriation of refugees.

Most of the refugees crossing into Turkey come from areas of northern Syria, including the city of Aleppo. Some initially stayed in schools or other public buildings, but they have since been moved into the camps, where families live in tents or container homes and all basic services are available.

Turkish Camps Provide Shelter to 90,000 Syrian Refugees

Displaced inside Syria: UNHCR and its Dedicated Staff help the Needy

The violence inside Syria continues to drive people from their homes, with some seeking shelter elsewhere in their country and others risking the crossing into neighbouring countries. The United Nations estimates that up to 4 million people are in need of help, including some 2 million believed to be internally displaced.

The UN refugee agency has 350 staff working inside Syria. Despite the insecurity, they continue to distribute vital assistance in the cities of Damascus, Aleppo, Al Hassakeh and Homs. Thanks to their work and dedication, more than 350,000 people have received non-food items such as blankets, kitchen sets and mattresses. These are essential items for people who often flee their homes with no more than the clothes on their backs. Cash assistance has been given to more than 10,600 vulnerable Syrian families.

Displaced inside Syria: UNHCR and its Dedicated Staff help the Needy

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