2014 UNHCR country operations profile - Somalia
| Overview |
In 2013, the new Federal Government of Somalia, established in 2012, sought to reassume control over the entire country.
The distribution of authority and resources between the Federal Government and the local administrations has proven challenging. Although the African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM) and the Somalia National Armed Forces (SNAF) pushed opposition forces out of the major cities in south-central Somalia in late 2011, the latter remain in control of small towns and large areas of the countryside where conflict continues. The security situation in Mogadishu is likely to remain volatile in 2014. Puntland and Somaliland are accessible; however access to south-central Somalia, a priority for UNHCR operations, presents a challenge.
While a countrywide legal framework for refugees and internally displaced people (IDPs) is being developed by the Ministry of the Interior and National Security, the Office has working arrangements with various local administrations for the protection and assistance of people of concern, including with the recently-appointed High Commissioner for Refugees, Returnees and IDPs.
UNHCR is facilitating the ongoing tripartite dialogue with the Government of Kenya and the Somali Federal Government, and a final draft agreement governing the voluntary repatriation of Somali refugees living in Kenya has been agreed upon by the three parties. The signing is expected in early November 2013.
Formal and ad hoc support programmes to enhance the capacity of the newly-constituted Commission for Refugees, Returnees and IDPs, through the injection of knowledge and provision of technical support, will be crucial to the success of the facilitated group return process.
With relatively greater stability anticipated in the country, some IDPs and refugees from neighbouring countries are spontaneously returning to their areas of origin. UNHCR has formed the Return Consortium, consisting of UN agencies and international NGOs in Somalia. The consortium will set standards, ensure operational synergies, jointly fundraise, and facilitate voluntary return, with the aim of ensuring the safe and sustainable reintegration of returnees in Somalia.
In 2014-2015, in addition to the refugees who will be assisted with reintegration in their areas of origin, where return is possible, refugees in Somalia will mostly continue to live in urban areas, and the Federal and sub-regional Governments are expected to continue to allocate land for IDP settlements.
People of concern
The main populations of concern planned for in 2014 under the Somalia operation are: refugees (primarily from Ethiopia), returnees and IDPs. The latter make up the largest population group in this operation.
UNHCR will continue to support the Somaliland authorities' development of asylum capacity, following the resumed registration of asylum-seekers in 2012, which had previously been suspended due to insecurity. The number of asylum-seekers has been on the increase.
|UNHCR 2014 planning figures for Somalia|
|TYPE OF POPULATION||ORIGIN||Dec 2013||Dec 2014||Dec 2015|
|Total in country||of whom assisted
|Total in country||of whom assisted
|Total in country||of whom assisted
|United Rep. of Tanzania||70||70||70||70||80||80|
|United Rep. of Tanzania||10||10||10||10||10||10|
|Returnee arrivals during year (ex-refugees)||Somalia||10,000||10,000||40,000||40,000||40,000||40,000|
|Returnee arrivals during year (ex-IDPs)||Somalia||60,000||60,000||120,000||120,000||120,000||120,000|
| Response |
Needs and strategies
UNHCR's strategy in Somalia for 2014 will continue to shift from providing care and maintenance to searching for durable solutions for people of concern. The UNHCR office in Mogadishu and several new field offices in the identified safe pockets of Somalia are planned to be fully operational in 2014. This will enable UNHCR to carry out its mandate and implement its return strategy, in cooperation with the Government and members of the Return Consortium.
Activities will focus on the return of IDPs and refugees to their areas of origin, while taking advantage of further local integration potential in the identified regions. Additionally, the Office is planning for the implementation of reintegration activities through community-based projects benefiting both returnees and host communities, and the provision of shelter and livelihood opportunities in coordination with cluster leads in the areas of water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH), health, sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) prevention and response, as well as education. Such coordinated action will ensure sustainable return and mitigate the possibility of secondary displacement. UNHCR will also continue to work closely with the Government to consolidate the durable solutions platform within the framework of the High Commissioner's Global Initiative for Somali Refugees and in conjunction with the New Deal Compact, which brings together humanitarian and development assistance.
UNHCR will maintain responsibility for the overall coordination of the protection and shelter clusters. It will continue to provide technical support to the Government in the development of a national policy framework for people of concern, including in the area of SGBV, and advocate for equal access to justice and the adoption of international conventions such as CEDAW and the Convention on the Rights of the Child.
The implementation of planned activities in 2014 will be possible if the security situation is conducive and resources are available.
| Implementation |
UNHCR will enhance its strategic links with relevant Government ministries and departments at both the federal and local levels in south-central Somalia, Puntland and Somaliland. The Office's key counterpart in Puntland and Somaliland for refugee matters is the Ministry of the Interior's Department for Refugee Protection Issues, while in south-central Somalia the counterpart is the Ministry of the Interior and National Security (MINS).
With respect to IDPs, UNHCR will work directly with the Ministry of the Interior in Puntland and south-central Somalia, and the Ministry of Rehabilitation, Resettlement and Reconstruction (MRRR) in Somaliland. A broader partnership and coordination framework will be further developed with relevant ministries in order to develop a long-term strategy to identify durable solutions for people of concern.
Under the UN operations framework, UNHCR will coordinate with other UN agencies on responding to humanitarian needs in areas of displacement, and addressing reintegration and rehabilitation needs in areas of return. The Office will also aim to develop strategic alliances with development donors and financial institutions in support of durable solutions. Coordination with international and local implementing partners has yielded new synergies in the development of programmes to support facilitated group return, spontaneous refugee returns, and inter-agency joint support programmes for IDP returnees. In addition to the Return Consortium, UNHCR has also established a Task Force on Returns with the United Nations, the Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) and NGO partners in Mogadishu.
Protection and assistance activities will continue to be delivered in close coordination with implementing and operational partners. While continuing to enhance partnerships with national and international NGOs, UNHCR will support the creation of umbrella NGOs to further strengthen the capacity of national NGOs and ensure an effective and streamlined implementation of activities. Given the volatility of the situation in many parts of Somalia, and the pivotal role of the clan system in the country, partnerships with NGOs that are local to the areas of intervention continue to be vital to operating in conflict-prone areas.
|2014 UNHCR partners in Somalia|
|Government agencies: Directorate of Refugee Reintegration and Internally Displaced People, Ministry of the Interior, Ministry of Local and Rural Development, Ministry of Resettlement and Rehabilitation|
|NGOs: Access Aid and Development, Action in Semi- Arid Lands, African Volunteers for Relief and Development, Agency for Peace and Development, American Refugee Committee, Comprehensive Community Based Rehabilitation in Somaliland, Danish Refugee Council, Galkayo Education Center for Peace and Development, Galkayo Medical Foundation, Gruppo Per Le Relazioni Transculturali, Hargeisa Voluntary Youth Committee, Horn Youth Development Association, Intersom Relief and Development, INTERSOS, Kaalo Relief and Development, Mercy Corps, Norwegian Refugee Council, Save the Children, Save Somali Women and Children, Solidarités International, SOS Kinderdorf International, Somali Women Solidarity Organization, Somali Aid Foundation, Taakulo Community Development Volunteers, University of Hargeisa Legal Clinic, We Are Women Activists Network|
|Others: FAO, ICRC, IOM, OCHA, UNDP, UNFPA, UN-Habitat, UNICEF, University of Hargeisa Legal Clinic, WFP, WHO|
| Financial information |
The financial requirements for UNHCR's operation in Somalia increased in the years leading up to 2011, when the budget peaked, allowing the Office to assist some 400,000 IDPs with emergency assistance packages in response to the famine crisis. In 2012, the budget was reduced as the Office shifted from emergency response to a focus on protection, shelter, assistance packages and the delivery of basic services.
Since 2012, however, there has been a steady increase in needs as a result of the growing number of IDPs. In 2014, the financial requirements for UNHCR's operation in Somalia are set at USD 69.6 million, an increase of approximately USD 14.3 million, when compared with the revised 2013 budget. This reflects requirements related to the return of IDPs and refugees to their areas of origin and the protection return monitoring component.
Source: UNHCR Global Appeal 2014-2105