“Being young in El Salvador can be dangerous,” he explains. “When you go out, gangs harass you. They want you to do favours for them, to collect their fees for them or alert them when the police are coming.”
Young women are often forced into romantic and sexual relationships with gang members, he adds, and young men are preyed upon to traffic drugs, run errands or become full-time members of the groups. “It is a difficult decision. If you say no, they threaten you or hurt your family.”
"We cannot lose hope. We can make our dreams come true.”
During the last year, the government registered 50.3 homicides for every 100, 000 habitants - an average of 9 people were killed every day in El Salvador. With a population of just over 6 million, El Salvador is one of the most violent countries in the world. With gangs relentlessly striving to control the territory, extortion, rape and harassment have been normalized in the midst of impunity.
This constant state of terror has forced thousands of Salvadorans from their homes. According to a government study, supported by UNHCR, between 2006 and 2016, 71,500 Salvadorans were internally displaced, an average of nearly 600 people each month. Among them are thousands of brave young women and men who face the stark choice of leaving their communities or being killed, if they refuse to aid the gangs in their criminal activities.
Jose fled twice himself, to a neighbouring country, but was deported back home both times. Now he is trying to make his community safer, so others can stay.
“I’ve decided this situation must stop,” he says. “Violence must not dictate our future. We must regain control of our lives, despite the dangers we face.”
UNHCR is working with the government, as well as humanitarian and development organizations, to spur initiatives that make life safer for displaced people in El Salvador.
“I am part of a group of young people who have been able to open small businesses and attend courses to make them thrive,” Jose says. “This has helped me regain hope.”
Though sometimes paralyzed by fear, he is determined to look forward. “I am one of those brave young men and women who, despite living in constant fear, know we have a future. We cannot lose hope. We can make our dreams come true.”
Living at risk in El Salvador
As a result of a Constitutional Court ruling in 2018 that instructed the Salvadoran Government to recognize internal displacement in the country and take appropriate measures to mitigate its effects, advocacy for the protection and long-term solutions for internally displaced people have been significantly strengthened.
UNHCR and government entities in El Salvador are working together to identify people with protection needs among displaced communities or those at risk of displacement, as well as to carry out community-based programmes that would allow people at risk to stay safe and find outlets to become self-reliant.
* Names changed for protection reasons.