Report of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
United Nations General Assembly Official Records: Thirty-fourth Session
Report of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
Supplement No. 12 (A/34/12)
1. The period covered by this report1 was characterized by a considerable increase in the magnitude of the work o.7 the Office of the United. Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). Major influxes of refugees and increased numbers of displaced persons in Africa, Asia and Latin America called for intensive and sustained efforts on the part of UNHCR to find durable and humane solutions for their plight.
2. The growing size and complexity of the refugee problem in various parts of the world has been a source of frequent and deep concern to the Higher Commissioner in the exercise of the protection function entrusted to his Office. His main efforts in this respect were particularly directed towards the prevention of refoulement, the granting of asylum, at least on a temporary basis, and the observance of the traditional obligations to rescue those in distress at sea. Close attention also continued to be given to the need to ensure the personal safety of refugees and the exercise of their basic rights. Serious difficulties were encountered in several of these areas, and there have been instances where lack of respect for the fundamental human rights of refugees have led to tragic consequences.
3. Requirements for material assistance increased dramatically in 1978, as indicated to the twenty-ninth session of the Executive Committee of the High Commissioner's Programme which was held in October 1978. Major developments affecting UNHCR's activities in the remaining months of the year prompted the High Commissioner to call an ad hoc meeting, in January 1979, of Permanent Representatives in Geneva of States members of the Executive Committee to apprise them of the consequent additional demands facing his Office. A separate meeting with interested Governments on refugees and displaced persons in South-East Asia had already been held earlier, in December 1978.
4. Total expenditures during 1978 amounted to some $134.7 million. Of this amount some $40.5 million went to finance UNHCR's General Programmes of assistance while a little more than $94 million were spent for Special Programmes. The Special Programmes were mainly financed from contributions made in response to four separate appeals for funds, which the High Commissioner made in the course of the year, to provide assistance for specific, new situations or unforeseen developments that required urgent, substantial commitment of funds. These situations concerned refugees and displaced persons from Indo-China, from Burma in Bangladesh, and within the Horn of Africa and the repatriation of Zairians wishing to return to their country.
5. The High Commissioner is most gratified by the level of support accorded him by the international community as a whole without this support, he would not have been able to discharge effectively the duties and functions of his Office. Close co-operation with an increasing number of Governments has allowed him to act speedily in a number of critical situations requiring urgent solutions. Moreover, the working relationships which the Office continued to maintain with other members of the United Nations system, intergovernmental organizations and voluntary agencies all over the world were of invaluable help in pursuing the humanitarian tasks undertaken throughout the year.
CHAPTER I INTERNATIONAL PROTECTION
6. The reporting period has seen some positive trends in the field of international protection. The High Commissioner is, however, gravely concerned by a number of serious developments adversely affecting refugees, which underline the essential importance of the international protection function and of its effective discharge by the Office.
7 On the positive side, the international community's growing humanitarian concern for refugees and displaced persons and its correspondingly increased level of support for UNHCR has enabled the Office's protection activities to attain an unprecedented level. Voluntary repatriation - naturally the most desirable solution to refugee problems - has taken place on a large scale in two specific situations in Africa and Asia. Furthermore, there has been a growing realization of the importance of international solidarity as the necessary framework for the effective exercise of the international protection function.
8. On the other hand, a number of disturbing situations have either arisen or continued. In different areas a climate generally unfavourable to asylum-seekers has been noted and there has been an increasing tendency on the part of certain Governments not to grant refugees asylum otherwise than on a strictly temporary basis. Refugees have also frequently encountered difficulties in obtaining even temporary asylum. Such refusal of temporary asylum has led to serious hardship and even to loss of life in the case of persons leaving their country of origin in boats in order to seek refuge elsewhere. Loss of life has also occurred through the rejection of asylum seekers by States at their land frontiers.
9. During the period under review there have been a number of cases in which refugees have been returned to their country of origin in violation of the generally accepted principle of non-refoulement. In a number of countries the authorities have disregarded the special situation of refugees and asylum-seekers, and subjected them to unjustified measures of imprisonment and detention. In some cases, the basic rights of refugees have been infringed to the extent of their being subjected to physical violence, abduction and torture. There is little progress to be reported in this regard and it is a matter which continues to be of the utmost concern to the High Commissioner. He wishes to emphasize that the risk of infringement of the basic rights of refugees is increased by the absence, in some countries, of appropriate administrative arrangements for ensuring that refugees are identified as such in order to enable them to enjoy the protection established for their benefit by the international community.
10. The various situations described above have called for exceptional efforts by the Office to meet the serious protection problems involved. These efforts have received the full support of the General Assembly which has repeatedly stressed the importance of international protection and of the Executive Committee of the High Commissioner's Programmes, which adopted important conclusions on international protection at its twenty-eighth2 and twenty-ninth sessions3
11. The High Commissioner's action in the field of international protection has either been undertaken on behalf of individual refugees or refugee groups, or has been of a more general promotional character. In the case of individual refugees or refugee groups, the High Commissioner has frequently been called upon to intervene with Governments in order to ensure that basic refugee rights are respected. In some cases, it was only possible for him to make representations after the event, e g., when the refugee had already been the victim of a measure of refoulement and in some cases exposed to serious harm, including loss of life.
12. In the promotional field, the High Commissioner's efforts have been directed essentially towards: (a) encouraging further accessions to the basic international refugee instruments, namely, the 1951 Convention4 and the 1967 Protocol relating to the Status of Refugees;5 (b) encouraging the adoption by States of appropriate legislative and/or administrative measures to ensure that the provisions of these international instruments are effectively implemented.
13. During 1978, four more States acceded to the 1951 Convention and to the 1967 Protocol bringing the total number of States parties to these instruments to 76 and 71 respectively. It should, however, be noted that only slightly more than half the Member States of the United Nations and/or the specialized agencies are parties to these fundamental instruments, and that there are extensive areas in which serious refugee problems exist where no State is party to either instrument. In the field of implementation, while some progress has been achieved, the general picture is far from encouraging.
14. The High Commissioner has however noted an increasing awareness, within the international community, of refugee problems and their implications as far as international protection is concerned. This awareness has been of the greatest encouragement to the High Commissioner in the exercise of his international protection function and has provided further proof that this function can only be effectively carried out in the context of international solidarity and co-operation.
B. Principles of protection and refugee rights
15 Asylum is the primary and often the most urgent need of a person who leaves his country of origin for fear of persecution in order to seek refuge and protection elsewhere. Under general international law, there is no express obligation on States to admit asylum-seekers to their territory and, as yet, no convention on territorial asylum adopted at the universal level (see paras. 25 and 26 below). Various important principles relating to asylum have, however, found expression in instruments adopted at both the universal and regional levels. Most importantly, there is a strong humanitarian tradition in favour of the admission of persons fleeing from persecution, which is illustrated by the significant numbers of asylum-seekers admitted by various States throughout the world.
16. Certain problems have, however, continued to arise in connexion with the grant of asylum, as mentioned in paragraph 8 above. The fact that certain States are only prepared to grant asylum on a temporary basis has substantially increased the need for UNHCR to seek opportunities for durable asylum elsewhere, sometimes as a matter of urgency.
17. As in previous years, there has been a tendency for negative or restrictive practices with regard to the grant of asylum to arise from considerations of a political, socioeconomic or even administrative nature. As regards political considerations, it should be recalled that the Declaration on Territorial Asylum adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations on 14 December 1967, stipulates that the grant of asylum by a State is "a peaceful and humanitarian act and that as such it cannot be regarded as unfriendly by any other State". Similarly, where considerations of a socioeconomic nature are regarded as militating against the grant of asylum, it should be borne in mind that the same Declaration provides that:
"Where a State finds difficulty in granting or continuing to grant asylum, States individually or jointly or through the United Nations shall consider, in a spirit of international solidarity, appropriate measures to lighten the burden on that State."
18. As regards arrangements for the examination of applications for asylum, there is often a risk that officials on the land and sea frontiers of a State or at its airports might either be insufficiently conversant with responsibilities relating to the grant of asylum deriving from international instruments and/or may not be in possession of sufficiently explicit instructions for dealing with such cases. It was also for this reason that the Executive Committee, at its twenty-eighth session, adopted a number of conclusions on the determination of refugee status which is, of course, also relevant to the examination of asylum requests. In one of these conclusions, the Executive Committee recommended that:
"The competent official ( e g, immigration officer or border police officer) to whom the applicant addresses himself at the border or in the territory of a Contracting State should have clear instructions for dealing with cases which might come within the purview of the relevant international instruments."6
In view of the need for asylum requests to be considered with due regard to the special problems facing the applicant, the Executive Committee at the same session also recommended that applications should be referred to "a clearly identified authority - wherever possible a single central authority".7 It is to be emphasized that, while such requirements might appear to be of a strictly technical nature, they do in fact form the essential basis for implementing the principles contained in international refugee instruments.
19. In certain situations contacts between UNHCR field staff and the competent authorities in border areas have been of the greatest practical importance ensuring that the applications by asylum-seekers receive appropriate attention, and that asylum-seekers are not rejected at the frontier and are protected against refoulement. These situations have clearly shown the importance of the Office's presence in the field and of the need for adequate staff entrusted with protection duties, a matter on which positive commendations were made by the Executive Committee at its last two sessions.
20. Most African States facing refugee situations have continued generously to receive asylum-seekers in accordance with the liberal principles regarding asylum which are also expressed in the OAU Convention of 1969 Governing the Specific Aspects of Refugee Problems in Africa. In so doing, they have frequently provided opportunities for durable settlement, especially in rural areas.
21. The problem of the already large and growing number of asylum-seekers leaving their countries of origin in the Indo-Chinese peninsula by land as well as by sea was of increasing concern to the countries of the region and to the international community as a whole. It was in order to facilitate the search for solutions to this problem that the High Commissioner held consultations with interested Governments in Geneva on 11 and 12 December 1978. Attended by representatives of 38 Governments, these consultations served generally to indicate the interdependence of the various elements of the problem and the consequent significance of international solidarity as the framework within which solutions could be found.
22. The particular question of refugees and displaced persons leaving their country of origin by sea assumed new proportions during the reporting period and gave rise to a number of problems in the context of asylum, i.e., in obtaining permission from Governments in the region for such cases to disembark and receive temporary asylum pending resettlement and, on the other hand, in procuring asylum for them on a durable basis elsewhere.
23. The question of the rescue of persons from Indo-China found in distress at sea received the attention of the Executive Committee at its twenty-ninth session, when it called upon States to instruct ships flying their flags to rescue refugees in distress at sea and also appealed to coastal States to provide at least temporary asylum to refugees coming to their shores as a first port of call or who might otherwise be in grave jeopardy.8 Pursuant to these recommendations, the High Commissioner and the Secretary-General of the Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization (IMCO) made a joint appeal to the States concerned. In addition, a further joint appeal with IMCO through the International Chamber of Shipping, following a similar approach in 1977, was made to shipowners to issue instructions to their ships' masters enjoining observance of the obligation to rescue those in distress at sea, in accordance with maritime tradition and the obligations deriving from international instruments.
24. Many countries throughout the world contributed to the solution of asylum problems by generously admitting for resettlement on a durable basis refugees and displaced persons who had been granted only temporary asylum elsewhere. The question of determining the country which can appropriately be called upon to examine an asylum request ("country of first asylum") has, however, continued to give rise to problems in various regions. Moreover, asylum seekers have been faced with a number of difficulties due to the absence in certain countries of special procedures for determining refugee status.
25. Questions concerning territorial asylum and related matters have continued to receive attention from Governments at the regional level and also from academic institutions.
26. As regards the United Nations Conference on Territorial Asylum, the High Commissioner has continued his consultations with Governments. In the light of these consultations, it would appear that the convening of a future session of the Conference may be premature at the present time. The matter is however being pursued by the High Commissioner who will report on further progress in due course.
27. The principle of non-refoulement - the prohibition of the return of a person to a country where he has reason to fear persecution - is the most important single element in the international protection of refugees. In instruments adopted at the universal level, it finds expression in the 1951 Convention and the 1967 Protocol and in the United Nations Declaration on Territorial Asylum of 1967. At the regional level, the principle of non-refoulement is also stated in legally binding instruments such as the OAU Convention of 1969 Governing the Specific Aspects of Refugee Problems in Africa (see para. 63 below) and in the American Convention on Human Rights of 1969, which entered into force during 1978 (see para. 64 below).
28. Although the principle of non-refoulement is generally accepted, cases have come to the notice of the Office during the reporting period in which refugees have been threatened with return to a country in which they had reason to fear persecution. In these cases the Office has intervened with the competent authorities to prevent refoulement. Such action has not always been successful and certain cases have only been brought to the Office's attention after refoulement has actually taken place. The danger of refoulement has been particularly great where border police and immigration officials have not received adequate instructions and/or where requests for asylum are not referred to a single central authority.
29. During 1978, the question of expulsion of refugees continued to be of concern to the Office. As in the past, illegal entry, national security and factors of a political nature were the principal considerations prompting expulsion in situations where Governments were unwilling to permit particular refugees to remain on their territory. In such cases, in order to avoid the hardship that expulsion necessarily implies for a refugee who cannot readily find admission to another country, the Office has been called upon to request a stay of the expulsion order, while seeking an alternative country of asylum, usually on an emergency basis.
30. As stated in the previous report, expulsion may have very serious consequences for a refugee and his immediate family living with him. This was recognized in the conclusions of the Executive Committee, adopted at its twenty-eighth session,9 which also recommended that expulsion measures should only be taken in very exceptional cases and after due consideration of all the circumstances, including the possibility for the refugee to be admitted to a country other than his country of origin. In the same conclusions,10 it was, furthermore, recommended that, in cases where implementation of an expulsion measure taken for reasons of delinquency might prove impracticable, States should consider giving refugee delinquents the same treatment as national delinquents and examine the possibility of elaborating an international instrument in that regard.
4. Personal safety of refugees
31. Primarily the responsibility of the competent authorities of the State in which they reside, the security of refugees is nevertheless a matter of constant concern to the High Commissioner. During the reporting period, incidents have continued to occur in which refugees have been in the most serious physical danger. In regard to such incidents the Office has made appropriate representations to the competent national authorities and in certain cases has brought such violation of refugee rights to the attention of the international community. In this respect, the Executive Committee, at its twenty-ninth session, expressed grave concern
" ... that refugees too often faced the threat of refoulement, arbitrary detention and the denial of asylum and that, particularly by racist régimes in southern Africa, their security was imperilled by armed assaults across international borders which the international community has consistently condemned"11
Furthermore, in resolution 33/26 of 29 November 1978, the General Assembly deplored the fact that refugees often faced the threat of refoulement, arbitrary detention and the denial of asylum and noted the necessity to ensure their basic human rights, protection and safety.
32. The abduction of refugees has continued to be of the greatest concern to the High Commissioner during the reporting period. In one country the number of refugees abducted since the beginning of 1977 rose to more than 50. The Office has regularly approached the competent authorities with a view to ascertaining the whereabouts of these and other refugees abducted in recent years. It is to be noted that no further cases of abduction have come to the attention of the Office during the latter part of the period, and that persons who were abducted early in 1978 were subsequently released and resettled elsewhere. In another country, which has admitted large numbers of asylum-seekers, several serious incidents were reported in which persons were subjected to robbery and extortion before being able to contact the local authorities.
33. During 1978, there were numerous instances in which asylum-seekers and refugees were detained in prison or under similar conditions for unduly long periods. In the case of asylum-seekers, such measures of detention were normally based on their illegal entry or presence in the country, despite the fact that it is frequently impossible for asylum-seekers to enter a country in a regular manner. In the case of refugees already admitted to or residing in the country, detention was often the consequence of an expulsion measure taken on grounds which would not be justified under article 32 of the 1951 Convention. Where the refugees concerned had already resided in the country for considerable periods, the expulsion orders and related measures of detention involved particular hardship. In such cases the High Commissioner has undertaken all possible steps vis-à-vis the authorities in order to obtain the release of the asylum-seekers or refugees concerned. While his efforts in this respect have not always met with success, the High Commissioner is pleased to report that refugees and asylum-seekers have been released from detention in a certain number of cases.
6. Economic and social rights
34. Progress towards the important objectives of obtaining for refugees the right to take up employment and to enjoy social benefits comparable with those normally enjoyed by nationals has continued, despite unfavourable economic conditions in some areas. As regards States parties to the 1951 Convention and the 1967 Protocol, the situation of refugees as regards economic and social rights is regulated by articles 17 to 24 of the Convention. While the standards defined in these articles are widely applied, a number of States still maintain reservations to one or more of these articles. Some progress towards the attainment of these standards has also been achieved amongst States which are not parties to these instruments.
35. During the reporting period, the situation of refugees in certain areas as regards employment has not been favourable owing to adverse economic conditions. It should, however, be noted that in countries in which the legal situation of refugees as regards employment is subject to restrictions, refugees have in practice been able to take up employment. The absence of a legal right to work in a large number of countries has, nevertheless, continued to be a matter of concern to the High Commissioner. In the traditional countries of immigration, refugees normally have the same right as other immigrants, and in many countries in Europe the position of refugees as regards employment has continued to be favourable.
7. Travel and identity documents
36. For a refugee the possibility of travelling outside his country of residence (e.g., for study purposes or to take up employment) is of particular importance. The question of the issue of refugee-travel documents pursuant to article 28 of the 1951 Convention was considered by the Executive Committee at its twenty-ninth session. In its relevant conclusion,12 the Executive Committee, inter alia, drew attention to the importance of travel documents for refugees for travel outside their country of residence and for resettlement in other countries, and urged States parties to the 1951 Convention and the 1967 Protocol to issue such documents to all refugees lawfully staying in their territory who wished to travel. The Executive Committee also recommended that Convention travel documents should have a wide validity, both geographically and in time, and, in accordance with paragraph 13 of the schedule to the Convention, should normally have a return clause with the same period of validity as that of the travel document itself.
37. As regards applications for extension of validity or renewal of travel documents, the Executive Committee recommended that such applications should, if possible, be dealt with by or through diplomatic or consular representatives in order to avoid the hardship of a refugee being obliged to return to the issuing country for this purpose, and that the person concerned should be able to secure extension or renewal in this manner also for periods exceeding the six months provided for in paragraph 6 (2) of the schedule to the 1951 Convention.
38. As regards States that are not parties to the 1951 Convention or the 1967 Protocol, the Executive Committee expressed the hope that they would issue to refugees lawfully residing in their territory appropriate travel documents under conditions as similar as possible to those attaching to the issue of 1951 Convention travel documents.
39. As part of its ongoing activities, the Office continues to promote the issue of Convention travel documents and also arranges for such documents to be printed and made available to Governments upon request for issue to refugees. As in previous years, UNHCR has maintained stocks of the Convention travel document in English/French and French/English versions. During 1978, the Office also printed and made available an Arabic/English/French version. At the end of the reporting period, the printing of a further trilingual version in Spanish/French/English was in preparation, and this version will be available to Governments during 1979.
40. UNHCR field offices have continued to co-operate with the competent authorities in many States in connexion with the issue of Convention travel documents. Where refugees, for various reasons, have not been able to obtain Convention travel documents, the Office has sought to obtain the issuance of alternative documentation.
41. As regards the important practical problem of ensuring that a refugee has adequate identification papers, article 27 of the 1951 Convention provides that Contracting States shall issue identity papers to refugees lawfully staying in their territory who are not in possession of a valid travel document. During 1978, the Office continued to co-operate in this regard with the authorities in several States in Africa. During 1978, the Office, at the request of several African Governments, arranged for the printing of identity cards for issue to substantial numbers of refugees, including some new groups. In one country in South-East Asia, which has continued to admit large numbers of asylum-seekers, the UNHCR field office, with the approval of the competent authorities, has been issuing identity cards to such persons. The practice of issuing identity cards to refugees has been continued by the competent authorities in a number of other States.
42. Facilitating the assimilation of refugees within new national communities is one of the High Commissioner's functions deriving from the Statute of his Office. In the case of refugees for whom repatriation to their country of origin is not a feasible solution, naturalization represents the final stage of integration in their country of residence. In this regard, article 34 of the 1951 Convention provides that "Contracting States shall as far as possible facilitate the assimilation and naturalization of refugees'; and "in particular make every effort to expedite naturalization proceedings and to reduce as far as possible the charges and costs of such proceedings".
43. The Office has continued to promote the naturalization of refugees by endeavouring to remove legal obstacles and to enable refugees to obtain naturalization even if they do not fulfil all the conditions applicable in the case of ordinary aliens. Where appropriate, efforts have also been directed towards securing exemption from or reduction of naturalization fees.
44. Large numbers of refugees were naturalized in various countries throughout the world in 1978. In the traditional countries of immigration, where many refugees arrive on resettlement from countries of temporary asylum the assimilation of large numbers of refugees into their national populations is a long-established, ongoing process. In Africa, UNHCR contributed to a Government programme for the naturalization of some 35,000 refugees, completion of which is expected during 1979. In one country in Europe, a UNHCR project to assist indigent refugee applicants for citizenship continued to satisfy a definite need and in several other countries large numbers of refugees and displaced persons have continued to obtain citizenship.
C. Determination of refugee status
45. As neither the 1951 Convention nor the 1967 Protocol specifies the procedure to be adopted for determining refugee status, it is for each Contracting State to establish appropriate arrangements in that regard. There is thus a considerable diversity of procedures which reflects differing constitutional or administrative structures. The High Commissioner is particularly mindful of the practical importance of appropriate procedures, without which there is always a danger that refugees might not be able to take advantage of the standards of treatment established for their benefit under both international and national law. There have, indeed, been cases where refugees have been exposed to serious measures of detention, expulsion and even refoulement owing to the fact that their status has not been formally determined.
46. The importance which the Executive Committee attached to this question at its twenty-eighth session was reaffirmed in a conclusion adopted at its twenty-ninth session,13 which expressed the hope that further States would give favourable consideration to the establishment of procedures for the determination of refugee status. Accordingly, the High Commissioner has continued his consultations with a number of Governments as to the possibility of establishing such procedures.
47. During 1978, procedures recently introduced in a number of States were further consolidated and developed. In Contracting States which have not introduced formal determination procedures, the Office has frequently co-operated closely with the competent authorities in the determination of refugee status within the framework of existing administrative arrangements.
48. A Handbook on Procedures and Criteria for the Determination of Refugee Status has been prepared by the Office for the guidance of Governments, pursuant to a request of the Executive Committee at its twenty-eighth session. English, French and Spanish versions, in an advance mimeographed edition, have been distributed to Governments of States parties to the 1951 Convention and the 1967 Protocol. The possibility of translations into other languages is under consideration and it is anticipated that the final printed versions will become available for distribution to Governments in the course of 1979.
49. The question of the extraterritorial effect of the determination of refugee status was considered in depth by the Executive Committee at its twenty-ninth session on the basis of a report submitted to the Sub-Committee of the Whole on International Protection. In its conclusion adopted on this matter,14 the Executive Committee, inter alia, emphasized the essentially international character of refugee status as defined under the 1951 Convention and the 1967 Protocol and "Recognized, therefore, that refugee status as determined in one Contracting State should only be called into question by another Contracting State in exceptional cases when it appears that the person manifestly does not fulfil the requirements of the Convention, e.g. if facts become known indicating that tile statements initially made were fraudulent or showing that the person concerned falls within the terms of a cessation or exclusion provision of the 1951 Convention".15
D. Voluntary repatriation
50. One of the principal functions entrusted to the High Commissioner under the Statute of his Office is to assist Governments to facilitate voluntary repatriation of refugees, which is naturally the most desirable solution to refugee problems. Voluntary repatriation may, of course, take place without any involvement of UNHCR. The Office is, however, frequently called upon to facilitate voluntary repatriation both for individuals and for groups of refugees, and in so doing it has to approach the competent authorities of countries of origin with a view to overcoming any particular obstacles involved and, where necessary, to pay travel costs. The later chapters on assistance activities provide details of UNHCR's involvement in mass repatriation operations during the period under review. Voluntary repatriation is frequently encouraged by the granting of an amnesty by the authorities of countries of origin of refugees. Several such amnesties have been issued during the reporting period. When the Office is called upon to facilitate voluntary repatriation in such cases it also seeks to ensure that the terms of the amnesty as to the conditions of return of refugees are observed.
E. Family reunification
51. The separation of families and their dispersal in different parts of the world is often one of the tragic features of refugee situations and other man-made disasters. Frequently, a refugee head of family leaves his country while his family remains behind, and in other cases family members leave for various destinations and find themselves in different countries. It also occurs that a refugee family, having been admitted to one country on a temporary basis, cannot leave together as a unit for their country of resettlement owing to technical immigration requirements.
52. The imperative nature of family reunification is recognized in various international instruments covering, human rights such as the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948 and the United Nations Covenant on Civil and Political Rights of 1966 and Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949. Specifically as regards refugee families, the Final Act of the Conference of Plenipotentiaries which adopted the 1951 Convention recommended that Governments should take measures for the protection of the refugee family by ensuring that unity is maintained, particularly in cases where the head of the family has fulfilled the necessary conditions for admission to a particular country. The activities of the Office in this field also derive from its statutory function to facilitate the assimilation of refugees within new national communities, in that prolonged separation from close family members can have serious psychological and social consequences that could impede the refugee's progress in settling down in his new country.
53. For reunification purposes, the Office generally regards the basic family unit as the spouse and minor children. Where, however, there is evidence that other relatives also form part of the family unit and that they significantly depend on the refugee, it is sometimes possible for UNHCR, depending on the regulations existing in the countries concerned, to assist in promoting reunification for such relatives.
54. The period under review has been notable for a number of encouraging developments in the field of family reunification. Thus, the movement of family members from one South American country to be reunited with their refugee heads of family in their respective countries of residence continued with the departure of a further 640 relatives, bringing the total of such reunifications since September 1973 to over 6,300. In Europe the Office has continued to approach Governments with a view to facilitating family reunification and a number of cases were satisfactorily solved. In Africa, as in previous years, measures were taken to promote reunification in a smaller number of individual cases in several countries.
55. In one country in South-East Asia, UNHCR action in regard to family reunification had previously been limited to facilitating transport in cases where entry and exit visas had already been granted. It later became possible for the Office to assume a more active role, initially by organizing a number of special flights for certain persons who had been granted permission to leave the country. Subsequently, an announcement was made by the authorities that family members of displaced persons abroad and other persons wishing to leave the country would, with certain exceptions, be able to do so. The possibility has thus arisen for the Office, with the active co-operation of Governments, to facilitate family reunification on a wider scale.
56. Family reunification has continued to be a factor of major importance in obtaining the admission of refugees and displaced persons to most traditional countries of immigration.
F. International instruments16
1. Statute of the Office of the High Commissioner17
57. The Statute of the Office of the High Commissioner, together with subsequent resolutions of the General Assembly, defines the mandate entrusted to the High Commissioner by the international community. The practical importance of the Statute derives from the fact that its universal character supports the action of the Office in relation to States irrespective of whether they are parties to the 1951 Convention or the 1967 Protocol. The Statute has indeed assumed increasing importance with the emergence of refugee problems in recent years in a number of States that are not parties to either instrument.
58. In relation to international instruments, the significance of the Statute lies in the fact that, under article 8 (a), the Office is required to promote the conclusion and ratification of international conventions for the protection of refugees and to supervise their application.
2. 1951 Convention and 1967 Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees
59. As the most comprehensive instruments defining the rights and duties of refugees yet attempted at the universal level, which lay down standards for the treatment of refugees that are in many respects the same as those for nationals, the 1951 Convention and the 1967 Protocol are of fundamental importance to the Office's international protection function.
60. As regards the efforts of the High Commissioner to promote more accessions to the Convention and the Protocol, further expressions of support were received from both the Executive Committee and the General Assembly. The High Commissioner's initiative to promote more accessions, undertaken with the support of a recommendation of the Executive Committee at its twenty-eighth session, has resulted in four more States (Panama, Spain, Somalia and Suriname) adhering to the Convention and the Protocol during 1978. A number of other States have indicated that they are actively considering accession to these fundamental refugee instruments. While these positive responses are to be welcomed, it should nevertheless be recalled that only slightly more than half of the States Members of the United Nations and/or of the specialized agencies are parties to these instruments. Moreover, there are still extensive areas in which refugee problems continue to occur where no State is a party to either instrument.
61. Full and effective implementation on the national level of the provisions of the Convention and Protocol is seldom an immediate consequence of a State adhering to these instruments. In many States, in the absence of specific constitutional provisions to such effect, international conventions do not automatically become part of national law. In other States, ratified international conventions, although an integral part of national law, do not take precedence over other provisions with which they might conflict. Even in those States where ratified international conventions are constitutionally part of national law, implementation of the Convention and Protocol, in order to be fully effective, requires specific legislation and/or administrative measures.
62. Pursuant to article 35 of the Convention and the corresponding article II of the Protocol, States parties to these instruments undertake to co-operate with the Office in the exercise of its functions and particularly in facilitating its duty of supervising the application of their provisions. While UNHCR is in regular contact with a number of Governments of States parties to these instruments on various aspects of implementation, it considers that more effective performance of its function in this regard requires an intensification of activity. This would necessarily depend on the availability of additional staff members entrusted with protection duties, both in UNHCR field offices and at Headquarters. At its twenty-ninth session, the Executive Committee welcomed the High Commissioner's efforts to make such staff available.18
3. OAU Convention of 1969
63. Complementing and in some respects extending at the regional level the provisions of the 1951 Convention and the 1967 Protocol, the OAU Convention of 1969 Governing the Specific Aspects of Refugee Problems in Africa is of particular significance. The Convention contains an extended definition of the term "refugee" as well as detailed provisions regarding asylum and voluntary repatriation. There were no further accessions to the OAU Convention during the reporting period and the total of States parties remains at 18. Questions concerning the implementation of the OAU Convention and other important problems relating to the protection of refugees in Africa were examined by the Pan-African Conference on Refugees, held in Arusha from 7 to 17 May 1979.
4. American Convention on Human-Rights of 1969
64. The American Convention on Human Rights of 1969 (the "Pact of San José, Costa Rica") entered into force on 18 July 1978, the date on which Grenada deposited its instrument of ratification as the eleventh State to become party to this instrument. Subsequently, both Peru and Jamaica also adhered. This Convention contains, inter alia, important provisions relevant to asylum, and gives expression to the fundamental principle of non-refoulement. It is of particular value for the protection of refugees in that some States parties to the Pact of San José, Costa Rica, have not yet acceded to the 1951 Convention and the 1967 Protocol.
5. Other international legal instruments of relevance to refugees
65. During the period under review, there were no further accessions to other international legal instruments of dealing specifically with refugees, such as the 1957 Agreement and 1973 Protocol relating to Refugee Seamen, and the European Agreement of 1959 on the Abolition of Visas for Refugees.
66. The 1954 Convention relating to the Status of Stateless Persons and the 1961 Convention on the Reduction of Statelessness together constitute the principal international instruments adopted at the universal level for the benefit of stateless persons, many of whom are also refugees. The former instrument is modelled on the 1951 Convention and provides for the granting to stateless persons of a which is similar, although in some respects less favourable, to that accorded to refugees under the 1951 Convention. The 1961 Convention on the Reduction of Statelessness provides, inter alia, that a Contracting State shall grant its nationality (either by operation of law at birth or through application at a later date) to persons in its territory who would otherwise be stateless and who satisfy one or more specified conditions. In facilitating the acquisition of nationality at birth, the 1961 Convention is also of value in helping to avoid the perpetuation of refugee status.
67. During the period under review there were no further accessions to the 1954 Convention, the total of States parties to which therefore remained at 32. With the accession of Canada to the 1961 Convention, the total of States parties thereto increased to 10.
68. The Office has continued to act, pursuant to General Assembly resolutions 3274 (XXIX) and 31/36, as the body to which a person claiming benefit of the 1961 Convention may apply for examination of his claim and for assistance in presenting it to the appropriate authority.
69. Further extension of the international legal framework for the protection of refugees constitutes an essential part of the Office's statutory protection function. This necessarily implies both reviewing existing relevant international instruments with a view to promoting the extension of their provisions to refugees where appropriate and following work in international bodies which could either directly or indirectly affect the legal position of refugees.
70. Thus, during the period under review the Office attended both the Special Committee of Governmental Experts to prepare a draft Convention on the Recognition of Studies, Diplomas and Degrees in Higher Education in Arab States and the subsequent International Conference which adopted the Convention. (The latter instrument includes a provision which, under certain conditions, would benefit refugees and stateless persons.) Similarly, the Office attended the Special Committee of Governmental Experts to prepare a draft Convention on the Recognition of Studies, Diplomas and Degrees in Higher Education in States of the European Region and meetings of the Preparatory Intergovernmental Committee on the Revision of the Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property. Other meetings which UNHCR continued to follow included United Nations Human Rights bodies and the Ad Hoc Committee of the General Assembly on the Drafting of an International Convention against the taking of Hostages.
G. Dissemination of the principles of protection and of refugee law
71. While the promotional activities of the Office in relation to international protection are primarily carried out in close co-operation with Governments, the Office is also mindful of the concomitant need to promote a favourable climate of opinion, in particular amongst persons dealing with refugee matters, practising lawyers and social workers and in academic circles.
72 Activities in this regard have included co-operation with the United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), the International Red Cross and international academic and professional institutions such as, most notably in the present period, the International Institute of Humanitarian Law, at San Remo, and the International Institute of Human Rights, at Strasbourg, to which UNHCR staff members have given lectures and contributed papers at seminars on aspects of international protection or refugee law. Also of particular significance during 1978 was the adoption in the final document of the International Congress on the Teaching of Human Rights, held at Vienna during September 1978, of a recommendation that the fundamental rights of refugees be included in the various programmes for the teaching of human rights. This document was subsequently endorsed by a United Nations seminar on the promotion and protection of human rights, which also noted the special role of UNHCR in the promotion of human rights, and particularly those of refugees. The Office has maintained regular contact 'with a number of non-governmental organizations active in this field, including the Association for the Study of the World Refugee Problem and the International Commission of Jurists.
CHAPTER II ASSISTANCE ACTIVITIES IN AFRICA
A. General developments
73. The number of persons in Africa who became of concern to UNHCR in the course of 1978, as opposed to those who were already of concern to the Office, was very substantial. Areas and countries affected included the Horn of Africa, Botswana, Mozambique, the Sudan, Zaire and Zambia. UNHCR naturally continued to provide assistance to existing beneficiaries, and in addition it is worthy of note that the programme of assistance to displaced persons in Mozambique was phased out at the end of 1977, and that the United Nations Programme of Humanitarian Assistance in Angola was virtually completed in 1978.
74. Events in the Horn of Africa in the early part of 1978 resulted in requests from Governments in the region for assistance for the uprooted. UNHCR, following consultations with the Secretary-General of the United Nations and with the Organization of African Unity (OAU), drew up programmes of humanitarian assistance for refugees and displaced persons in Djibouti, Ethiopia and Somalia. UNHCR then appealed to the international community for an amount of some $12,150,000 to finance these programmes. Subsequently, the Economic and Social Council, by resolution 1978/39 of 1 August 1978, inter alia, invited the High Commissioner to continue to intensity humanitarian assistance to the refugees and displaced persons in the region, and requested him to include in his annual report to the Council at its second regular session of 1979, information regarding the steps taken to implement the resolution. Details will be found under the country headings below.
75. Also in 1978, UNHCR began an operation under its Special Programme to assist with he voluntary repatriation of Zairians, mainly from Angola, who wished to take advantage of the terms of an amnesty decreed by the President of Zaire in the middle of the year. The operation, which continues in 1979, was costed at $11,375,000 in cash, plus 13,500 metric tons of food valued at $7,715,000, and was the subject of a separate appeal.
76. Sizeable groups of refugees to whom UNHCR continued to provide assistance under the General Programmes during the period under review were, as previously, Angolans in Zaire, Ethiopians in the Sudan and refugees from Burundi in the United Republic of Tanzania, in addition to Zairians remaining in Angola. The year under review also saw the continuing arrival in various countries of southern Africa of refugees from Namibia and Zimbabwe, and of refugee students from South Africa. Pursuant to the relevant resolutions of the General Assembly, UNHCR also has continued to channel certain measures of assistance to refugees from colonial territories through national liberation movements recognized by OAU.
77. Table 1 of annex II indicates that expenditures under UNHCR's General Programmes, in Africa in 1978 totalled over $26.5 million. Of this total a little over $23 million was devoted to local settlement, mainly in agriculture, and it is gratifying to be able to report that in this domain certain projects have been phased out or are planned to be phased out in the course of 1979 or 1980. Expenditures under the Special Programmes totalled over $27.5 million, of which the greater part (over $20 million) was again for assistance towards local settlement. In addition, some $1.8 million was made available from the Refugee Education Account and an amount of $200,000 was provided from the United Nations Trust Fund for South Africa for assistance to individual refugees.
B. Main developments in various countries or areas
78. At the end of 1978 the number of refugees in Angola of concern to UNHCR was estimated at nearly 141,000. This total was made up of 110,000 Zairians, of whom 18,000 were accommodated in settlements; 30,000 Namibians, of whom 20,000 were in settlements; and the remainder from South Africa.
79. In addition to these numbers there were the Angolans returning to the country and those who had been displaced within the country, for whom the High Commissioner had been appointed, in 1976, coordinator of the United Nations Programme of Humanitarian Assistance to Angola. In 1978, UNHCR's activities under this programme involving expenditures amounting to some $255,800, were limited to following up the measures put in train in 1977. However, under another programme, implemented in Portugal, about 1,100 persons had been assisted to return to Angola by early March 1979. In the same month, the Government of Angola approached UNHCR with a request for further assistance, in respect of Angolans wishing to repatriate from Zaire.
80. With regard to the refugees from Zaire, who numbered some 220,000 at the beginning of 1978, UNHCR had planned to move from the emergency phase of its programme in the middle of the year to the second phase which would have covered integration measures. An evaluation mission, consisting of representatives of the Government, UNHCR, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) assessed the viability of the sites where refugees were located, and concluded that these sites were not very fertile. However, this integration programme was not pursued, for two reasons. In the first place, the Government decided to move the refugees away from the border area on security grounds, and secondly the President of Zaire promulgated an amnesty decree towards the end of June 1978 in favour of Zairians who had sought refuge outside the country. As a result, UNHCR, at the request of the authorities concerned, prepared and implemented a voluntary repatriation operation, which continued into 1979, and which saw the departure of almost 110,000 Zairians in 1978.
81. The UNHCR programme of assistance to Namibians in Angola had to be revised upwards several times in 1978 on account of the increasing numbers, raids by South African forces, and the decision taken by the Government to move those in Huila province to Kwanza Sul for security reasons. The initial allocation was finally raised to $982,000 by the end of the year, for immediate needs such as tents, household articles, agriculture tools, clothing and transport, and significant additional assistance was provided by the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the World Food Programme (WFP) and WHO. In this connexion, tribute must be paid to the co-operative spirit evidenced by representatives of other bodies in the United Nations system, particularly with regard to joint missions which took place to evaluate requirements, to avoid duplication of effort, and to determine the measures of assistance to be channelled through the South West Africa People's Organization (SWAPO).
82. Total expenditures in Angola in 1978 amounted to $4,036,600. Apart from the amounts mentioned above, this total also included $176,600 made available from the Trust Fund for Southern Africans and some $17,000 from other Trust Funds.
83. With the continuing influx of refugees from Ethiopia in the early part of 1978 it became apparent that the 1978 allocation for Djibouti under the General Programmes would not suffice, and therefore the High Commissioner's appeal in respect of humanitarian assistance in the region of the Horn of Africa included a proposed programme for Djibouti in an amount of $2.2 million. At the end of 1978 the Government estimated that the number of refugees from Ethiopia could be as high as 20,000, with some 12,500 living in camps at Dikhil and Ali Sabieh, while 3,500 others had been granted refugee status in Djibouti town. Others were staying among the local population.
84. The country is very arid, and domestic food production is inadequate to the increased requirements. Thus the refugees in the two camps depend entirely on outside assistance. In 1978 relief assistance included food and other basic needs, to which WFP contributed, a project for the construction of 500 dwellings in each camp to replace tents, work on the water supply, and a prefabricated ward for tuberculosis patients in Dikhil Camp. In addition, funds were expended for the construction of primary education facilities and the provision of teaching staff and materials. A dispensary has been set up in each camp, and the rural health centre at Ali Sabieh expanded.
85. Despite the difficulties posed by the prevailing conditions, a pilot project involving irrigated gardens along river beds was established, and studies were undertaken to determine other possibilities for rural settlement.
86. For the refugees in Djibouti town, where the level of unemployment makes integration difficult, a small local settlement project was established to provide a number of skilled refugees with the opportunity to establish themselves in their craft or trade and to take other refugees as apprentices. A counselling service was established to evaluate the case-load with a view to resettlement or education in other countries. In the last quarter of 1978 some 200 refugee students were placed in education in Egypt.
87. Total UNHCR assistance for refugees in Djibouti in 1978 amounted to some $1,633,000, including contributions in kind made available by a number of Governments and voluntary agencies. Of the total amount some $988,000 was allocated from the General Programmes and some $645,300 from the Special Programmes. The Government of Djibouti established a National Office for Assistance to refugees which acts as UNHCR's operational partner. Volunteer project supervisors were provided by the French association "Volontaires du progrès", and "Médecins sans Frontières" provided a team of doctors and nurses for each of the two camps.
88. The number of refugees in Egypt increased in 1978 from 4,500 to over 5,000, mainly as a result of further arrivals from Ethiopia. Of UNHCR's expenditures in 1978 under its General Programmes, amounting to almost $226,000, local settlement assistance continued to receive the largest part, over one third of the total. Approximately the same amount was split between educational assistance at the lower secondary level and the provision of supplementary assistance. A smaller amount was used to provide assistance in resettlement to 84 persons, mostly of Ethiopian origin. Counselling activities benefited over 1,000 refugees in 1978.
89. Expenditures under Special Programmes, amounting to $243,425, included an allocation of approximately $142,000 to some 210 students arriving in Egypt by way of Djibouti as a result of events in the Horn of Africa. Other refugees benefited from the Education Account, and a small amount was made available from the United Nations Trust Fund for South Africa to refugees from that country, in transit or living in Egypt, who were in urgent need of supplementary aid. Two private donors provided funds which were used to pay monthly allowances to 60 aged and handicapped refugees of Armenian origin.
90. The estimated number of refugees in Ethiopia at the end of 1978 remained at around 10,900, comprising individuals of various origins in Addis Ababa and other urban centres, refugees from southern Sudan settled in the Gambela area, and refugees from the northern areas of Sudan located at Ganduar. As regards this latter group, plans were pursued to resettle them near Bahr Dar, south of Lake Tana, in the event that repatriation proves impossible. In co-operation with UNHCR, the Government undertook a survey of the proposed site, which confirmed its suitability. Total UNHCR assistance in Ethiopia in 1978 under the General Programmes amounted to over $59,000 and covered measures such as local integration, supplementary aid, voluntary repatriation and counselling. Care and maintenance for the refugees from southern Sudan was provided under previous years' commitments. Expenditure under the Special Programmes, such as the Education Account and the United Nations Trust Fund for South Africa amounted to over $31,000.
91. As a result of events in the Horn of Africa in the early part of 1978, the Government of Ethiopia requested assistance for displaced persons in the Ogaden region, estimated at approximately 500,000. In his appeal for humanitarian assistance in the Horn of Africa, the High Commissioner included a programme, valued at $5,075,000, designed to assist some 30,000 most needy displaced families (approximately 150,000 persons) to resettle. Assistance provided included resettlement kits, equipment for the reconstruction of communal facilities and housing, transportation, seeds, agricultural tools, blankets and supplementary food. Assistance was coordinated with UNICEF, UNDP, WFP and FAO and distribution was ensured by the Ethiopian Relief and Rehabilitation Commission. In 1978, assistance to victims in the Ogaden region financed under the programme for the Horn of Africa totalled nearly $4,082,000.
92. The total number of refugees in Kenya at the end of 1978 was estimated at 6,500, comprising mainly about 4,600 Ugandans and smaller groups of refugees from other African countries. Most of the refugees live in and around Nairobi.
93. Assistance was rendered to needy refugees, including those from South Africa, through the provision of monthly subsistence allowances, guidance for education and for resettlement in other countries. Grants towards local settlement were also given and the repatriation of a number of refugees was also facilitated.
94. Following the allocation by the Kenya Government of approximately 19,000 acres of agricultural land in Witu, Lamu District, for a rural settlement scheme, preparations were begun for the establishment of the settlement.
95. The construction of a centre for the reception of asylum-seekers at Thika, near Nairobi, has been completed. The reception centre is expected to become operational in 1979.
96. A total of $1,837,400 was spent in 1978 to finance projects in Kenya including $1,331,000 under General Programmes, mainly for supplementary aid and initial expenditure for the rural settlement scheme. Expenditure under Special Programmes amounted to $506,400, of which $416,600 were made available for the Education Account.
97. The total population of the UNHCR-assisted settlements for Zimbabwe refugees rose from 42,500 to 80,000 in the course of 1978. In addition, an estimated 20,000 persons settled in Mozambican villages.
98. The number of settlements was increased to five: Doroi (Manica province), Tronga (Sofala province), Mavudzi and Matenge (Tete province), and Memo (Gaza province). The Government of Mozambique has donated vast areas of land for crop cultivation. However, the organization of the agricultural effort was hampered on many occasions by ground and air attacks of the Southern Rhodesian forces, bringing the loss of many lives and destruction on the ground. As a result, with a view to improving the safety of the refugees, the Government which is the implementing agency for all UNHCR projects in Mozambique decided, in 1979, to divide each settlement into smaller units. Since each subsettlement will require independent facilities, increased costs for the programme will be inevitable. In addition, since it had become clear that the presence of Zimbabweans in Mozambique would continue for longer than the short period estimated at the outset, the Government decided that all the settlements should have more durable facilities.
99. At the time of the High Commissioner's visit to Mozambique early in 1978, it was agreed that assistance programmes would be prepared to meet the needs of refugees in the UNHCR-assisted transit centres. Programmes were accordingly prepared for the centres at Gondola and Xai-Xai. In July 1978, however, the centre at Gondola was destroyed by Southern Rhodesian forces with much loss of life among the children who were the main inhabitants. The survivors were resettled on a new site at Matenge in Tete province, in a settlement which is essentially an education centre, as most of the 3,500 inhabitants are of school age. The centre at Xai-Xai was also closed for security reasons, and its inhabitants were transferred to the Tronga settlement.
100. In September 1978 the Government of Mozambique requested assistance in respect of the some 20,000 Zimbabwean refugees who had settled in areas adjoining Southern Rhodesia. Funds were included in the 1979 General Programmes.
101. Apart from the assistance to Zimbabweans, UNHCR also assisted some 200 individual refugees from various other countries, in particular South African refugee students in transit, many of whom stayed temporarily in the hostel in Maputo.
102. UNHCR opened an office in Beira in August 1979 with the aim of speeding up clearance through the port, and delivery, of goods arriving for the refugee settlements.
103. WFP carried the main effort for providing food, with the provision of staples worth over $5 million. Supplementary food requirements and enriched food for children were made available through the use of UNHCR funds and by other donors.
104. UNHCR expenditures in 1978 under General and Special Programmes amounted to over $4,579,000, of which over $4.2 million were for local settlement assistance. UNHCR assistance was supplemented by the efforts of UNICEF, the Lutheran World Federation, the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), the Christian Council of Mozambique, Governments and. other voluntary agencies.
105. As a result of events in the Horn of Africa in the early part of 1978, large numbers of people arrived in Somalia from the neighbouring regions of Ethiopia, and by mid-1978 the Government considered their numbers to have increased to over 500,000, with approximately 120,000 living in refugee camps and others living among the local population or moving from place to place. Following a request for assistance from the Government early in the year, two UNHCR fact-finding missions visited the camps and concentrations of refugees and, in consultation with the authorities, formulated a programme of assistance for the 150,000 most needy persons, estimated at $4,875,000 to cover basic requirements as well as some initial measures towards their self-reliance. This funding requirement was included in the High Commissioner's 1978 appeal for humanitarian assistance in the Horn of Africa. To administer assistance to the persons and groups concerned, the Government established an Inter-Ministerial Committee chaired by the Vice-President, and UNHCR appointed a Chargé de mission in Mogadishu.
106. The programme provided assistance for shelter and various domestic needs through local and international procurement. In order to ensure satisfactory health conditions in the camps a number of projects were established for supplementary feeding, purchase of ambulances, medicines, sanitary equipment and for the improvement of water facilities. An initial programme was also formulated in respect of agricultural activities including the construction of water systems and the purchases of agricultural tools. To meet the education requirements of the camp population, provisions were made for the purchase of various basic school materials. Assistance to the refugees was also provided by UNICEF, WFP, the European Economic Community (EEC) and other governmental, intergovernmental and non-governmental sources. In 1978 UNHCR expenditure for assistance to the refugees/ displaced Persons amounted to over $3,831,000 of which $452,717 were financed from the High Commissioner's Emergency Fund and the balance from the response to the appeal for humanitarian assistance in the Horn of Africa.
8. Southern Africa (Botswana, Lesotho, Swaziland)
107. It will be recalled19 that in 1977 the Secretary-General appointed the High Commissioner as coordinator within the United Nations system of assistance to South African refugee students, and that the High Commissioner's Programme in favour of refugee students in Botswana, Lesotho and Swaziland formed the basis of an appeal for support for programmes designed to meet the over-all needs of southern African refugees in various African countries.
108. The number of refugees in Botswana increased substantially during 1978, with the arrival of over 25,300 Zimbabweans. However, as a result of departures, at the end of the year the total number of refugees in the country was estimated at only 18,600, of whom 95 per cent were Zimbabweans and the remainder mostly from South Africa.
109. In Lesotho the number of registered refugees was 187 at the end of 1978. In the course of the year, 104 refugees arrived from countries in southern Africa and 52 left for resettlement elsewhere. In addition to the registered case-load there was a large number of unregistered South African refugee students who were enrolled in educational institutions.
110. In Swaziland a total of 739 new refugees were registered in 1978, whilst 103 refugees departed to other African countries. At the end of the year the case-load stood at some 700 persons. There were also several thousand unregistered South African refugee students who had gained admission to schools.
111. UNHCR action to assist refugee students was included in the Secretary-Generals' report on assistance to South African refugee students (A/33/163 and Corr. 1). In Botswana, during the period under review, the construction of a student hostel at the University College was completed, and funds were provided towards the construction and equipment of a junior and a secondary school. The Educational Resource Centre, located at Gaborone, staffed and administered by the Mennonite Central Committee, provides correspondence courses and tuition at the lower secondary level for some 200 refugee students who cannot be immediately integrated into the national education system. The improvements to the transit centre at Francistown were completed and additional vehicles were provided there and for the centre at Selebi-Pikwe. UNICEF shared the cost of 110 tents for these two centres. Also in Botswana, funds were provided for the construction and equipment of 90 low-cost houses at Selebi-Pikwe and for rent subsidies. In the face of the increasing number of Zimbabwean arrivals, the Government of Botswana decided to establish, with UNHCR assistance, a settlement at Dukwe, with a planned capacity of approximately 20,000 persons. By the end of 1978 the population there was more than 8,000.
112. In Lesotho, the 1977 project for the expansion of secondary schools was increased to cover nine schools.
113. In Swaziland, the completion of the transit centre (to hold 60 people) and secondary school (200 places) at Mpaka, scheduled for the first part of 1979, was delayed by extensive storm damage. The Thokoza school, run by the Mennonite Central Committee, and for which UNHCR provides funds, catered for some 60 refugee students at the end of 1978. With the completion of the centre at Mpaka, students continuing their studies will be transferred there.
114. Other assistance measures in Botswana.' Lesotho and Swaziland included care and maintenance costs, counselling, travel costs to enable refugees to benefit from educational opportunities in other countries. scholarships, supplementary aid and local settlement assistance. UNHCR opened offices in Lesotho and Swaziland.
115. A total of over 10,069,000 was expended by UNHCR in Botswana (over $8,050.000), Lesotho (over $734,700) and Swaziland ($1,284,200) in 1978: $2,550,800 under General Programmes and $7,518,7000 under Special Programmes.
116. The number of Ethiopian refugees in Sudan grew to an estimated total of 270,000 by the end of 1970. Many of those who had arrived in previous years had already been assimilated to a certain extent into local communities in Kassala Province, with the result that the assistance provided by UNHCR was primarily for the new arrivals and for those earlier arrivals who were living in temporary sites or were being transferred to newly established refugee villages.
117. During 1978 some 5,500 Ethiopian refugees were transferred from their temporary location at Wad-el-Hileiwu to the permanent settlements at Qala-en-Nahel, Es Suki and Um Gargur in accordance with the plan drawn up in 1976 for rural settlement in agriculture. The settlement plan allows for continuing settlement of refugees in 1979 at other sites in the Presidential Decree Area and near agricultural schemes at Rahad and New Halfa, where refugees may seek employment.
118. In July 1978 an emergency operation was undertaken in response to a new influx of some 8,000 Ethiopian refugees near Kassala and Damazine, most of whom have been accommodated in temporary camps. In December 1978 a further influx of over 5,000 refugees began to arrive in the Red Sea Province and programmes of emergency relief were prepared in early 1979.
119. Of the estimated 4,500 Zairian. refugees in Sudan, some repatriated voluntarily, whilst others remain in Sudan, where they are self-sufficient.
120. UNHCR's expenditures in Sudan in 1978 under its General Programmes totalled over $2,583,000, including $1,84,000 for rural settlement and $480,000 for lower secondary education. An amount of over $862,000 was expended under Special Programmes, including $257,000 from the Education Account.
121. By the end of 1973 the number of refugees in Khartoum was estimated to be well over 20,000. UNHCR sponsored counselling and provided supplementary assistance to some 11,000 individual cases and close to 1,000 scholarships were made available for academic and vocational/technical training.
10. United Republic of Tanzania
122. It was estimated that at the end of 1978 there were 160,000 refugees of concern to UNHCR in the United Republic of Tanzania. Of this total, some 129,500 were from Burundi, most of them living in the organized rural settlements, 25,000 were Rwandese, 4,100 were Ugandans and smaller numbers were from Zaire, southern African and other African countries.
123. The organized settlements for refugees from Burundi are Ulyankulu and Katumba, the largest refugee settlements in Africa, and the new settlement at Mishamo. A census revealed that the population at Ulyankulu stood at around 48,000. The transfer of about 1,000 refugees to Mishamo in the course of 1978 reduced this number. At the request of the Government, the three project partners involved in the Ulyankulu settlement, namely, the Government, UNHCR and the Lutheran World Federation/Tanganyika Christian Refugee Service (TCRS), have agreed that it will not now be handed over to the Government until the end of June 1980 in order to permit consolidation of the settlement after the departure of some further 24,000 refugees for Mishamo.
124. As a result of extensive flood damage the settlement's income from its 1977/78 crop was less than in the previous year. On the other hand, the livestock development programmes progressed well. While arrangements were being made to register the multi-purpose co-operative with the Tanzania Rural Development Bank, efforts were being aimed at establishing one village co-operative for each of the 13 villages in the settlement. The refugees themselves have contributed some $6,000 for the construction of shops, and the total number of classrooms has been raised from 45 to 90 in conformity with the Government policy of Universal Primary Education (UPE).
125. The Katumba settlement, accommodating over 66,000 refugees from Burundi was officially handed over to the Government at the end of June 1978.
126. The new settlement at Mishamo was established in 1978 to accommodate the excess population of Ulyankulu and some 12,000 to 15,000 refugees from the border areas of Kigoma region. It is planned that the completed settlement will consist of 21 villages. By the end of 1978 the population had reached about 1,000 transferred from Ulyankulu as mentioned above, and these refugees had begun to cultivate their plots of land. Five research farms had been established by two TCRS project officers in the context of the agricultural development programme, and a primary school was operational, with 135 Pupils.
127. At the Kigwa settlement for Ugandan refugees, the population remained at something over 2,000 in 1978. The transfer of this settlement to the Government has been postponed to December 1979 because of delays in the completion of the Community Education complex and of the second phase of the water supply system.
128. Other forms of assistance provided by UNHCR in the United Republic of Tanzania, mainly for individual refugees, including southern African refugee students, covered, inter alia, local settlement, counselling, education, repatriation and resettlement.
129. The secondary school at Tunduru, financed from trust funds made available to UNHCR, is expected to be largely completed in 1979. The project continues to be supervised by the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) and the International Development Association (IDA). The school will accommodate refugees and nationals, and the national authorities have agreed to reciprocate by admitting refugees to secondary schools throughout the country.
130. Total expenditures incurred by UNHCR in 1978 under its General Programme amounted to $2,981,870 including some $2,892,600 for local settlement. Expenditures under the Special Programmes amounted to just over $734,200.
131. The new influx of Angolan refugees into Zaire which began in November 1977 continued well into 1978. By the end of the year refugees in Zaire included several hundred thousand Angolans (perhaps over 600,000), 22,000 Rwandese and 11,000 persons from Burundi.
132. In responding to the influx into the Cataractes subregion, UNHCR was assisted by donations from various Governments and, inter alia, WFP and EEC. The Swiss Government made available doctors and a team of volunteers equipped with vehicles, to implement a distribution programme. This combined action helped to counter the effects of a severe drought. In 1979 UNHCR embarked upon plans to assist all refugees in the Cataractes subregion, located at a reasonable distance from the border, to integrate in agriculture. WFP also approved a quick-action project in favour of 40,000 beneficiaries in both the Cataractes and Bas-Fleuve subregions.
133. In the Bas-Fleuve subregion the rural settlement programme implemented by the "Association internationale pour le développement rural" (AIDR) progressed satisfactorily. The number of refugees in the two settlements at Kimbianga and Lundu Matende increased from some 3,000 at the end of 1977 to some 15,700 at the end of August 1978. In July 1978 a third settlement was started at Mfuiki, and by February 1979 was accommodating some 6,200 refugees. The three settlements, which at the end of February 1979 accommodated some 24,700 refugees, are reckoned to have sufficient arable land to support up to 3,300 refugee families (some 40,000 persons), although unfortunately, as a result of the drought in 1978, the first harvest in Kimbianga and Lundu Matende was an almost total failure. However, reports of the January 1979 harvest in these two settlements describe the yield as good.
134. Assistance to refugees from Burundi in Kivu province centred on the continuing development of Mutambala settlement. A census at the end of 1978 put the population of the settlement villages in the region of 1,700. Elsewhere in the province some 9,000 refugees from Burundi had become all but self-sufficient in agriculture or fisheries.
135. Some 300 individual refugees, mainly in urban areas, were provided with types of assistance ranging from one-time measures and supplementary aid to assistance with local settlement, resettlement or voluntary repatriation.
136. Total UNHCR expenditures in Zaire in 1978, other than in connexion with the repatriation operation described below, amounted to over $7,563,000, of which over $5,614,000 was incurred under the General Programmes and over $1,949,000 under Special Programmes. These amounts included expenditures on education for the academic year 1978/79 in amounts of $49,300 from General Programmes and $137,400 from the Refugee Education Account.
137. The repatriation operation for which UNHCR's assistance was sought resulted from the Presidential announcement, towards the end of June 1978, of an amnesty in respect of all Zairians who had sought refuge outside the country. UNHCR launched an appeal with a target of $11,375,000 and some 13,500 metric tons of food (valued at $7,715,000) for a one-year programme to assist the voluntary repatriation and reintegration of an estimated 110,000 people in the Shaba province, and the amnesty law was extended to 30 June 1979 to allow repatriation to be as complete as possible. In fact, the transportation of refugees to Zaire was considered as largely complete by the end of February 1979, by which time some 150,000 people had returned. The large majority of these people came from Angola, but others arrived from Burundi, the Sudan, the United Republic of Tanzania, and Zambia.
138. The organization of this operation, in which neighbouring countries co-operated, involved the opening of a UNHCR suboffice in Lubumbashi and the establishment of reception and transit centres. The "Eglise du Christ au Zaire" became the operational partner, and the Government set up local and regional reception committees comprising its own representatives and. representatives of the "Oeuvre Mama. Mobutu", the churches and UNHCR. The Swiss Government 'provided volunteers equipped with radio equipment to assist with communications in the field and between Geneva and the field. Agencies and bodies working under the co-ordination of the High Commissioner included UNICEF and WFP of the United Nations system, and "Médecins sans Frontières", "Hôpitals sans Frontières", World Vision International, Caritas, and ICRC.
139. The problems faced by UNHCR have been immense. Concern for protection matters necessitated reinforcement of the field staff, and the domestic economic situation and the lack of internal communications created severe difficulties. Shaba Province is far inland from the ports and Kinshasa, and the limited quantities of staple food that were available could only be purchased at exorbitant prices. Nevertheless, some purchases had to be made locally because of the inevitable delay in the arrival of food from outside the country. UNHCR was forced to resort to air transportation of certain supplies from Europe and from other countries in Africa, as well as of medical supplies needed for the treatment of the great number of people arriving at the border weak and sick.
140. Assistance towards reintegration was prepared both for individuals and for the villages and institutions where the repatriants resettled. Medicaments were provided, and, by arrangement with "Médecins sans Frontières" and "Hôpitals sans Frontières", medical teams and a 50-bed mobile hospital were obtained.
141. Construction materials have been provided in 1979, as have domestic and agricultural equipment, and, because of the delay in the procurement of seeds, feeding programmes have continued, with needs in this sector partially satisfied by WFP.
142. The flow of refugees, predominantly Zimbabweans, into Zambia continued steadily during 1978. By the end of the year the total case-load numbered some 80,000, comprising about 45,300 Zimbabweans, 26,000 Angolans, some 5,500 Namibians, and smaller groups from other countries, including South Africans and Zairians.
143. The population of the rural settlement at Meheba, the only UNHCR-assisted settlement in Zambia, which is administered under a tripartite agreement with the Government and the Lutheran World Federation/Zambian Christian Refugee Service, decreased by some 2,700 persons, to under 10,000 inhabitants, mainly Angolans, by the end of 1978. New arrivals were outnumbered by the voluntary repatriation of some 3,000 Angolans and 45 Zairians. In the period under review extensions and improvements were made to the infrastructure and to the agricultural programme. Work on the infrastructure improvements was nearing completion by the end of the first quarter of 1979. The main self-sufficiency projects, including the poultry, fish and rabbit farms and the carpentry workshops progressed in 1978, which also saw the consolidation of the baking, sewing and milling co-operatives and the homecraft and child-care courses organized for the women. In addition, a farmers' co-operative was established to sell produce and to buy seeds, fertilizers and insecticides, and possibly equipment which could be hired by members.
144. Because of various delays, the sowing of the crop to be harvested in the 1978/79 season was late, and therefore the harvest may be low. In mid-1978 WFP evaluation experts confirmed that most refugees had not reached a satisfactory level of self-sufficiency in food production and recommended the continuation of WFP assistance for some 4,500 persons until 30 June 1980. They also suggested the extension of supplementary feeding to some 2,000 school children, children under the age of five and expectant and nursing mothers.
145. The large number of arrivals from Namibia and Zimbabwe and the continuing Southern Rhodesian attacks on Zimbabwean refugee centres in Zambia which resulted in destruction of food stocks, relief supplies and infrastructure created a continuing need for increased assistance in the form of emergency aid temporary care and maintenance, medical attention, and the provision of accommodation and education, which was implemented by the liberation movements concerned. Specific projects included continued work on the Zimbabwe African People's Union (ZAPU) school near Lusaka, the extension and equipping of the SWAPO Education and Health Centre at Nyango and the provision of accommodation, storage and mess facilities for women and children at Victory Camp near Lusaka. Other assistance was provided in the form of food, clothing, beds and bedding, medicaments and agricultural tools and equipment. All construction work is expected to be completed in 1979. Activities in favour of southern African refugees included educational assistance to some 150 students and general assistance to over 100 refugees from South Africa.
146. Some 250 individual refugees of various origins benefited from UNHCR assistance. A total of 78 students, half of them Angolans, were assisted to continue their education.
147. Durable solutions to the problems of urban refugees remained scarce, particularly around Lusaka, where employment prospects are limited. Consequently, the major part of UNHCR assistance to this category of the case-load continued to centre on care and maintenance, and individuals continued to receive counselling from the service operated under a tripartite agreement between the Christian Council of Zambia/the All African Conference of Churches, the International University Exchange Fund (IUEF) and UNHCR. Work on the renovation and extension of the former reception centre at Makeni, on the outskirts of Lusaka, implemented by the Government and aimed at providing temporary accommodation for over 100 new arrivals, continued into 1979.
148. UNHCR expenditures in Zambia in 1978 amounted to $1,743,500 under the General Programmes, including $1,210,560 for multipurpose assistance to southern Africans, and to $1,517,600 under Special Programmes, including a further amount of over $1,115,500 for southern Africans.
13. Other countries in Africa
149. In other countries in Africa there were over 300,000 refugees of concern to UNHCR at the end of 1978.
150. Of the total number of refugees, some 100,000 were to be found in countries in central and west Africa, with an estimated 60,000 in Gabon, where 1978 was the first full year of UNHCR representation. In the period under review much progress was made in registering refugees in this country. An allocation of $150,000 was carried forward to 1979 for use in promoting spontaneous settlement in rural areas in the hope of attracting the increasing numbers of unemployed refugees from Libreville. In the United Republic of Cameroon, the High Commissioner provided assistance to persons living in the south of the country, and also made funds available for educational assistance to 42 Namibian refugees.
151. In Senegal, where the estimated case-load remained at 5,000 in 1978, UNHCR continued to channel various forms of assistance through the National Committee for Aid to Refugees. Efforts included the search for employment and the provision of educational aid for young students, particularly from southern Africa. In various other countries in central and west Africa, refugees of concern to UNHCR continued to receive assistance administered by UNDP resident representatives.
152. A total amount of some $1,713,400 was expended in central and west African countries in 1978 under both General and Special Programmes, including $625,900 in Nigeria, $312,300 in the United Republic of Cameroon, $234,900 in Senegal and $137,000 in Ghana.
153. UNHCR's expenditures in Algeria ! Morocco and Tunisia under the General Programmes are related mainly to individual assistance for aged refugees and refugee students (approximately 3,000 persons). In addition, UNHCR continued to co-ordinate humanitarian assistance for the Sahrawis in the Tindouf area of Algeria, estimated by the Government of Algeria at between 45,000 and 50,000 persons. An amount of over $669,000 was obligated for this purpose in 1978.
154. In Burundi, Rwanda and Uganda the number of refugees in 1978, at 50,000, 7,500 and 112,400 respectively, remained virtually the same as in the previous year. In Burundi, the emphasis is on individual counselling and assistance, including educational and medical assistance, and on encouragement to those without skills, or unable to acquire them, to move to the rural settlements, which continue to be consolidated as a complementary measure. In Rwanda, the programme for Mutara settlement, housing something under one half of the refugees of concern to UNHCR, has been phased out and in Uganda the 1979 contribution for the rural settlements is planned to be the last, to ensure their viability for the future. In Rwanda and Uganda individual assistance continues for those refugees outside the settlements. Expenditures for the three countries in 1978, under the General and Special Programmes, amounted to a total of some $527,300, of which $222,900 in Burundi, $151,000 in Rwanda and $153,400 in Uganda.
CHAPTER III ASSISTANCE ACTIVITIES IN THE AMERICAS
A. Latin America
155. At the end of 1978, the refugee population in Latin America was estimated to have increased considerably due mainly to developments in Nicaragua. Although the exact number could not be determined since the extent of the influx in Costa Rica was not known, it was estimated that there was a total of at least 150,000 persons of whom some 80,000 to 110,000 were of Latin American origin. The number of refugees of European origin, most of whom were elderly, decreased, on the other hand, from 80,000 to about 70,000 owing to deaths and naturalization.
156. UNHCR was represented in the area by three regional offices covering northern Latin America (Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua and Panama), north-western South America (Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Peru, Suriname and Venezuela) and southern Latin America (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay and Uruguay).
157. Because of the new refugee problems resulting from events in Nicaragua, UNHCR's efforts in northern Latin America were considerably increased during the last quarter of 1978 in order to provide emergency relief to refugees in Costa Rica, Honduras and Panama. Multipurpose assistance to meet food, temporary shelter and medical requirements was also extended and plans for more durable shelter were drawn up following requests from the Governments concerned.
158. UNHCR strengthened and diversified its activities in North-western South America in order to meet the increased needs of the refugees in the area.
159. In southern Latin America especially, UNHCR assistance activities were directed mainly towards the local settlement of refugees whenever possible and resettlement abroad for those persons from neighbouring countries to whom only temporary asylum was granted. The movement of these refugees to third countries was undertaken with the help of the Intergovernmental Committee for European Migration (ICEM) which arranged transportation.
160. It should be noted that all these assistance activities were accompanied by appropriate protection measures which constituted an essential task in many parts of the continent.
2. Northern Latin America
161. UNHCR's activities in northern Latin America were considerably expanded in 1978 to meet the needs of an influx of Nicaraguan refugees into Costa Rica, Honduras and Panama following the sudden outbreak of violence in Nicaragua in September. Some 30,000 to 60,000 refugees were estimated to have entered Costa Rica by the end of the year, while 15,000 had arrived in Honduras and 500 in Panama.
162. Following requests from the Governments concerned, UNHCR extended emergency relief to an appreciable number of the needy and took initial measures with regard to longer-term arrangements. In Costa Rica, thanks to the generosity of the Government and various voluntary agencies, only approximately 900 refugees required UNHCR assistance of an emergency nature pending durable solutions. Assistance was made available through the Government Co-ordinating Committee specially established for this purpose. Some 10,000 refugees in Honduras received UNHCR assistance measures including the provision of food, medicines, clothing, sleeping mats and cooking utensils. UNHCR aid was also provided for the building of temporary shelter. All assistance was channelled through the Honduran Red Cross in co-ordination with the Government. In Panama, the 500 Nicaraguan refugees received UNHCR assistance towards their care and maintenance, help which was extended through the Panamanian Government. A few other countries in northern Latin America also received Nicaraguan refugees, some of whom required assistance.
163. As regards other refugees in the area, UNHCR assistance was directed at promoting durable solutions where possible while extending care and maintenance, counselling and legal services in the interim.
164. Expenditure under General Programmes for assistance in northern Latin America totalled some $1,030,200 for 1978. This included $150,000 for emergency assistance and $580,000 for multipurpose assistance to Nicaraguan refugees.
3. North-western South America
165. By the end of 1978, fewer than 83 Latin American refugees were still awaiting resettlement opportunities in Peru. It is to be recalled that refugees in Peru are accepted in transit only and that consequently some 3,000 persons have been resettled under UNHCR auspices since September 1973.
166. Care and maintenance as well as appropriate language and basic educational training were again administered through the "Comisión Ecumenia de Acción Social".
167. Due to the marked reduction in the case - load in the country during recent years expenditures were considerably reduced. Total outlay of funds amounted to some $277,300, of which more than $92,800 were obligated for supplementary aid.
(b) Other countries in north-western South America
168. There were approximately 21,000 refugees of concern to UNHCR in various other countries in north-western South America at the end of 1978. Of these some 7,000 were Latin American refugees and 14,000 of European origin.
169. A number of Latin American refugees were able to benefit from long-term integration measures as well as resettlement opportunities. Care and maintenance were provided to them pending durable solutions. The population of mainly elderly European refugees also benefited from a variety of assistance measures.
170. Total expenditure for the year in these countries amounted to some $145,000.
4. Southern Latin America
171. At the end of the year, the refugee population of Latin American origin had decreased substantially to about 6,000 persons as compared with 8,000 at the end of 1977. UNHCR's continued efforts to settle these refugees within Argentina or, when this was not possible, in third countries, the voluntary repatriation of a number of Chileans to their country of origin, and a low rate of new registration of refugees contributed to this reduction.
172. Local integration solutions were actively sought for refugees in Argentina. Fewer such solutions could be implemented than had been anticipated, however, on account of the low number of permanent stay permits issued. Care and maintenance, counselling and legal assistance continued to be given to candidates for local integration and resettlement pending resolution of their situation.
173. UNHCR achieved results in its efforts to resettle abroad those refugees not permitted to remain. During the period under review, 1,838 persons were resettled in third countries, bringing the total to 9,353 since September 1973.
174. The European refugee population, most of which is elderly, also decreased from 26,000 to some 23,000 persons, through natural causes and naturalization. Assistance extended to this group through voluntary agencies included legal assistance for naturalization as well as care and maintenance.
175. Over-all UNHCR expenditure in Argentina was lower than in previous years and amounted to some $3.3 million of which, inter alia, $1.8 million was for supplementary aid, $589,227 for transportation costs incurred in resettlement and $212,552 for local integration.
176. As in 1977, during, the year under review, UNHCR's main efforts were directed towards reuniting family members still in Chile with refugee heads of family resettled in other countries. It had been anticipated that the amnesty decreed in April 1978 coupled with the reduced rate of departure of heads of family from Chile would result in a substantial reduction in family reunion requests. However, at the end of the year, 375 such requests (1,063 persons) were still awaiting approval. The Chilean authorities granted permission to repatriate to a limited number of persons who had requested to return under the amnesty.
177. Assistance in various forms was extended to Latin American refugees and refugees of European origin through the "Fundación de Ayuda Social de las Iglesias Cristianas" and other non-governmental organizations.
178. Total UNHCR expenditure in 1978 amounted to some $393,800 of which $270,000 were obligated for resettlement.
(c) Other countries in southern Latin America
179. The refugee population in the other countries of southern Latin America comprised about 30,000 persons of European origin, mostly elderly, and 500 Latin Americans at the end of 1978. The former benefited from a variety of local integration measures including establishment assistance, annuities, monthly allowances and institutional care.
180. The Latin American refugees were generally admitted in transit. Thus, UNHCR actively sought resettlement opportunities for this group and provided care and maintenance, recreational and para-educational activities pending durable solutions as well as legal assistance and counselling services.
181. Total expenditure in this area amounted to some $593,900 of which $336,000 were for relief and other assistance.
B. North America
182. UNHCR continued to co-operate with the Governments of Canada and the United States of America through its Branch Office in Ottawa and its Regional Office in New York. The latter also maintained close relations with the United Nations and members of its system.
183. In the field of protection, UNHCR has played a consultative role especially as regards the granting of refugee status. Material assistance to refugees in North America, however, was handled directly by a number of Government bodies and voluntary agencies with which UNHCR worked on matters relating to fund-raising and resettlement.
184. In this regard, as in 1977, the largest groups offered resettlement opportunities in Canada and the United States of America were refugees and displaced persons from Indo-China. By the end of the year, the number admitted by Canada since April 1975 had exceeded 10,000 of whom 1,810 were "boat people"; the United States had accepted almost 60,000, of whom 22,935 were "boat people". During 1978 alone nearly 30,000 Indo-Chinese were admitted to the United States and by the end of the year they were arriving at the rate of approximately 4,000 persons a month. Canada and the United States also helped reduce the residual case-load in Argentina and Peru by accepting persons who could not be resettled in Latin America.
CHAPTER IV ASSISTANCE ACTIVITIES IN ASIA
A. General developments
185. The problem of refugees and displaced persons in Asia assumed greater proportions during the period under review, with new and more acute situations developing, particularly in South-East Asia and in Bangladesh.
186. The continuing flow of new arrivals from the Indo-Chinese peninsula, both by boats and overland, imposed serious burdens on countries of the region. Moreover, the arrival in the latter months of 1978 and early in 1979, of large ships, each carrying several thousand Vietnamese, compounded the already considerable difficulties being faced in the region. The arrival of these ships posed special problems of disembarkation as well as care and maintenance.
187. During 1978 the number of arrivals of refugees and displaced persons from the Indo-Chinese peninsula, by boat and overland, totalled some 140,400 persons. In the same period, about 51,500 persons departed for resettlement elsewhere and the global figure of resettlement offers within a one year span by various countries for persons awaiting processing as of 31 March 1979, stood at 103,000
188. The sharply increased need for humanitarian assistance in South-East Asia was met under both the General Programmes and a Special Programme designed to provide for immediate requirements of care and maintenance in countries of first asylum and to promote appropriate long-term solutions, primarily through resettlement in third countries. In making available such assistance, UNHCR worked in close co-operation with the Governments concerned and with intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations.
189. In view of the urgency and increased magnitude and complexity of the refugee situation in South-East Asia, the High Commissioner called a consultative meeting of interested Governments which was held at Geneva on 11 and 12 December 1978. The consultations noted that there could be no humane or durable solutions unless Governments of the region granted at least temporary asylum and that, for these Governments, temporary asylum depended on commitments for resettlement in third countries and the avoidance of residual problems in the area. It was recognized that continuing financial support by the widest range of Governments was required to reduce the burden on countries of first asylum, to help potential countries of resettlement and to provide for other durable solutions. The participants also considered certain guidelines which need to be followed and a variety of solutions including that of establishing a special processing centre - or centres - where refugees and displaced persons could be processed for resettlement in an orderly way.
190. In pursuance of the measures discussed during the consultative meeting, the Deputy High Commissioner led a delegation, from 26 February to 19 March 1979, to a number of countries and areas in South-East Asia, including Viet Nam. The major topics discussed were, inter alia, the conditions and future arrangements for the refugees and displaced persons, resettlement in third countries, concrete measures to provide an effective option for voluntary repatriation, orderly departure from Viet Nam, special processing centres and problems relating to protection'.
191. During 1978 Bangladesh received an influx of about 200,000 persons from the Arakan State of Burma. The Government sought assistance from the international community and the Secretary-General designated the High Commissioner to act as coordinator of this assistance. In July of the same year, the Governments of Bangladesh and Burma reached an agreement providing for the voluntary repatriation of these persons. By the end of March 1979 more than 109,000 had repatriated. Details of this operation and the assistance programmes provided by UNHCR in both countries are given under the respective country headings below.
192. Table 1 of annex II indicates that expenditures under UNHCR Special Programmes in Asia exceeded $46.5 million, the major part of which was for care and maintenance, with a little more than $2.2 million for local settlement and about $5.4 million to defray the costs of resettlement in third countries. Expenditures under the General Programmes were about $1.8 million, the bulk of which was spent in Malaysia and Thailand.
B. Main developments in various countries or areas
193. Between March and July 1978, approximately 200,000 persons from the Arakan State of Burma crossed the border into Bangladesh. Following a request for assistance by the Bangladesh Government in May, the Secretary-General designated the High Commissioner as the coordinator of this assistance. An appeal was launched with a target of $15,565,000, and a detailed programme for a period of eight months, until 31 December 1978, was established in close consultation with the Government of Bangladesh, UNICEF, UNDP, WFP and WHO as well as non-governmental organizations, in particular the League of Red Cross Societies, which was supporting the relief efforts of the Bangladesh Red Cross Society. By the end of 1978, contributions totalling $15.5 million had been received in response to the High Commissioner's appeal, of which about $7.3 million covered the cost of emergency food aid provided by WFP. Additional contributions in cash and kind were also made on a bilateral basis by various Governments and voluntary agencies.
194. As a result of the agreement concluded between the Governments of Bangladesh and Burma on 9 July 1978 and which provided for the repatriation of those wishing to return to Burma, over 36,000 persons had repatriated by the end of the year. The High Commissioner launched a further appeal on 31 January 1979 for an amount of $5.5 million to finance the continuation of this programme.
195. Serious problems were encountered in the fields of nutrition, sanitation and health, mainly due to overcrowding in the 10 camps which were established. The intensive efforts which were made to remedy shortcomings included the provision of dry rations for all, a programme for vulnerable group feeding for about 85,000 beneficiaries (children, the aged, expectant and nursing mothers), and a special feeding programme that included medical treatment for about 6,000 beneficiaries. A team of nutritionists was also employed.
196. In the health field, UNHCR, together with UNICEF, WHO and a number of voluntary agencies, provided various measures of assistance. Thus the Teknaf and Ukhiya hospitals were extended and the other health services in the camps improved by the provision of additional personnel, equipment and medicines. Six hundred tube wells were sunk and water was transported to those camps without wells.
197. Following the agreement reached, on 9 July 1978, between the Governments of Bangladesh and Burma which provided for the voluntary repatriation of the some 200,000 persons who had crossed into Bangladesh from the Arakan State between March and July 1978, the Government of Burma requested the High Commissioner to facilitate the repatriation and provide assistance to the returnees to enable them to attain self-sufficiency as early as possible. A UNHCR mission was then sent to Burma, subsequently followed by two others, to ascertain the nature and scope of humanitarian assistance required. After the first mission reported in August 1978, the High Commissioner agreed to provide the Government of Burma, in the initial stages, with a number of urgently needed items aimed at both assisting the returnees themselves and facilitating the task of the Government in this repatriation operation.
198. Ten reception camps were established along the Naaf River, and a number of transit camps were built in key areas to receive refugees. A UNHCR Chargé de Mission was assigned to Burma to assist the Government. The initial request for assistance was mainly for urgently needed items not readily available in Burma; and to provide the initial assistance, the High Commissioner made a first allocation of $400,000 under Special Programmes.
199. While in the early stages the rate of repatriation did not reach the number of 2,000 persons every three days anticipated under the Agreement, by mid-November the movement had begun to gain momentum and soon exceeded this rate. By the end of the year, more than 36,000 persons had been repatriated and assisted to return to their original homes, and the movement continued in 1979 at a rate of some 25,000 persons per month.
200. In 1978 an amount of $459,300 was spent on this operation under Special Programmes, and in order to obtain funds for 1979 the High Commissioner launched an appeal to the international community on 31 January 1979 for financial assistance in the amount of $7 million.
3. Hong Kong
201. Arrivals of Indo-Chinese refugees and displaced persons in Hong Kong rose from just over 1,000 during 1977 to 5,257 during 1978. Of this number, 1,851 persons departed during the year for resettlement abroad. These figures, however, do not include the 3,318 refugees and displaced persons from Viet Nam who arrived off Hong Kong on the ship "Huey Fong" in the last days of December 1978, and who were allowed to disembark the following month.
202. The problem of providing temporary accommodation for these persons in the urban environment of Hong Kong became acute as the rate of arrivals rose in the course of the year. Accommodation had to be provided in hotels initially until more suitable arrangements could be made by UNHCR in co-operation with the Hong Kong authorities. In November 1978 an agreement was signed with the Hong Kong Christian Association to provide temporary accommodation and basic services at the Sham Sui Po Centre with an initial capacity of 3,000 persons.
203. UNHCR assistance in Hong Kong during 1978, provided under the Special Programmes, consisted of care and maintenance including food, shelter and - medical care. Expenditures for these measures totalled $5.5 million.
204. UNHCR also provided assistance to European refugees in transit in Hong Kong while they were awaiting resettlement abroad. An amount of $107,527 was expended from the over-all allocation for this purpose.
205. A total of 2,932 Indo-Chinese refugees and displaced persons arrived by boat in Indonesia during 1978, compared to 679 in 1977. During 1978, 1,190 persons departed to countries of permanent resettlement, and the total case-load in the country at the end of the year stood at 2,218. Pending their departure abroad for resettlement, UNHCR financed assistance programmes for care and maintenance under an agreement concluded with the Government of Indonesia. In order to provide accommodation to some 3,000 refugees and displaced persons, a new camp was built in Tanjung Pinang on Bintan Island in the Riau Archipelago. Total UNHCR expenditures under the Special Programme for Indo-Chinese refugees and displaced persons in Indonesia for these measures of assistance during 1978 amounted to almost $1,210,000.
206. A total of 722 Indo-Chinese refugees and displaced persons arrived in Japan by boat during 1978, compared to 851 in 1977. Departures from Japan for permanent resettlement abroad during 1978 totalled 595 persons, leaving a case-load of 597 at the end of the year. Through its office in Tokyo, UNHCR concluded agreements with five local voluntary agencies to provide for care and maintenance. Expenditures for this purpose from Special Programmes in 1978 totalled $1,315,186. The Japanese Government provided funds to the Japanese Red Cross Society to finance the provision of accommodation for some 500 persons, and additional facilities were made available free of charge by several local voluntary agencies.
6. Lao People's Democratic Republic
207. Since 1974, when the Government requested assistance for the rehabilitation of displaced and uprooted persons, UNHCR has implemented a programme aimed at resettling these displaced persons and reinstating them in productive activities. Of 411,000 uprooted people who returned to their villages of origin during the period 1974-1978, an estimated 240,000 benefited from UNHCR assistance which, including food aid, amounted to some $12.4 million for that period.
208. Whereas in preceding years emphasis was placed upon the transportation, reception and initial settlement of displaced groups, efforts in 1978 were concentrated primarily on the implementation of an assistance programme in rural areas with a high proportion of displaced persons and returnees, focusing -mainly on agriculture, health and education. This assistance was not only intended to contribute towards the self-sufficiency of the displaced groups, but also to help lay the groundwork for the restoration of a basic infrastructure in the areas where they now live. Agricultural tools and machinery were provided as well as 10 tons of insecticides and 50 tons of rice seed. A previously established project, whereby UNHCR undertook to provide certain equipment to 100 dispensaries and to partially cover the construction costs of 60, was completed at the beginning of 1979. A total amount of almost $1,043,000 was expended for these purposes during the year under review.
209. The severe drought that affected the south of the country during 1977, as well as the floods occurring in 1978, influenced the UNHCR assistance pattern. A total of $3,841,425 was spent from trust funds during 1978 in respect of emergency food assistance, in cash and in kind, in flood and drought affected areas. In addition, rice seed was provided to alleviate the effects of floods. Total expenditures in 1978, under Special Programmes, amounted to some $4,912,400.
210. As in the preceding year, UNHCR's activities in Lebanon, under its General Programmes, in favour of approximately 1,000 refugees, were again adversely affected by events in the area. Assistance for resettlement abroad and local integration remained at a relatively low level because of the prevailing unsettled situation, with few new refugee arrivals from other countries.
211. Forty-one refugees were resettled, 23 of them without recourse to assistance from UNHCR, with a remaining case-load of about 150 refugees wishing to resettle abroad as at the end of 1978. Counselling services were maintained and refugees were also assisted mainly through supplementary aid, the provision of medical and institutional care as required, rent subsidies and kindergarten and primary education for their children. A total of $121,594 was obligated for these purposes.
212. In addition to the funds made available from its General Programmes, UNHCR contributed to the over-all United Nations effort to help displaced persons inside Lebanon through its participation in the work of the High Relief Committee and through co-operation with the Secretary-General's Special Representative. Funds totalling $3,215,827 were made available for emergency assistance and for a rehabilitation programme in rural areas. This latter programme comprised the reconstruction of villages and/or repairs to village houses as well as supporting the socioeconomic infrastructure through the provision of agricultural implements, water supply, small irrigation schemes and aid in the field of community development.
213. Projects within this Special Programme continue to be implemented mainly by the Government of Lebanon. One such project permitted the reconstruction of about 2,000 houses in southern Lebanon and was successfully completed at the end of January 1979. Other projects, however, face delays in implementation owing to the prevailing situation.
214. During 1978, 945 Indo-Chinese refugees and displaced persons arrived in Macao, compared to only 25 in 1977. In the course of the year, 113 persons departed to countries of permanent resettlement, leaving a total case-load of 850 persons at the close of the year. In co-operation with the local authorities and with the Diocese of Macao, UNHCR provided assistance in the form of care and maintenance to these refugees and displaced persons, pending their resettlement in third countries. UNHCR expenditures from Special Programmes for this purpose in 1978 totalled $605,000.
215. The most serious problem in Malaysia during 1978 was the arrival by boat of some 63,000 Indo-Chinese refugees and displaced persons, compared to fewer than 6,000 in 1977. During the year, 17,427 persons departed for permanent resettlement abroad, leaving a case-load of 49,577 at the close of the year. The provision of adequate accommodation and basic services for such large numbers required intensive efforts and considerable funds. The majority of these persons were accommodated on the previously uninhabited island of Pulau Bidong, off the east coast of the Malayan peninsula, a site designated by the Government of Malaysia. Smaller groups were accommodated on the islands of Pulau Besar, Pulau Tengah, and in camps such as those at Mersing, Cherating and Kuantan.
216. UNHCR assistance provided during 1978 was mainly directed at the provision of care and maintenance (e.g., food, water supply, health care and shelter) to meet immediate needs of the Indo-Chinese refugees and displaced persons. In addition, measures were undertaken to facilitate their permanent resettlement in third countries. UNHCR expenditures for care and maintenance during the year were $4,630,000 and this assistance was implemented by the Malaysian Red Crescent Society, in co-operation with the Malaysian Government authorities. In its efforts to facilitate resettlement in third countries, UNHCR worked closely with ICEM, officials of Governments concerned, and a large number of voluntary agencies in the countries of resettlement.
217. Special problems were posed by the arrival in Malaysian waters in November 1978 of the ship "Hai Hong", carrying 2,387 refugees and displaced persons from Viet Nam. The Government of Malaysia allowed disembarkation of the ship's passengers only under specific resettlement guarantees from third countries. By the end of 1978, all but some 900 of the "Hai Hong" passengers had departed to resettlement countries. UNHCR provided both care and maintenance, and resettlement assistance to this group.
218. Assistance to needy groups among the 90,000 Filipino refugees in the Malaysian State of Sabah continued in 1978 from General Programmes. Housing, that was urgently needed for some 5,000 of these refugees living in Kota Kinabalu and Labuan was completed during 1978 and efforts were devoted to improving the earning capacity of the refugees. An agreement was concluded in November 1978 with the State Government of Sabah to assist an additional 3,500 refugees from the Philippines living in and around Tawau. UNHCR assistance included the provision of relief commodities, housing, as well as fishing equipment, classrooms and communal facilities. An amount of $500,000 was spent for these purposes under the General Programmes in 1978.
219. Total expenditures in Malaysia in 1978 under the General Programmes amounted to some $554,600 and under the Special Programmes to some $5,034,300.
10. Papa New Guinea
220. In July 1978, the Government of Papua New Guinea requested UNHCR's assistance to meet the needs of a group of some 1,000 persons from the neighbouring Indonesian province of Irian Jaya. Under an exchange of letters with the Government, UNHCR made available $100,000 from the Emergency Fund. The assistance programme thus financed included the provision of relief items, housing, and agricultural tools to benefit a specially needy group of 200 persons at Oksapmin, about 80 Miles from the border.
221. During 1978, arrivals of Indo-Chinese refugees and displaced persons in the Philippines by boat numbered 2,703, with departures to countries of permanent resettlement totalling 1,443, leaving, a case-load of 2,064 in the country at the close of the year. These figures do not include the 2,318 passengers on the ship "Tung An" which arrived in Philippine waters in the last days of December 1978. Passengers on this ship were allowed to disembark only under specific resettlement guarantees issued by third countries.
222. Under the Special Programme, UNHCR provided funds for care and maintenance and counselling and funds to promote resettlement in third countries. Total expenditures for care and maintenance as well as counselling in 1978 were $574,939. The major portion of the care and maintenance programme was implemented by the Government and provided assistance to refugees and displaced persons accommodated at the José Fabella Centre in the Manila area. Assistance to individual groups of persons accommodated elsewhere was provided directly by the UNHCR Branch Office in the Philippines, and a counselling project was implemented by the Centre for Assistance to Displaced Persons.
12. Republic of Korea
223. A total of 98 Indo-Chinese refugees and displaced persons arrived by boat in the Republic of Korea in 1978, compared to 161 in 1977. In the course of the year, 115 of these persons departed to countries of permanent resettlement, and the case-load at the end of 1978 stood at only 73 persons. Under an agreement with the Republic of Korea national Red Cross, UNHCR has provided funds for care and maintenance. Total expenditures from Special Programmes for this purpose in 1978 amounted to $40,000.
224. During 1978, a total of 1,865 Indo-Chinese refugees and displaced persons arrived in Singapore, compared to 308 in 1977. In the course of the year, 1,182 persons departed to countries of permanent resettlement, and the case-load at the close of 1978 stood at 725. Through its sub-office in Singapore, UNHCR provided funds for accommodation, medical supplies and subsistence. Expenditures for these forms of assistance totalled $450,000.
225. Thailand continued to receive large numbers of refugees and displaced persons from the Indo-Chinese peninsula. Although, since 1975, more than 77,000 persons left Thailand for permanent resettlement in third countries, the number of displaced persons in camps had increased by the end of 1978 to about 139,000 as compared to 97,600 at the end of the preceding year. Of these, 119,178 were from the Lao People's Democratic Republic, 14,782 from Democratic Kampuchea, and 4,767 from Viet Nam.
226. During the year under review, 41,890 Indo-Chinese refugees and displaced persons arrived in Thailand, including 7,090 by boat. Moreover, some 25,000 persons who had entered the country earlier were moved into camps.
227. With 67,429 new registrations in camps during 1978, the principal objective of UNHCR's assistance programme in Thailand continued to be aimed at ensuring the provision of care and maintenance for the existing case-load, meeting the immediate needs of new arrivals and sustaining efforts to facilitate and promote the resettlement of those wishing to emigrate to third countries, while also encouraging projects for self-sufficiency where feasible.
228. The assistance programme for care and maintenance was implemented by the Operations Centre for Displaced Persons at the Ministry of Interior and the Thai Red Cross Society, in close co-operation with the UNHCR Regional Office in Bangkok. The assistance provided included food items, the repair and improvement of shelter and medical supplies, as well as clothing, blankets, mosquito nets and other basic equipment. WFP continued to provide indispensable support and, at the end of the year, approved a further programme for emergency assistance.
229. During the visit of the High Commissioner to Thailand in September, it was agreed with the Thai Government to elaborate a pilot project for a self-sufficiency programme to benefit the refugees and displaced persons and the Thai rural population. It was further agreed that the High Commissioner would continue to explore the prospects for voluntary repatriation to countries of origin. A few persons have repatriated to the Lao People's Democratic Republic.
230. In 1978, the Thai Ministry of Education began the implementation of a comprehensive programme relating to primary education, adult literacy and vocational training. This programme, together with the continuing input of voluntary agencies in the educational field, has already had a positive effect on morale in the camps. It is expected that some 20,000 persons will benefit from this education programme in 1979.
231. In the field of self-reliance, small projects such as gardening, animal husbandry and cottage industries were implemented. Results, however, were limited, owing mainly to the lack of suitable space. Progress may be expected in 1979, especially in the smaller camps and those with a stable number of inhabitants.
232. Assistance provided by voluntary agencies continued to play an important role, notably in the fields of health care, education and self-reliance. Several of these agencies, in co-operation with ICRC, also provided vital emergency assistance to new arrivals prior to their acceptance into the camps.
233. During 1978 a total of 26,297 refugees and displaced persons, of whom 5,749 were boat cases, departed for resettlement in third countries. This was the highest number to leave in one year since the programme began and represented an 88 per cent increase over the numbers leaving during 1977. Assistance was provided by ICEM which organized transportation to the countries of permanent resettlement.
234. Expenditures under UNHCR's Special Programme in Thailand totalled approximately $15,372,800, of which some $10.5 million were provided for care and maintenance and about $4 million for assistance towards resettlement. An amount of $45,000 administered by the Relief and Welfare Committee provided emergency accommdation in Bangkok for cases awaiting resettlement who could not be placed in the transit centres. Under the General Programmes $4,355 were expended to provide supplementary aid to destitute refugees living or in transit in the region and who could not receive such aid from any other source.
15. Viet Nam
235. Assistance projects for displaced groups were continued and some completed in the most affected provinces, such as Nghe Tinh, Bin Tri Dien, Dang Noi, Song Be and Tay Ninh. An amount of $903,481 was expended in 1978 from contributions to the Special Programme for displaced persons within Viet Nam. UNHCR's activities in this connexion were essentially a consolidation of earlier efforts in the fields of agriculture and animal husbandry, fishery and health.
236. Additional farm machinery and irrigation Dumps were procured to supplement equipment that had already been provided in previous years. The implementation of two previously established projects - a poultry farm and a pilot buffalo-breeding farm - continued during 1978. While the poultry farm project reached the final stage of implementation at the end of 1978, further deliveries for the buffalo-breeding farm are expected to take place in 1979. Aid in the field of fishery continued during 1978 with the repair of several damaged wharves and berthing facilities, as well as for the installation of cold-storage facilities for the conservation of the catch, and vehicles for its transportation.
237. In the health sector $590,000 were obligated to cover requirements for projects already established in previous years under which UNHCR is contributing towards the construction and equipment of 16 district hospitals. The national authorities have provided the land and cover the costs of construction, administration and inland transportation, whereas UNHCR supplies construction material that is not available locally, as well as basic surgical and other medical equipment. By the end of 1978, six hospitals were fully operational and a further three were expected to be completed early in 1979.
238. In April 1978 the Vietnamese authorities requested UNHCR to provide assistance to the refugees from Democratic Kampuchea, whose number was estimated to be about 150,000 at the end of the year. WFP and UNHCR undertook a joint mission in May to the provinces receiving them, and UNHCR allocated an amount of $300,000 from the Emergency Fund to cover immediate needs. An appropriation of $450,000 was also approved for these refugees within the 1978 General Programmes and used for the purchase of medicaments, clothing, mosquito nets and rice. In addition, a donation in kind of $58,065 was made available by a trust fund contribution for the benefit of those refugees living in areas affected by floods.
239. The assistance programme in 1979 for these groups of refugees from Democratic Kampuchea amounts to $3.5 million. However, the evolution of the programme naturally depends on over-all developments in the area. An allocation of $200,000 has been approved for transportation of refugees among this group who are of urban origin and who wish to resettle in third countries. The majority of these. are now living in Ho Chi Minh City.
240. Another assistance measure was the allocation of $204,821 from the Special Programme for displaced persons from Indo-China. This amount was used for resettlement and family reunion cases from Viet Nam.
241. Total expenditures on assistance in Viet Nam during 1978 amounted to $3,806,000, of which $750,300 were made available under General Programmes and $3,055,700 under Special Programmes.
16. Western Asia
242. The countries covered here are Iran, Jordan, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, the Syrian Arab Republic, the United Arab Emirates and Yemen.
243. During 1978, the region saw a continuing movement of refugees, caused in Dart by the crisis in the Horn of Africa and also by events within the area itself, characterized mainly by the arrival of some 12,000 to 15,000 refugees in Yemen.
244. The total number of refugees of concern to UNHCR in the countries covered here could be as high as 45,000. They are primarily of African and Asian origin. During 1978, the Government of the United Arab Emirates delivered temporary national passports to all Asians of undetermined nationality who had arrived earlier from Uganda, as well as to some Zanzibaris, in order to facilitate their permanent integration.
245. At the request of the Government of Yemen, the High Commissioner made available $100,000 from the Emergency Fund to assist about 15,000 refugees from Democratic Yemen, through the purchase and transportation of emergency relief goods including food, clothing and vaccines. WFP was requested to provide additional quantities of food.
246. In Yemen also, a case-load of some 50 refugees from various countries continued to be assisted, at a cost of $9,726.
247. In the other countries of the area, a total amount of $181,600 was expended on assistance measures in the fields of supplementary aid, local settlement, resettlement abroad, and education for which an amount of $30,000 was made available to finance scholarships for refugees. Also included in the total was an amount of $45,000 obligated to assist Zanzibari Arab family reunion cases to resettle in Abu Dhabi.
CHAPTER V ASSISTANCE ACTIVITIES IN EUROPE
A. Assistance in various countries
248. The over-all number of refugees in Europe was estimated at some 520,000 by 31 December 1978, approximately 26,000 less than at the end of 1977. Natural causes, naturalization, resettlement abroad and, in certain cases, re-acquisition of previous nationality (Spaniards) partially account for the decrease. It is also due to the exclusion from the over-all figures of a number of stateless persons residing in the Federal Republic of Germany, previously included in the statistics, but who are no longer shown as they are not of direct concern to UNHCR. It is further to be noted that the decrease in the over-all refugee population in Europe was partly offset by new refugee arrivals in Spain and Portugal.
249. With the exception of Portugal and Spain, where a number of legal and assistance problems remain to be solved, most of the refugees are well integrated in their country of asylum and receive the same benefits as the local population. As in previous years, Governments continued to provide the bulk of assistance to refugees through voluntary agencies and non-governmental organizations. UNHCR's role often limited itself to that of a coordinator and in the sphere of protection to that of an advisory body.
250. In a number of countries, UNHCR advises national Committees in matters relating to the determination of refugee status of asylum-seekers. In the United Kingdom, UNHCR consulted with the Home Office and the Foreign and Commonwealth Office on recommendations concerning refugee legislation and procedures.
251. In view of the increasing number of refugees reaching Spain from Latin America and Africa and the complexity of the problems connected with their presence there, a UNHCR Branch Office was opened in Madrid during the period under review. The initial tasks of this Office were to assist the Spanish authorities with the drawing up of internal legislation in line with the 1951 Convention and 1967 Protocol, both of which were ratified by Spain during the course of the year, as well as the elaboration of additional assistance measures to meet the refugees' growing needs.
252. In Portugal the exact refugee population was not known owing to the absence as yet of legislation to determine the status of the large number of persons who reached Portugal following the independence of African territories formerly under Portuguese administration. Assistance was extended where possible to refugees of both African and Latin American origin and consisted of multipurpose measures designed to facilitate local integration. Special mention should be made of voluntary repatriation to Africa which was also arranged for some 1,100 refugees.
253. During 1978, European countries again provided resettlement opportunities to refugees, particularly from Latin America and Indo - China. In France, refugees and displaced persons from Indo-China continued to be admitted at the monthly rate of initially 1,000 and later 1,100. Moreover, many European countries have requested ships flying their own flag to rescue "boat people" in distress on the high seas and in most cases have been generous in guaranteeing asylum to people so rescued. Refugees of African origin found local integration possibilities in France, the United Kingdom, and to a lesser extent in Portugal and Spain. Refugees of European origin continued to seek and receive asylum in various countries. In addition, transit facilities were provided by Austria, tile Federal Republic of Germany, Greece, Italy and Turkey for groups or individuals wishing to resettle overseas.
254. Once again counselling services constituted one of the more important aspects of UNHCR's programmes for refugees in Europe. Mainly non-European refugees benefit from these services aimed at easing problems of employment, accommodation, social welfare and educational training. Social workers also advise refugees on asylum, repatriation and family reunion procedures.
255. Aged and handicapped refugees continued to receive assistance under special schemes administered by UNHCR. These include housing-with-care for the elderly and resettlement (10 or more Plan) for the handicapped. In Greece, Italy, Spain, Turkey and Yugoslavia, the aged were again provided with annuities while efforts for the treatment and rehabilitation of the handicapped were pursued, notably in Belgium, the Scandinavian countries and Switzerland.
256. Expenditure in various European countries under the 1978 General Programmes totalled $2,540,700 and over $1,223,500 under Special Programmes.
B. United Nations humanitarian assistance for Cyprus
257. The High Commissioner, at the request of the Secretary-General continued to act as Co-ordinator of United Nations Humanitarian Assistance for Cyprus, a function he has discharged since August 1974.
258. Working closely with the United Nations Peace-keeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP), UNHCR made available food and medical supplies to the displaced and needy throughout the island, with the full co-operation of WFP and WHO. Previous year's activities undertaken to reactivate farms, small businesses and local crafts were pursued, while further financial allocations permitted the construction of low cost housing developments replacing temporary accommodation. Special attention was again given to the very young, the handicapped and the old, who continued to benefit from various measures of assistance.
259. At the request of the Cyprus Government, a number of contributions were channelled through UNHCR to finance the United Nations programme in the island. Expenditures totalled $13-75 million in 1978, of which $9,286,500 were spent for shelter, $1,359,500 for health services and medical supplies, $1,272,200 for supplementary assistance to diverse groups, 6860,400 for the construction and equipment of educational facilities and $461,500 for reafforestation and agriculture.
260. Additional information concerning the humanitarian activities carried out by the United Nations in Cyprus in the course of 1978 may be found in the relevant chapters of the progress reports submitted by the Secretary-General to the Security Council in the months of June (S/12723) and December (S/12946).
CHAPTER VI ASSISTANCE ACTIVITIES IN OCEANIA
261. The Representative for Australia and New Zealand, stationed in Sydney, continued to represent UNHCR as well as UNICEF and the United Nations Department of Public Information. Close contacts were maintained with the authorities and with voluntary agencies in both countries, especially on matters concerning protection of refugees, counselling, fund raising and resettlement. During 1973, the Government of Australia admitted 10,500 refugees from South-East Asia, of whom 8,400 were "boat people".
CHAPTER VII RELATIONS WITH OTHER ORGANIZATIONS
A. Co-operation between UNHCR, the United Nations, and other members of the United Nations system
262. The close co-operation which UNHCR had maintained in previous years with other, members of the United Nations system, both at Headquarters level and in the field, was maintained during the period under review. The Office participated in meetings of the governing bodies of other United Nations agencies and programmes, as well as in meetings of the Administrative Committee on Co-ordination (ACC) and its subsidiary bodies. UNHCR was also represented at meetings of United Nations bodies dealing with subjects relevant to its activities in favour of refugees and displaced persons, such as human rights, migrant workers, technical co-operation among developing countries, procurement in the third world and poverty-oriented rural development. Members of the United Nations system attended sessions of the Executive Committee of the High Commissioner's Programme and interagency meetings sponsored by UNHCR.
263. In 1978, UNHCR continued to work in close co-ordination with several members of the United Nations system to assist refugees from southern Africa, notably in Angola, Botswana, Lesotho, Mozambique, Swaziland, the United Republic of Tanzania and Zambia. The World Health Organization (WHO) assists with the procurement of medicines, for instance, of vaccine to cure a meningitis epidemic reported in a Zimbabwean refugee settlement in Botswana. Items such as medicaments and tents were made available from the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) stocks for emergency relief to Namibian refugees in Angola. The agencies met regularly in Zambia to ensure co-ordination of emergency aid to Zimbabwean refugees following several military incursions and every effort was made to immediately replace items destroyed and, particularly, to replenish WFP food stocks in warehouses which had been bombed. In Mozambique, similar precautions were taken following military activities and the agencies collaborated in order to avoid any duplication of effort in the granting of assistance. UNHCR dealt with the problems of many southern African refugees in conjunction with the United Nations Education and Training Programme for South Africa (UNETPSA) as well as the Council for Namibia and provided assistance financed from the United Nations Trust Fund for South Africa.
264. Within the context of the UNHCR assistance programme for the Horn of Africa, a visit of the UNHCR rural settlement specialist to Djibouti was timed to coincide with the visit of a technical mission from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) to study the possibility of establishing agricultural projects. Joint efforts were undertaken with the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) to assist groups of urban refugee students to find placement in academic and vocational training institutions. Both the UNHCR assistance programme for displaced persons and the regular refugee aid programme in Ethiopia were closely coordinated with local representatives of UNICEF and WFP. Frequent consultative meetings, to discuss assistance to refugees and displaced persons in Somalia, were held with UNICEF, UNDP, WFP, FAO and WHO, and joint missions were undertaken with UNICEF and WFP to assess the needs as regards health services, water supply and food aid in camps in Somalia.
265. From the outset, the humanitarian assistance programme for persons from Burma in Bangladesh was an interagency effort. The programme for the camps in Bangladesh was established in conjunction with UNICEF, UNDP, WFP, FAO and WHO. Thus, for example, an FAO nutritionist organized a team to promote feeding programmes for refugees, particularly children, suffering from malnutrition. WHO experts supported the Ministry of Health of Bangladesh which is responsible for providing health services in the camps. UNICEF was also closely involved in providing vitamin-enriched food supplements for the malnourished, as well as medicaments. The role played by UNDP in this operation has been a crucial one. As Special Representative of the High Commissioner, the UNDP Resident Representative continually supervises the inputs of the entire United Nations system and ensures that there is no duplication of effort in respect of contributions from voluntary agencies.
266. In the course of 1978, preparations were made for UNHCR participation in the International Year of the Child (IYC) in 1979. UNHCR participated in the meetings of the IYC Advisory Group, set up to co-ordinate the activities of the United Nations system, and also worked closely with the IYC secretariats in New York and Geneva.
267. The support of UNDP in countries where UNHCR is not directly represented has continued to be of essential practical assistance to the Office. Thus, when the need arose, UNDP Representatives acted for UNHCR by approaching the competent authorities in behalf of refugees, often regarding urgent matters such as the grant of temporary asylum.
268. Throughout 1978 WFP provided food aid to hundreds of thousands of refugees and displaced persons. The Programme played an integral part in most refugee situations, coordinating the bulk of the food aid. WFP and UNHCR are continually studying possible means to speed up the provision of emergency food aid by streamlining the relevant procedures and seeking to limit the period of refugee dependency on food aid. They also seek to promote the self-sufficiency in agriculture of large groups of rural refugees.
269. As regards the Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization (IMCO), the High Commissioner and the Secretary-General of IMCO made a joint appeal to the member States of IMCO for the rescue of persons leaving the Indo-Chinese peninsula in small boats who are found in distress at sea, and in renewing a similar appeal to ship owners, first made in 1977 through the International Chamber of Shipping.
270. The close relations UNHCR has maintained in previous years with the Office of the United Nations Disaster Relief Co-ordinator (UNDRO) have been further strengthened by the conclusion of a formal Memorandum of Understanding between the two Offices. This Memorandum will constitute the basis for future co-operation between the High Commissioner and the Co-ordinator.
271. UNHCR co-operated with many other agencies of the United Nations system including the International Labour Organisation (ILO), the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) and the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO). In the first instance, informal advice or routine expertise has been made readily available from the relevant technical agency.
B. Relations with other intergovernmental organizations
272. UNHCR maintained its close relations with the Organization of African Unity (OAU) both at Headquarters and in the field, particularly as regards assistance to refugees in southern Africa pursuant to General Assembly resolution 32/70. OAU was represented at the twenty-ninth session of the Executive Committee of the High Commissioner's Programme. UNHCR was represented at sessions of the Council of Ministers of the OAU, and the High Commissioner attended the fifteenth summit Conference of Heads of State and Government.
273. Once again the Intergovernmental Committee for European Migration (ICEM) proved to be a most valuable partner, instrumental in making transportion arrangements for the resettlement of large numbers of European, Indo-Chinese and Latin American refugees.
274. The generous support given UNHCR by the European Economic Community (EEC), valued at more than $14 million for 1978, demonstrated its growing role in the field of humanitarian assistance. For the first time the Community not only provided its traditional food aid, but also made donations in cash notably for UNHCR programmes in Bangladesh, in southern Africa, the Horn of Africa and in Zaire.
275. As regards the Council of Europe, UNHCR was represented at relevant meetings of the thirtieth session of the Parliamentary Assembly and of the Committee on Migration, Refugees and Demography and continued to follow the work of various other organs of relevance to the protection function of UNHCR, including the European Commission on Human Rights.
276. Relations with the Association of South-East Asian Nations (ASEAN) were developed during the reporting period, particularly in relation to the problem of persons leaving the Indo-Chinese peninsula by small boat.
277. The Office has further strengthened its relations with a number of other regional organizations, such as the Organization of American States (OAS), the League of Arab States, and the Asian-African Legal Consultative Committee.
C. Co-operation with liberation movements
278. Pursuant to the relevant resolutions of the General Assembly, UNHCR continued to maintain close working relations with liberation movements recognized by the OAU and the United Nations. The African National Congress (ANC), the Pan Africanist Congress of Azania (PAC), the South West African People's Organization (SWAPO), the Zimbabwe African National Union (ZANU) and the Zimbabwe African People's Union (ZAPU) attended the twenty-ninth session of the Executive Committee of the High Commissioner's Programme in an observer capacity.
D. Relations between UNHCR and non-governmental organizations (voluntary agencies)
279. During the year, UNHCR maintained relations with over 100 voluntary agencies which continued to provide important support to the Office in carrying out its tasks notably in the fields of protection of human rights, promotion of refugee law, fund-raising, publicity and as operational partners in the implementation of programmes in favour of refugees and displaced persons.
280. On the international level, UNHCR has close working links with the main coordinating bodies of the voluntary agencies such as the Conference of Non-Governmental Organizations in Consultative Status with the Economic and Social Council and the International Council of Voluntary bodies (ICVA). Contacts were also maintained with many coordinating bodies at the national level.
281. In order to associate the voluntary agencies not only with the execution but also with the formulation of UNHCR programmes, a UNHCR/ICVA Contact Group has been set up. The Group meets regularly particularly to deal with emergency situations.
282. Voluntary agencies have played a major role in promoting the resettlement of refugees, particularly boat people from South-East Asia, by providing sponsorships in countries of permanent residence. The agencies have worked with UNHCR in a number of situations such as that of the persons from Burma in Bangladesh, the repatriation of Zairian refugees from Angola and the Nicaraguan refugees in Central America.
283. UNHCR has further strengthened its traditional partnership with the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) and the League of Red Cross Societies (LRCS) which provide significant support to the Office in the performance of its protection functions.
284. In financial support alone, the voluntary agencies contributed a total of $8.9 million towards UNHCR programmes in 1978 which represents some 6 per cent of all contributions received by the Office.
D. Nansen Medal Award
285. The Nansen Medal for 1978 was presented to Sir Seretse Khama, President of the Republic of Botswana, as a tribute to the courageous and dedicated action pursued on behalf of the uprooted by a young nation under the inspiring leadership of its President. The Government and the people of Botswana rendered exceptional service to the cause of refugees by giving shelter to thousands of victims of racial discrimination and other forms of persecution.
CHAPTER VIII FINANCING OF MATERIAL ASSISTANCE ACTIVITIES
286. As mentioned elsewhere in this report, refugee problems, notably in Africa and Asia, have continued to grow during the period under review. The Executive Committee of the High Commissioner's Programme, at its twenty-ninth session in October 1978, approved an increase of over $6 million in the 1978 General Programmes, raising the target to $41,750,00020 Thanks to the generosity of the international community, the increased requirements for 1978 General Programmes were fully financed. Total 1978 expenditures, comprising both the General and Special Programmes, amounted to $134,681,000, an increase of 21 per cent since 1977. Special mention should be made of the non-governmental organizations whose contributions to all UNHCR activities rose from $5.5 million in 1977 to $8.8 million in 1978, an increase of 60 per cent.
287. At its twenty-ninth session the Executive Committee also approved a target for the 1979 General Programmes in an amount of $87,680,000. The increase for 1979 resulted, in large measure, from the transfer of certain activities from Special Programmes to General Programmes.
288. Since the Committee last met, however, refugee situations have continued to develop, notably in South-East Asia and also to 9 (rest extent in southern Africa and the Horn of Africa, imposing further considerable demands for funds. On 11 and 12 December 1978, the High Commissioner held a Consultative Meeting with Interested Governments on Refugees and Displaced Persons in South-East Asia, and on 19 January 1979 convened a meeting of Permanent Representatives in Geneva of States Members of the Executive Committee. On both these occasions, the High Commissioner stressed the need for urgent and humane solutions to the Problems of refugees, adding that in view of the universality of the refugee problems such a search for solutions should be based on a, wider and more equitable sharing of the burden by the international community. He also emphasized that unless UNHCR could start each year with a greater sense of financial security through firm pledges of contributions, the orderly implementation of programmes would be liable to suffer, resulting in delays which, in addition to being harmful for the refugees, could also lead to inefficiency and a lack of cost-effectiveness in the execution of UNHCR projects.
289. Governmental response to the High Commissioner's appeals has been very encouraging. However, in view of the increasing magnitude of financial requirements, estimated at the time of this report at almost $130 million for the 1979 General Programmes alone, UNHCR's financial situation has remained serious, and considerable efforts are required to ensure the funding of essential UNHCR assistance projects in 1979.
290. Table 3 of annex II shows contributions to the UNHCR General and Special Programmes for the years 1978 and 1979, which were paid or pledged as at 31 March 1979.
291. Contributions listed under Special Programmes include those to the UNHCR Refugee Education Account and to the various special activities listed below, which began or were continued during the reporting, period:
(a) United Nations Humanitarian Assistance for Cyprus;
(b) Assistance to displaced persons in the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam and the Lao People's Democratic Republic;
(c) Assistance to displaced persons from Indo-China in Thailand and other countries in Asia (from 1979 included in General Programmes);
(d) Special Action in Lebanon;
(e) Assistance to refugees from southern Africa;
(f) UNHCR Programmes of Humanitarian Assistance for:
- Sahrawi refugees in the Tindouf region of Algeria;
- Refugees and displaced persons in the Horn of Africa;
- Refugees and returnees in Bangladesh and Burma;
- Repatriation and rehabilitation of Zairian refugees.
CHAPTER IX PUBLIC INFORMATION
292. During the period under review, the international media Paid Particular attention to refugees and displaced persons. Developments in South-East Asia with thousands of persons leaving the Indo-Chinese peninsula in small boats served to focus Public attention on the world-wide refugee problem and on UNHCR's role of providing both assistance and protection to the uprooted. The situation of persons from Burma in camps in Bangladesh and their subsequent repatriation to Burma, the increasing numbers of refugees in the Horn of Africa and in southern Africa, the fate of Nicaraguan refugees who fled to neighbouring countries during the autumn of 1978 received, among other refugee situations and developments, wide coverage by the press.
293. The High Commissioner's missions in Africa, Europe, North America and South-East Asia were well covered by the news media, as was the mission by the Deputy High Commissioner to South-East Asia. Several leading journalists came to Geneva in December 1978 to cover the Consultative meeting with interested Governments on refugees and displaced persons in South-East Asia. The High Commissioner gave press conferences and interviews to journalists, and frequent briefings were held for the press by UNHCR staff members who had either recently returned from mission or had expertise on subjects of topical interest.
294 Public Information effectively sustained interest in the work of the Office through regular contact with the press, radio and television. UNHCR representatives continued to keep the press in their regions informed, and in a number of regional offices where media interest is high staff members have been specifically designated to deal with the media. Numerous press releases were issued and interviews, briefings, press conferences and background sessions were organized both for individual journalists and groups. There were increasing requests by journalists and television crews for UNHCR assistance in covering refugee situations in Asia, Africa and Latin America. UNHCR did its best to accede to these requests. In one special case UNHCR seconded a staff member to assist with the production of a documentary on "boat people".
295. Public Information intensified its co-operation with voluntary agencies both those with whom it has had a long association and others, with whom it has developed new ties. UNHCR provided a wide range of Public Information material (films, photos, posters, printed material, calendar, etc.) to support agency fund-raising and information campaigns of these agencies.
296. Public Information's Film Department continued its active production programme and provided film coverage of a number of refugee situations. Several hundred television outlets were given access to UNHCR film clips through a major news distribution network. A film on persons from Burma arriving in Bangladesh entitled "A Burden to Share" was distributed, some copies through the League of Red Cross Societies. Two films on resettlement, "The Swiss Experience" and "Waiting" have been widely used by organizations dealing with the problem of settling refugees in their communities, and segments of these films have also been televised. "The Restless Wave", a condensed version of a Netherlands television chain Tros film on the "boat people", has been widely circulated as well. A film on the refugee situation in Africa, "Africa's 50th State", was circulated to African televisions to publicize the Pan African Conference on the Situation of Refugees in Africa, which was scheduled to be held in Arusha in May 1979. The animated film "Si ce n'est ici" has been purchased by televisions. The dramatic film "I am a Refugee" won first prize in its category at the Cork Film Festival and has been purchased by five television networks.
297. UNHCR takes an active part in the over-all efforts of the United Nations system to publicize specific themes called for by resolutions of the General Assembly when they relate to UNHCR's activities. For the International Year of the Child (IYC) a 148-page Compendium entitled The Refugee Child presenting assistance projects for refugee children was printed and distributed to Governments, voluntary agencies and IYC Commissions throughout the world. Also, UNHCR designed a 1979 Year of the Child wall calendar, illustrated with photographs of refugee children, and published a special refugee child supplement for the IYC publication Ideas Forum. A film on refugee children was commissioned for release in the spring of 1979. UNHCR organized children's drawings, sessions in a number of refugee camps, with the best paintings to be forwarded to Paris for UNESCO's world-wide competition. Two photo and art exhibits were arranged, one, put together by UNHCR's photo library, was opened at the Beaubourg Centre in Paris and travelled throughout France, while the other, produced by the Swedish Save the Children Federation, Rädda Barnen, in co-operation with UNHCR, opened at the Palais des Nations in Geneva and is travelling throughout Europe.
298. UNHCR's photolibrary continued to increase its archive of colour and black and white photos as demands for UNHCR photos increased reflecting a growing interest in and awareness of the refugee situation on the part of more publications.
299. The bimonthly publication "News from UNHCR" was published regularly in English and French along with a supplement available in Spanish and German. A new fortnightly data sheet "Refugee Update", began publication in January 1979 and provides the press, voluntary agencies and Governments with the latest factual information on UNHCR activities. It is printed in English and French.
300. Co-operation continued with the United Nations Department of Public Information (DPI), both in Geneva and New York especially in the field of radio.
(Note: Financial and statistical data tables not included in this online version. See your nearest UN Depository Library.)
1 1 April 1978 to 31 Search 1979; except for statistical and financial data, most of which cover the calendar year 1978.
2 See Official Records of the General Assembly, Thirty-second Session, Supplement No. 12 (A/32/12/Add.1), para. 53.
3 Ibid., Thirty-third Session, Supplement No. 12A (A/33/12/Add.1), para. 68.
4 United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 189, No. 2545, p. 137.
5 Ibid., vol. 606, No. 8791, p. 267.
6 See Official Records of the General Assembly, Thirty-second Session, Supplement No. 12A (A/32/12/Add.1), para. 53 (6) (e) (I).
7 Ibid., para. 53 (6) (e) (iii).
8 Ibid., Thirty-third Session, Supplement No. 12A (A/33/12/Add.1), para. 38E.
9 See Official Records of the General Assembly, Thirty-second Session, Supplement No. 12A (A/32/12/Add.1), para 53 (5) (c).
10 Ibid., para. 53 (5) (d).
11 Ibid., Thirty-third Session, Supplement No. 12A (A/33/12/Add.1), para. 38 (A) (d).
12 Ibid., para. 68 (3).
13 bid., para 68 (l) (I).
14 Ibid., para. 68 (2).
15 Ibid., para 68 (2) (g)
16 See annex I to the present report for a table showing the status of accessions to the relevant instruments.
17 Adopted by the general Assembly on 14 December 1950 as annex to resolution.
18 See Official Records of the General Assembly, Thirty-third Session, Supplement No. 12A (A/33/12/Add.1), para. 68 (1) (k).
19 Ibid., Supplement No. 12 (A/33/12), para. 129.
20 Ibid., Supplement No. 12A (A/33/12/Add.1), para. 120.