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Information Note on UNHCR's Activities for Refugee Law Promotion, Dissemination and Training

Executive Committee Meetings

Information Note on UNHCR's Activities for Refugee Law Promotion, Dissemination and Training

15 July 1992

A. Introduction

1. The Executive Committee, in its conclusion No. 51 (XXXIX) on Promotion and Dissemination of Refugee Law, requested the High Commissioner to provide information on specific promotional activities world-wide, including their financial implications1. Such information is now prepared for submission to the Executive Committee on an annual basis.

2. This Note outlines those activities which were undertaken during the reporting period and describes proposed activities for the next six months. The total cost to UNHCR of the activities undertaken in the reporting period was $ 313,575. As host Governments and/or other organizations made contributions or facilities available to UNHCR, the cost of each activity varied. The travel expenses for which UNHCR was responsible depended on the number of participants and their points of departure. In some cases, UNHCR incurred no extra cost except for those expenses related to staff participation.

3. As in previous years, the training activities described in this Note were implemented in close cooperation with the UNHCR Training Section. The Division of International Protection, in general, funds promotional activities, while the Training Section is responsible for the training activities per se in its general budget. It is expected that this agreement will continue throughout 1992. UNHCR continues to make efforts to identify potential additional sources of funding to cover these promotional activities.

4. A private donor, the Ford Foundation, remains highly supportive of the promotional activities of the Division of International Protection, and has made contributions to its programme of refugee law training seminars for Government officials concerned with refugees and asylum-seekers. These seminars are designed to strengthen their knowledge and skills, enhance their awareness of the rights of refugees, and promote, where appropriate, the accession by the State in question to the relevant international and regional instruments.

5. In the strategy planning exercise of the Regional Bureau for Europe, it has been recognized that one of the most effective uses of UNHCR's limited human resources in Europe lies in training. While considerable efforts are already made in refugee law training activities, it is felt that these need to be further developed. In view of the preeminent importance attributed to refugee law training, the development of systematic training activities will be a major ongoing endeavour.

6. The programme for the promotion of refugee law reflects increasing awareness of the need and will of the Office to strengthen cooperation in this sphere with other entities, particularly with the Centre for Human Rights (CHR), the International Organization for Migration (IOM) and the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC).

B. Activities undertaken

1. Africa

7. Eleven refugee law seminars and training courses were held in the region, at a total cost of $66,970. The following is a summary of these promotional activities.


8. A two day seminar on refugee law was held in Accra on 16 and 17 April for Government officials from five Ministries and representatives from the Police and Immigration Departments. Some 20 people participated in this seminar.


9. A protection training seminar was held in Conakry on 15 and 16 July with 20 Government officials, and representatives of local authorities and operational partners. Major issues pertaining to refugee law and international protection were covered, and the seminar included lively discussions on the principle of non-refoulement and the duties of refugees.


10. A seminar was held in Maseru on 30 and 31 January on International Humanitarian Law, organized by the Lesotho Red Cross. It included a session on humanitarian law and refugees.


11. Two locally organized seminars on the principles of international refugee law were held in 1991 and were attended by representatives of Government agencies and officials concerned with refugees, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and HCR staff. The first seminar was held on 15 and 16 August for 48 officials from the southern region. The second seminar was held on 20 and 21 August for 38 officials from the central and northern regions. Among the subjects discussed were current legislation on refugees and policy on cases involving refugees, criteria for the determination of refugee status, certain aspects of durable solutions, the procedure for identification and registration of refugees, as well as international refugee instruments.


12. A seminar on refugee law was held in Windhoek from 22-24 July for Government officials and NGO staff. The seminar covered sources and promotion of refugee law, principles and criteria for the determination of refugee status, the principle of non-refoulement, protection from deportation and expulsion, and humanitarian treatment of refugees and asylum-seekers.


13. To strengthen and train relevant Government departments in refugee law, the grant of asylum, determination of Status and the treatment of refugees, a seminar on refugee law was held in Lagos in November with 24 Governmental participants.


14. Two regional seminars were held in Dakar during the reporting period. The first seminar was conducted from 6 to 10 July and participants included 22 UNDP officers from countries where UNHCR is not represented and three UNHCR staff from the region. The topics included an introduction to UNHCR programmes, general protection and eligibility determination. The second seminar took place from 9 to 15 July for the benefit of regional government officers. Among the topics covered were general protection matters, new directions in refugee protection and promotion of additional legislation relating to refugees.

Sierra Leone

15. A seminar on international protection and refugee law issues was held in Freetown from 18 to 20 July for 16 Government officials, including district officers. International protection issues were discussed, particularly eligibility and voluntary repatriation. Participants were also interested in the humanitarian principles relating to the detention of refugees and the protection of their physical safety.


16. A refugee law seminar on international protection and voluntary repatriation was held in the Sudan in January 1992 for Government officers. Of particular interest were general protection issues and specific responses to local problems.

2. Asia and Oceania

17. Fifteen refugee law seminars and training courses were held in the Asia and Oceania region at a total cost of $ 49,334. The following is a summary of these promotional activities.


18. Several training sessions on refugee law and protection were conducted for the Civil Police component of the United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC). Operational partners were briefed on the peace agreement, voluntary repatriation and operational questions.

China (People's Republic of)

19. A training seminar on refugee law was held in Beijing from 16 to 18 December for 32 officials from three ministries, the provinces and other organizations concerned with refugees. The seminar was held in conjunction with the commemoration of the fortieth anniversary of the 1951 Convention. The seminar was supported strongly by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

Hong Kong

20. Three activities were held in Hong Kong during the reporting period. The first was a workshop on refugee status determination which was held on 12 September. The 16 participants were from the Special Committee for Vulnerable Persons and UNHCR. The second activity was a training seminar on refugee status determination which was held from 2 to 4 December. This was held under the Comprehensive Plan of Action on Indo-Chinese Refugees (CPA) programme and gathered Government officials of first asylum countries as well as UNHCR officials from South-East Asia. The third activity was a workshop for Appeals Counsellors from the Agency for Volunteer Services. This full-day course was held on 22 May and was designed as a forum for the 18 participating counsellors to share their views on specific issues relating to status determination for Vietnamese asylum-seekers under the CPA.


21. A training seminar on refugee status determination for Vietnamese asylum-seekers, was held in Kuala Trengganu from 26 to 29 August for 34 Government officials. The seminar was attended by officers from the national and regional task forces who will conduct interviews for refugee status determination under the CPA.

22. Following discussions on the CPA and the refugee status determination procedure in Malaysia, the participants formulated a checklist for refugee status determination. The participants also discussed issues relating to country of origin information and interviewing techniques.


23. A seminar was held from 6 to 8 July for 25 Government officials, focusing on refugee determination, protection issues and durable solutions.


24. A regional training workshop directed towards members of three Appeal Boards took place in Manila on 14 and 15 August, and was attended by participants from the Presidential Office, the Bureau of Immigration and the Department of Justice.

25. Ongoing training activities under the CPA include interpreter-training, interviewing techniques and eligibility determination.


26. On 30 July, the Branch Office organized a commemoratory ceremony relating to the fortieth anniversary of the 1951 Convention and the establishment of UNHCR. This event was attended by embassy and senior Government officials, United Nations officials and prominent public figures. It was the most significant event promoting awareness of UNHCR's activities and refugee law during the period under review.

27. Training on refugee status determination of Vietnamese and a workshop for UNHCR legal consultants were held in Pattaya on 3 and 4 January. This two-day session was attended by UNHCR legal consultants and interpreters, and reviewed the application of refugee criteria.

28. Review of training on Vietnamese refugee status determination for the Ministry of Interior task force was held in Rayong from 17 to 23 March. This seven-day comprehensive training course was conducted for the newly established Government task force and provided information concerning the application of refugee criteria within the framework of the CPA. A total of 40 Ministry of Interior personnel attended.

29. A protection workshop on the Cambodian repatriation was held in Rayong from 24 to 27 November. The purpose of this workshop was, inter alia, to familiarize senior UNHCR and United Nations Border Relief Operations (UNBRO) staff involved in the Cambodian repatriation on the history and mandate of UNHCR, and its role in the United Nations system.

30. A workshop on refugee status determination and international principles of refugee law was also held in Rayong on 27 and 28 November. This two-day seminar promoted awareness of refugee law among UNHCR staff involved in the determination of refugee status of non-Indo-Chinese. Among the participants were two officials from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and one NGO staff member who acted as a resource person.

3. Europe and North America

31. A total of 26 refugee law seminars and training courses were held in the Europe and North America region at a total cost of $ 35,936, as follows.


32. At the invitation of the Government of the Republic of Bulgaria, a seminar was held in Sofia from 30 to 31 October for some 60 participants from seven Government ministries, the Office of the President of the Republic, research institutes and NGOs. A representative from the CHR also attended and made a presentation on human rights.


33. A refugee law training seminar was held in Tallin from 16 to 18 March for some 25 Government officials. The seminar provided an introduction to UNHCR's protection mandate, and included presentations on the protection of refugees, human rights issues, humanitarian and refugee law. This seminar was held in cooperation with the CHR and IOM.


34. A large number of training activities took place in France during the reporting period. Most notably, a series of training seminars was held for assistant judges representing UNHCR at the Commission des Recours des Réfugiés and another series of courses was given on UNHCR and the laws applicable to refugees in France. A total of 36 assistant judges attended the first series, which covered topics such as information on countries of origin, and criteria and procedures for the determination of refugee status. The second series was attended by some 160 employees of reception centres and temporary shelters, and covered refugee law, status determination procedures in France and interviewing techniques. The Office also participated in a number of other training activities and conferences throughout the year.


35. A refugee law seminar was held in Milan from 19 to 21 May for 35 public officers from the Ministry of the Interior and Ministry of Foreign Affairs and covered eligibility procedures, refugee status determination, social integration and the human rights of refugees. Activities are also organized on an ongoing basis for Government officials, NGOs and supporting institutions.


36. In cooperation with the CHR and IOM, a training seminar on refugee law was held for Government officials in Riga from 8 to 10 April. The seminar provided an introduction to UNHCR's protection mandate and covered the protection of refugees, human rights, humanitarian and refugee law.


37. A refugee law training seminar for Government officials was held in Vilnius from 21 to 24 April in cooperation with the CHR and IOM. The subjects covered included an introduction to UNHCR's protection mandate, the protection of refugees, human rights and humanitarian and refugee law.


38. A seminar was held in Ljubljana on 19 and 20 March for Government officials, providing an introduction to refugee law.


39. A series of courses were held in Madrid from February to June on "Aliens Law, Asylum and Refugee Status". These courses were co-organized by Comisión Española de Ayuda al Refugiado (the Spanish Commission for Aid to Refugees) (CEAR) and Carlos III University. Lectures on refugee law have been given to a large number of NGOs and educational institutions throughout the reporting period in many different cities. Within the framework of a seminar on "Youth against Intolerance", a workshop on the situation of refugees worldwide, including refugee law and refugee protection, was held on 13 July in Cabuenes.

United States of America (USA)

40. Each year, 15 courses are held in the USA ranging from 2-hour introductory courses for the Refugee Bureau to three-week courses for Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) officials. These latter courses typically are half-day sessions with detailed discussions on aspects relevant to the USA, such as the exclusion clauses and criminal offences, and refugee women and children. Seminars are also held for lawyers and NGOs in various regions. Three major courses were held during the reporting period at the University of Minnesota, the University of Virginia and the Massachusets Institute of Technology. UNHCR covered staff costs while the universities covered the costs of the seminars. The participants also contributed.

4. Latin America and the Caribbean

41. Fifteen refugee law seminars and training courses were held in the Latin American and Caribbean region at a total cost of $ 28,900. The following summarizes these promotional activities.


42. A three-day refugee law training course took place in Belize in October for Government officials.


43. A refugee law course was held in La Paz to discuss the protection of refugees and a potential revision of national refugee law. Procedures for implementation were also discussed.


44. UNHCR participated in the XVIII Course on International Law held by the Organization of American States (OAS) in Rio de Janeiro, attended by 40 high-level representatives of member States. In two sessions, the UNHCR Representative covered international refugee law and its links with international humanitarian law, the evolution of refugee law in Latin America, and the main aspects of the legal document of the International Conference on Central American Refugees (CIREFCA).

45. In cooperation with the ICRC, UNHCR organized a training seminar on refugee law on 16 August in Brasilia for 25 participants, mainly from the Ministries of the Interior and Foreign Affairs.


46. A seminar on specific aspects of refugee law was held in Santiago at the end of June for 50 Government and NGO participants. Discussions centred on the dissemination of refugee law and an analysis of protection issues relevant to returnees.

Costa Rica

47. A series of refugee law courses within the framework of CIREFCA were held during the reporting period. The focus of the courses was on the reintegration and rehabilitation of returnees.


48. In cooperation with the Latin American Episcopal Council, a seminar on forced migration in the Andean Region took place in Quito on 25 and 26 February. The participants were mainly NGO representatives from Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Peru, Switzerland and Uruguay as well as UNHCR staff from Argentina, Switzerland and Venezuela. The detailed discussions focused on the question of the internally displaced.


49. A seminar on refugee law was held in Bacalar, Quintana Roo, from 9 to 11 December, co-organized by UNHCR and the Quintana Roo Institute. The seminar included discussions on the integration prospects of the refugee community in Quintana Roo and a visit to La Laguna settlement. Other topics included durable solutions and the situation of refugee women.

50. A workshop on practical skills and techniques for refugee determination was held in Mexico City on 14 and 15 May. It was the first of its kind to be held there and was attended by 23 representatives from the Government and NGOs. Additional workshops on this subject will be held in the near future.

51. A training course on refugee law was held in Mexico City from 27 to 29 January for 20 participants from both the Mexican Commission for Assistance to Refugees (COMAR) and UNHCR. The major areas of discussion were a general analysis of the current protection and assistance situation, and potential strategies for the future.

52. A seminar on refugee law was held in Catemaco, Veracruz, from 7 to 9 October with 12 representatives from Government agencies and NGOs. Two subjects - mass influxes and individual asylum-seekers - were discussed in great detail.

53. UNHCR made a presentation on "The United Nations, Human Rights and Refugees" to approximately 150 naval cadets and officers on 6 October in Auton Lizardo.


54. A seminar was held in Asunción on 18 and 19 July for 35 participants from the Ministries of Justice, Labour and the Interior, international organizations, NGOs, churches and universities. This seminar was in the context of the commemoration of UNHCR's fortieth anniversary.


55. A course on the international protection of refugees and the mechanisms and procedures for assistance was held in Caracas from 21 to 23 April for 12 newly appointed refugee workers from Ecuador, the Dominican Republic, Jamaica and Venezuela.

56. In June, a course on refugee protection took place in Caracas for 23 participants from the Government and NGOs. The major issues addressed related to protection of refugees and the revision of procedures for status determination.

5. South-West Asia, North Africa and the Middle East

57. Four refugee law seminars and training courses were held in the region at a total cost of $ 9,332. The following is a summary of these promotional activities.


58. A refugee law training seminar was held in Cairo on 2 and 3 December, for Government officials. The topics included the sources of international refugee law and standards of treatment, criteria used for the determination of refugee status, and interviewing and evaluation techniques.


59. In connection with the Afghan repatriation operation, UNHCR organized three seminars on refugee law in Pakistan: in Islamabad on 17 and 18 November, in Peshawar on 20 and 21 November, and in Quetta on 23 and 24 November. The seminars were each attended by some 30 participants, mainly Government officials and NGO staff, as well as UNHCR. The topics included basic legal instruments relating to refugees, the rights and duties of refugees, protection in Pakistan, legal aspects of repatriation and practical problems relating to repatriation.

6. Promotional activities in cooperation with other institutions

60. In view of a slight increase in the Resources allocated to promotional activities, it has been possible to resume certain activities at their normal level. These activities include principally those traditionally carried out within the framework of UNHCR's long-standing collaboration with the International Institute of Humanitarian Law, in San Remo (the Institute). Due to the precarious financial situation of the Institute, most of these activities have received the strong financial support of UNHCR, which covered fully or partially the respective budgets. Such support enabled the Institute, in close collaboration with UNHCR, to organize the 8th Refugee Law Course and the 3rd Seminar of Arab Experts on Asylum and Refugee Law, both of which had been postponed due to a combination of financial and international difficulties.

61. Once again, UNHCR sponsored the traditional Refugee Day organized every year during the Institute's Round Table on current issues in the sphere of humanitarian and refugee law, held from 2-7 September. The participants devoted their debate to several questions concerning the application of the norms of international humanitarian law in the light of the recent conflict in the Persian Gulf. The Refugee Day provided experts with the opportunity to debate on the evolution of international protection and the role of UNHCR, on the occasion of the fortieth anniversary of the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees.

62. A large number of persons, representing Governments and international bodies, in addition to numerous independent experts participated in the Refugee Day: a total of 24 Governments were represented. UNHCR contributed $ 21,350 to cover part of the cost of this event.

63. The 3rd Seminar of Arab Experts on Asylum and Refugee Law was organized in collaboration with the Jordan National Red Crescent Society, under the patronage of Crown Prince Hassan of Jordan and the auspices of UNHCR, and held in Amman, Jordan, from 2 to 4 November. The seminar was attended by some seventy experts representing 14 Arab countries and a number of international organizations/bodies, including the League of Arab States, IOM, ICRC and the former League of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (now the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies). Refugee protection, the status of Palestinians in Arab and other countries, protection of refugees in armed conflicts and the right of political asylum on the new international stage were widely addressed by the participants. In the course of the debate, there was a wide consensus that Arab countries should agree on a common regional declaration on refugees and asylum which could pave the way, in the longer term, to the adoption of a regional convention on the subject. UNHCR contributed $ 48,000 to the expenses of this important meeting.

64. As in previous years, UNHCR participated and provided staff resources to the European teaching seminars on asylum, aliens and refugees, organized in San Remo in November. These seminars were attended not only by Italian attorneys, judges, administrative and police officials, but also by participants from other Mediterranean countries as well as representatives of international organizations. This wide participation permitted practitioners and experts to compare national practice and share views. No financial expenses were incurred by UNHCR in connection with these seminars.

65. From 17 to 21 February, the International Institute of Humanitarian Law organized the 8th Refugee Law Course in close collaboration with UNHCR. The course, which had previously been postponed, furthered the traditional objective to train and share experiences among Government officials dealing with asylum and refugee matters. It was also aimed at academics who could be in a position to provide training and disseminate refugee law principles in their respective countries. It was attended by some 45 participants and was addressed by the High Commissioner, who delivered a lecture on the problems facing UNHCR today. Expenses incurred by participants from developing countries were covered by the organizers. UNHCR provided $ 90,348 towards the costs of the course.

66. The Institute convened a meeting of Experts on "Prevention", which took place in San Remo from 18 to 20 June. The meeting was held under the auspices of UNHCR, which was represented by the Director of International Protection. The deliberations of the experts are summarized in a concluding statement given by the Honorary President of the Institute at the close of the meeting.

67. UNHCR also helped organize and participated in the European Legal Network (ELENA) course conducted in Barcelona from 7 to 10 November 1991. This course was aimed at lawyers representing refugees and asylum-seekers in Europe. Apart from sessions on the interpretation and implementation of refugee law principles, the course also provided advice and training on important aspects of the 1951 Convention, such as the definition of a refugee, expulsion and non-refoulement.

68. The Asian-African Legal Consultative Committee (AALCC) held a Workshop on International Refugee and Humanitarian Law in New Delhi from 24 to 26 October. In addition to UNHCR staff, participants included high-ranking officials of 28 Governments from the AALCC regions. They were given a synopsis of background material prepared by UNHCR. Among the diverse topics covered were universal and regional instruments, humanitarian and legal responses to the contemporary refugee problem in the region and protection of refugees at the national and international level. The cost of this Workshop was defrayed by the Ford Foundation.

69. In commemoration of the fortieth anniversary of the 1951 Convention, UNHCR assisted the Journal of Refugee Law in organizing a colloquium entitled "The 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees: Principles, Problems and Potential". The colloquium, attended by some 60 experts, took place in Geneva from 22 to 26 July. The Ford Foundation met most of the cost, while UNHCR contributed $ 35,000.

7. UNHCR Internship Programme

70. UNHCR's regular internship programme continued during the reporting period. A total of 19 interns were chosen by the Selection Committee in bi-annual meetings in September 1991 (winter and spring period) and March 1992 (summer and autumn period). Six of the 19 interns were granted a special scholarship amounting to $ 1,000 per month, in accordance with UNHCR's programme of assistance to deserving candidates from developing countries.

C. Proposed activities for the period 15 July to 31 December 1992

1. Africa

71. Four refugee law seminars and training courses, summarized below, are to be held in Africa at an estimated cost of $ 12,000.


72. In October a refugee law seminar focusing on voluntary repatriation will be held in Lusaka for Government officials, to set the legal and institutional framework for the repatriation of Angolan refugees.


73. Also in October, a training seminar on refugee law is planned for some 30 Government officials. This seminar will cover refugee law and protection.


74. A refugee law seminar will be held in August in Blantyre for 12 UNHCR staff members. Its major focus will be on protection and voluntary repatriation. No UNHCR funds have been requested.

Mozambique75 In order to prepare for the return of refugees, a refugee law seminar will be held in October concentrating on voluntary repatriation.

2. Asia and Oceania

76. Three regional seminars on refugee law are planned for the Asia and Oceania region at an estimated cost of $13,100. The following is a brief summary.


77. In October a regional seminar on refugee law will be held in Suva for Government officials. The participants will focus on refugee law and refugee protection.


78. A briefing session on the CPA will be held in September for Government officials. A refugee law seminar for legal experts will also be held in September.

3. Europe

79. UNHCR has developed for Central and Eastern Europe, as well as the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), a multifaceted training strategy comprising: refugee law and Emergency Management Training (EMT) courses, internships and contingency planning. In implementing this strategy, UNHCR will cooperate closely with IOM, CHR and various NGOs to ensure that the seminars on refugee law reach Government officials at all levels, as well as newly formed NGOs. 'In this regard, a series of refugee law courses (2-3 days) are planned in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Hungary, the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic, Romania and Albania. Each in-country seminar will target 25-30 Government officials and representatives of local NGOs.

4. The Americas

80. Two refugee law seminars and training courses will be held in the Americas at an estimated cost of $ 10,600. These are summarized below.


81. A training seminar on refugee status determination and documentation is planned for September in La Paz, for 20 Government officials.


82. A refugee law seminar will be held in Santiago in August for 25 police officers. This will be an introductory seminar covering UNHCR and its work, refugee law and refugee protection.

5. South-West Asia, North Africa and the Middle East

83. Three refugee law seminars and training courses are to be held in the region at an estimated cost of $ 9,000. A brief summary is provided below.


84. A refugee law training seminar to be held in Irbid is planned for Government officials.

Saudi Arabia

85. A refugee law training course will be held in Riyadh in September for 25 Government officials. The course will include refugee law and refugee protection.


86. In July 1992, a refugee law training seminar will be held in Damascus for Government officials, including personnel from the airport and border areas. This seminar will address refugee law, refugee status determination and durable solutions.

United Arab Emirates

87. A refugee law seminar is scheduled to be held in Abu Dhabi for 25 Government officials. This will be an introductory course on refugee law and refugee protection.

6. Promotional activities in cooperation with other institutions

88. In line with established policy and as part of its now traditional collaboration with the International Institute of Humanitarian Law, UNHCR will organize and participate in the following activities.

89. The 17th Round Table on Current Problems of International Humanitarian Law will take place in San Remo, Italy, from 2 to 4 September and will for the first time be devoted to a single topic: "The right to assistance".

90. Participating experts will be selected from Governments and international organizations. Individual independent experts are also expected to participate. A UNHCR contribution of $ 14,000 is planned to meet part of the cost of this Round Table.

91. The 4th Seminar of Arab Experts on Asylum and Refugee Law will take place in Cairo, Egypt, from 19 to 22 October, and will be organized jointly by UNHCR and the Institute, in collaboration with the Faculty of Law of Cairo University. Its main goal will be to take stock of the recent conclusions of the 3rd Seminar organized in Amman, Jordan, and ensure proper follow-up, particularly as regards the elaboration and adoption of a declaration on the protection of refugees and asylum. UNHCR is expected to contribute in the range of $ 39,000.

92. A seminar of European experts will be organized b the Institute and be held under the auspices of UNHCR. It will take place in Praha, Czech and Slovak Republic, from 2 to 4 November. Participating experts will have the opportunity to review current humanitarian issues in Europe, with particular reference to the problems of protection affecting refugees, displaced persons and people involved in other migratory flows. Invited experts will be selected from governmental and Red Cross circles. UNHCR will contribute some $ 22,000, to meet part of the related expenses.

93. From 11 to 13 December, the Institute will organize the 4th Seminar for Practising Lawyers, particularly geared to practitioners from Italy, France and Spain. This Seminar is intended to facilitate contacts between professionals involved in advocating refugee interests before competent national commissions and tribunals. No financial contribution is expected from UNHCR, but the services of professional staff will be provided.

94. In December 1992, UNHCR and the Institute will join efforts to organize a colloquium of Latin American experts to take place in Montevideo, Uruguay. The meeting is intended to ensure needed follow-up to the Cartagena Declaration on Refugees adopted in November 1984. In view of the great interest of Latin American experts in discussing the impact and concrete implementation of the Cartagena Declaration, it is possible that the seminar may focus on adapting the Declaration to present-day needs. UNHCR is expected to contribute $ 42,000.

95. Special training courses are also envisaged during this forthcoming period, in the light of the interest expressed by several countries to provide training to officials directly involved in refugee matters at the national level. The first such course may be organized in a country of the Middle East and could well focus its attention, inter-alia, on the Declaration which will be discussed and may be adopted by the 4th Seminar of Arab Experts on Asylum and Refugee Law planned to take place in Cairo. UNHCR's contribution towards this course will be in the range of $ 30,000.

96. UNHCR will again co-organize the European Legal Network (ELENA) course to be held in Rome from 26 to 29 November. The course will seek to provide lawyers involved in advocacy on behalf of refugees and asylum-seekers with advice and training on relevant international agreements and will have a component on interpreting and implementing refugee law principles and refugee rights. The expected cost to UNHCR is $ 6,000.

97. The Office will again cooperate with UNITAR in the latter's International Law Fellowship Programme at the Hague Academy of International Law from 20 to 24 July. UNHCR will conduct six working sessions on refugee law and protection for 20 Government officials and jurists from developing countries, at an estimated cost of $ 1,400.

D. Conclusion

98. UNHCR strove to implement the conclusions and decisions of the Executive Committee by increasing refugee law and protection training activities throughout the world to meet ever-increasing demands for this type of training. The Office has also continued to perform other essential refugee law promotion tasks, including those aimed at encouraging further accession to the international refugee instruments. The promotion and dissemination of refugee law have thus retained their place as essential UNHCR protection functions in safeguarding the human rights of refugees and asylum-seekers. UNHCR has nevertheless remained mindful of the financial limitations facing the Office, and has instituted various economy measures to reduce the cost of such activities. These measures include an emphasis on national as opposed to regional seminars, conducting seminars in close proximity, wherever possible, to reduce travel costs from Headquarters, resort to field resource persons as much as possible, increased collaboration with other organizations, and the search for private sources of funds.

1 The financial figures cited in this document generally do not include the travel costs of Headquarters and field office staff trainers, which are covered from other sources. In many instances, training missions are undertaken in conjunction with other field missions.