Information Note on UNHCR's Activities for Refugee Law Promotion, Dissemination and Training
1. The Executive Committee, in its conclusion No. 51 (XXXIX) on Promotion and Dissemination of Refugee Law, requested the High Commissioner to provide information on specific promotional activities world-wide, including their financial implications1. Such information is now prepared for submission to the Executive Committee on an annual basis.
2. The activities described in this Note were undertaken or were to be undertaken by UNHCR during the period under review. It should be noted that the total cost to UNHCR of the activities that have been implemented during this period amounted to $ 160,362. The cost of each activity varied considerably, according to the extent of the contributions or facilities provided by the host Government or other organizations. The travel expenses for which UNHCR is responsible depended on the number of participants and their points of departure. In some instances, no additional costs were incurred by UNHCR, apart from those related to the participation of its own staff.
3. The training activities detailed in this Note were planned and implemented in close collaboration with the UNHCR Training Section. Funding for promotional activities has generally been provided by the Division of International Protection, while training per se has been funded by the Training Section from its general budget. This arrangement is expected to continue throughout 1991. UNHCR's efforts to identify additional sources of funding for some of these activities were generally successful during the period under review, and will continue on an ongoing basis. Efforts will also be made to increase the level of participation of private donors who have already been identified.
4. One private donor, the Ford Foundation, has been highly supportive of the promotional activities of the Division of International Protection, and has generously contributed to its programme of refugee law training seminars for government officials dealing with refugees and asylum-seekers. These seminars are designed to strengthen their knowledge and skills, to enhance their awareness of the rights of refugees, and to promote, where appropriate, the accession by the State in question to the international and regional instruments concerned. Refugee law training seminars are to be held in China, Ecuador, Egypt, India, Namibia and Pakistan, and the Ford Foundation has generously donated $ 37,736 as its contribution towards the costs of these seminars. In the same context, the Ford Foundation has funded, on a local basis, a series of refugee law training seminars in Mexico.
5. During the period under review, UNHCR was requested by the Governments of the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic, Hungary and Poland to conduct refugee law training seminars for their officials. Additional seminars are to be held in this region in the very near future.
A. ACTIVITIES UNDERTAKEN IN THE PERIOD 16 JULY 1990-15 JULY 1991
6. Six refugee law seminars and training courses were held in the Africa region, at a total cost of $ 31,675, as follows:
7. A regional refugee law seminar was held in Gaborone from 3 to 5 June 1991. It was attended by 22 government officials from Botswana, Lesotho, Swaziland, the United Republic of Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe representing ministries and government departments that deal with refugees and asylum-seekers. The seminar had as its topics the international refugee instruments, the mandate of UNHCR, and the search for durable solutions.
8. This seminar was held from 8 to 11 October 1990 in Bujumbura and was attended by 27 government officials. Among the participants were officials from the Ministries of the Interior, Justice, Rural Development and Handicrafts, Family and Women's Affairs, Social Affairs, and Foreign Affairs, as well as from the Departments of Immigration, Police and Security, and of Refugees. The seminar was aimed at strengthening their working knowledge of protection issues and of international legal instruments relating to refugees.
9. A refugee law seminar was held from 15 to 16 April 1991 in Accra for 14 government officials and two UNHCR local officers. The timing of this seminar was opportune as Ghana recently granted asylum to nearly 7,000 refugees from Liberia and is also in the process of adopting a comprehensive Refugee Act. The seminar was geared to promoting a knowledge of the international legal instruments as well as of general refugee issues.
10. A refugee law seminar was conducted from 10 to 12 April 1991, in Lagos, at the Nigerian Institute of International Affairs. It was attended by 30 officials from government ministries and departments, diplomatic missions, UN agencies and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) dealing with refugee The main aim of the seminar was to increase the participants' knowledge of international and domestic legal instruments.
11. This seminar was held in Kampala from 13 to 15 August 1990, in conjunction with the above-mentioned seminar held in the United Republic of Tanzania, and was conducted by the same resource persons from Headquarters. It was attended by 21 government officials from the Ministries of Local Government, Internal Affairs and Justice, the Immigration and Passport Control Departments, and the Internal Security Organization. Two local UNHCR staff members also attended. The main objectives of the seminar were to increase the participants' knowledge of refugee and protection matters, and to share relevant experiences.
United Republic of Tanzania
12. This seminar was first scheduled to be held in 1989, but was postponed owing to financial constraints. It took place in Arusha from 8 to 10 August 1990 and was attended by 20 government officials, mainly from the Immigration Department, Police, and Refugee Section of the Ministry of Home Affairs as well as officials from the Office of the President and the Office of the Prime Minister. The Director of Public Prosecutions, who is the chairman of the eligibility committee in the United Republic of Tanzania also attended, together with several members of the eligibility committee. The seminar's objective was to enhance the knowledge of the participants regarding the principles, criteria and procedures for determination of refugee status and other international legal instruments. It was conducted by two resource persons from the Division of International Protection.
II. LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN
13. Thirteen refugee law seminars and training courses were held in the Latin America and Caribbean region at a total cost of $ 38,032, as follows:
14. A national refugee law seminar was organized in Mar del Plata by the UNHCR Regional Office in Buenos Aires and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs from 12 to 14 June 1991. Forty participants attended, including members of the judiciary, federal judges, Supreme Court members, government officials, academics, and representatives of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) and NGOs. The objective of the seminar was to promote awareness of international refugee law among the members of the judiciary and Parliament.
15. Fifty participants representing the Ministries of the Interior, Migration and Justice, as well as the armed forces, NGOs and lawyers attended a seminar held in La Paz from 12 to 15 November 1990. The title of the seminar was "International Protection of Human Beings and the Problem of Persons without an Identity Document".
16. Three seminars were conducted in Quito from 10 to 26 April 1991. The objective of these seminars was to familiarize government officials who had not had contact with refugees with the 1951 Convention and other international legal instruments as well with refugee status determination procedures. The first seminar was attended by 20 Foreign Affairs officers; the second was attended by 25 participants from the Ministry of the Interior (Migration and Police), the Central University School of International Sciences and the Latin American Association of Human Rights; and the third by 20 participants, mostly from the Immigration and Foreign Affairs Departments.
17. A refugee law seminar was organized from 31 July to 1 August 1991, in Tegucigalpa, to discuss matters related to legal refugee issues, namely reception of refugees, voluntary repatriation, internally displaced persons and NGO activities. Participants included UNHCR staff, government and NGO officials from the Caribbean, Central American countries, Colombia, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, Peru, the Inter-American Commission of Human Rights, and government officials from Honduras.
18. A seminar was held in Mexico City from 30 January to 1 February 1991, and was attended by 26 participants from different organizations and institutions involved in refugee matters. The main objective of the seminar was to familiarize the participants with different aspects of refugee law.
19. Two additional seminars, funded by the Ford Foundation, were held from 13 to 15 March 1991 in Tijuana, and from 18 to 20 March 1991 in Mexico City. Fifty-five participants from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, several universities and NGOs dealing with refugees attended the first course in Tijuana. The second seminar in Mexico City had a similar number of participants. The objective of both seminars was to increase the participants' knowledge of refugee matters.
20. A seminar to promote the protection functions of UNHCR was held in Bluefields from 23 to 25 July 1990, and was attended by 60 participants. These included officials from regional government offices, religious leaders, and representatives of the local press and NGOs in the region. Forty-three participants from different government departments and NGOs attended another seminar held in San Carlos on 18 October 1990. The objectives achieved by this seminar were the promotion of UNHCR's main functions (protection and assistance), as well as of Nicaragua's new administrative law on refugees. A third seminar was held in Esteli on 15 August 1990 and was attended by 52 participants from the Ministries of Aliens, Health, and the Interior, representatives of NGOs working in the region and the local press. The objectives of this seminar were to promote and disseminate the role of UNHCR in Nicaragua and the Latin American region as a whole.
III. ASIA AND OCEANIA
21. Four refugee law seminars and training courses were held in the Asia and Oceania region at no cost to UNHCR, as follows:
22. Two seminars were conducted, one in Fukuoka and the other in Osaka, between 15 and 20 June 1991. Some 30 to 50 participants, mainly lawyers, academics, government officials from the Ministries of Foreign Affairs and Justice and major implementing partners attended. The topic of the seminar was "Recent Development of Refugee Problems and the Task of Jurists". The seminar also focused from a legal standpoint on the nature of modern and recent refugee issues vis-à-vis those of traditional refugees as defined in the 1951 Convention. The cost of the seminar was borne by the Japan Legal Aid Association (JLAA).
23. A workshop was held in Kuala Lumpur from 22 to 23 July 1990. The objective of the seminar was to provide three UNHCR legal consultants with comprehensive training in refugee status determination criteria and procedures.
24. A UNHCR workshop on refugee status determination for UNHCR staff dealing with durable solutions in the region was held in Bangkok from 1 to 2 October 1990 in order to give staff a better understanding of the linkage between refugee status and protection. Solutions for the regional refugee population were also considered.
IV. EUROPE AND NORTH AMERICA
25. Six refugee law seminars and training courses were held in the Europe and North America region at a total cost of $ 1,655 as follows:
Czech and Slovak Federal Republic
26. At the request of the Government, a refugee law training seminar was held in Prague from 17 to 20 December 1990. The objective of the seminar was to create a greater understanding of refugee law and protection and to discuss the new refugee legislation of the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic with a view to improving the practical skills of the officials dealing with refugees. Twenty-four government officials from various Government ministries and departments attended the seminar, which was sponsored by the Government.
27. A refugee law seminar for government officials of the Ministry of the Interior and the Refugee Appeals Board was held in Helsinki on 16 May 1991 at no cost to UNHCR. The seminar emphasized international refugee law principles and their impact on and application in local legislation.
28. A seminar on refugee law was held from 29 October to 2 November 1990 in Malyi. Thirty-one government officials from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Hungarian Refugee Office, local refugee offices and the Border Guard Training Institute, as well as border guards, attended the seminar. Its objective was to increase the awareness of these government officials of refugee protection issues, as well as to improve their effectiveness in refugee status determination procedures. The seminar was held at the request of the Hungarian Government, which bore the cost.
29. A refugee law training seminar took place in Swider at the request of the Polish Government between 11 and 14 February 1991. The objective of the seminar was to familiarize staff of the newly created Polish Refugee Office with the principles of refugee law and protection. There were 12 participants at this seminar, which was financed by the Polish Government.
30. A refugee law training seminar was held in Lisbon from 20 to 21 June 1991. It was attended by 31 participants representing the Consultative Commission for Refugees, the Aliens and Borders Service, and the Regional Centres for Social Security, as well as by two UNHCR officials. The aim of the seminar was to provide a forum for discussing a broad range of issues of interest to Portuguese officials dealing with refugees. These included the Mandate of UNHCR, sources of refugee law, principles and criteria for the determination of refugee status, the protection principle of non-refoulement, expulsion and deportation, UNHCR's protection role in Europe, Portuguese asylum law, as well as the Schengen Agreement and the Dublin Convention.
31. A seminar for lawyers in the Stockholm area was held from 30 to 31 May 1991. There were about 25 participants, all of whom were lawyers dealing or concerned with refugees and asylum-seekers. The aim of the seminar was to familiarize the participants with the basic international refugee law and protection instruments, as well as to discuss refugee issues and problems encountered in practice. The seminar was held at no cost to UNHCR.
V. PROMOTION ACTIVITIES IN COOPERATION WITH OTHER INSTITUTIONS
32. During the period under review, several courses and meetings had to be postponed or cancelled owing to UNHCR financial constraints and/or the crisis and subsequent war in the Gulf region. They included those traditionally scheduled within the framework of UNHCR's ongoing collaboration with the International Institute of Humanitarian Law of San Remo, English and French sessions of the Refugee Law Course, which were cancelled, and the Round Table of Asian Experts in Manila as well as the third meeting of Arab Experts originally scheduled in Kuwait, which were postponed. The Eighth Seminar of Experts on Contemporary International Humanitarian Law and Current Human Rights Issues in Europe, as well as a meeting of experts on the reinforcement of international cooperation for solving refugee problems, were held as scheduled.
33. From 25 to 27 April 1991, UNHCR lent its auspices to the organization of a meeting of some 35 experts on the reinforcement of international cooperation for solving refugee problems. The participants examined and discussed ways of reinforcing and further developing international cooperation on refugee issues. They also addressed some 13 key issues such as prevention and voluntary repatriation, early warning systems, and flagrant human rights abuses. In addition, they reviewed the UN system's capacity to respond more effectively and quickly to refugee problems. UNHCR contributed $ 43,000 to the cost of this meeting.
34. The Eighth Seminar of Experts on Contemporary International Humanitarian Law and Current Human Rights Issues in Europe took place in Bucharest, Romania from 27 to 30 June 1991. The seminar was organized by the San Remo Institute in collaboration with UNHCR, the ICRC and the International Organization for Migration (IOM) under the auspices of the Romanian Association for Humanitarian Law and the Romanian Red Cross Society. The seminar was a success. It received the full attention and support of the Romanian authorities, as well as extensive coverage by the media operating in Bucharest and in Romania generally. Some 120 participants attended, including academics, scholars, and representatives from eastern, central and western European and Nordic countries, as well as from other countries and the Council of Europe. The United Nations Centre for Human Rights was also represented. UNHCR made a contribution of $ 37,000 to the cost of the seminar.
35. UNHCR also sponsored a refugee day which traditionally takes place during the San Remo Institute Round Table on Current Issues of Humanitarian and Refugee Problems which was held from 4 to 8 September 1990. UNHCR contributed $ 9,000 towards the cost of its organization.
36. Within the framework of its long-standing collaboration with the Institute of Humanitarian Law, UNHCR also participated in the Second Course on Problems of Asylum, Refugees and Aliens, held in San Remo in late November 1990. This second course was attended by some 40 representatives from the Italian Ministry of the Interior, magistrates and lawyers. Police and immigration officials also attended. No costs were incurred by UNHCR in connection with this course.
VI. UNHCR INTERNSHIP PROGRAMME
37. UNHCR's regular internship programme continued during the reporting period. Thirteen interns were chosen by the Selection Committee during its biannual meetings, in September 1990, for the winter and spring period, and in March 1991, for the summer and autumn period. Five of the 13 interns were granted a special scholarship amounting to $ 1,000 per month, in accordance with UNHCR's programme of special assistance to deserving candidates from developing countries.
B. PROPOSED ACTIVITIES FOR THE PERIOD 15 JULY TO 31 DECEMBER 1991
38. Four refugee law seminars and training courses are to be held in the Africa region at an estimated cost of $25,000, as follows:
39. A refugee law training seminar for officials of the Guinean Government is to be organized in Conakry from 15 to 16 July 1991. Twenty persons from various ministries, local authorities and operational partners, including 10 officials from the Guinean Forest Region, are expected to attend the seminar, which is aimed at enhancing the knowledge of refugee law and procedures.
40. A refugee law seminar for government officials is to be held from 22 to 24 July 1991 in Windhoek, Namibia. Some 22 officials from the Ministries of Foreign Affairs, Land Resettlement, and Home Affairs, and representatives of the immigration, prison, border patrol and refugee departments are expected to attend. The seminar is aimed at giving these officials, who deal with refugees and asylum-seekers, a greater knowledge of refugee law principles and protection. Its cost will be covered by funding from the Ford Foundation.
41. A regional refugee law training seminar for UNDP officials from selected West African countries, in which UNHCR has no official presence, is scheduled to be held in Dakar during the second half of 1991. The aim of the seminar is to familiarize UNDP officials dealing with refugees with the basic refugee protection instruments.
42. In conjunction with the seminar in Guinea, a refugee law training seminar is planned for 18 to 20 July 1991 in Freetown. Twenty officials from the Ministry of Social Development, the police and military, the Criminal Investigation Department (CID), and the Immigration and Prison Departments, as well as district officers from Kenema, Pujehun, and Kailahun, are expected to attend. The objective of the seminar is to familiarize these officials with the international protection instruments, and to promote awareness of refugee law and its application in the discharge of their functions.
II. EUROPE AND NORTH AMERICA
43. Five refugee law seminars and training courses are to be held in the Europe and North America region at an estimated cost of $ 20,000.
Czech and Slovak Federal Republic/Hungary/Poland
44. An agreement as been reached between the Governments of these three countries and UNHCR to conduct follow-up seminars to those already held in each country. The costs of these seminars will be met by the host countries and UNHCR.
45. UNHCR plans to hold a refugee law training course for its staff based in Greece, Hungary, Italy, Romania, Turkey and Yugoslavia, possibly in the second half of September 1991. Between 15 and 20 staff members are expected to attend. The objective of the seminar is to exchange information regarding refugee concerns in south-East Europe.
United States of America
46. As part of the ongoing collaboration with the US Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS), a series of refugee law training seminars for INS officials is scheduled to take place in October 1991. The objective is to enhance the participants' knowledge of the international refugee instruments and national legislation as well as to improve their skills in dealing with refugees and asylum-seekers.
III. LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN
47. Three refugee law seminars and training courses are to be held in the Latin America and Caribbean region at an estimated cost of $ 40,000, as follows:
48. A seminar on conflict and forced migration in the Andean area is to be held in the third quarter of 1991, in Quito. Thirty-six persons, including UNHCR and Church officials, NGOs, and the ICRC from Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela, are expected to attend. The objective of the seminar is to exchange information on the causes of conflict in the region, to analyse the attitudes of UNHCR and the Church with a view to identifying intervention policies, asylum perspectives and guidelines in order to prepare adequately for possible refugee emergency situations. The cost of the seminar will be covered by funding from the Ford Foundation.
49. A regional refugee law training seminar for government and NGO officials in the Caribbean region has been planned for the second part of July or early August 1991. The seminar will focus on refugee law principles and on the international refugee instruments.
50. A refugee law training seminar for government officials from northern South America is scheduled to be held in Venezuela during September 1991. The objective of the seminar will be to increase the participants' practical knowledge of international protection and of national legislation relating to refugees.
IV. SOUTH-WEST ASIA, NORTH AFRICA AND THE MIDDLE EAST
51. Because of the Gulf crisis and other unforeseen developments, several of the seminars and training activities planned for the region in the second half of last year and the beginning of this year were unavoidably postponed. Six refugee law seminars and training courses at an estimated cost of $ 40,500 are now to be held in this region.
52. A refugee law training seminar for about 21 government and NGO officials and UN agency staff in Afghanistan is planned to be held in Kabul in November 1991. The seminar is aimed at providing officials dealing with refugees and returnees with a practical training in refugee law and asylum.
53. A regional refugee law training seminar for about 20 to 25 selected UNDP officials from several Middle East countries is expected to be held in Cairo in the second half of 1991. The seminar's aim is to provide practical training in refugee law and protection to those UNDP officials who provide assistance and protection to refugees on behalf of UNHCR in the countries in which they are based.
54. A refugee law seminar is planned for Cairo, following the UNDP regional seminar, for officials of the Egyptian Government, UNHCR and other organizations, as well as academics. The objectives are to increase the knowledge of the participants regarding international protection of refugees and to review the procedures in Egypt with a view to improving their implementation. The seminar will be funded by the Ford Foundation.
Iran (Islamic Republic of)
55. A refugee law seminar is to be held in Teheran in November 1991 for government officials and NGOs. The seminar's objective is to strengthen the participants' knowledge of the principles of refugee law and, in particular, of all aspects of repatriation.
56. UNHCR plans to hold a series of refugee law seminars in Islamabad, Quetta, Lahore and Peshawar towards the end of this year. Approximately 80 persons, including local government officials, UNHCR staff, other UN staff and NGO officials associated with the eventual repatriation of Afghan refugees from Pakistan, are expected to attend. The cost of the seminar will be borne by the Ford Foundation.
57. A refugee law training seminar is to be held in Yemen in September 1991 for 25 government officials and, in particular, for the members of the Yemeni committee dealing with refugee status determination. The aim of this seminar is to familiarize these officials with refugee law principles and to provide them with the necessary knowledge and skills in refugee status determination.
V. ASIA AND OCEANIA
58. Eleven refugee law seminars and training courses are to be held in the Asia and Oceania region at an estimated cost of $ 35,000.
Hong Kong, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand: Follow-up of CPA refugee status determination seminars
59. As a follow-up to seminars held previously in this region, additional training seminars are to take place during the remaining period of 1991 at different locations in the countries concerned. The number of participants and estimated costs will be specified at a later stage.
60. During the second half of 1991, a refugee law seminar for government officials will be held in either Beijing or Shanghai. There are expected to be 25 participants from government departments dealing with refugees and asylum-seekers. The aim of the seminar is to enhance their knowledge and understanding of the principles of refugee law and international protection, and their skills in determination of refugee status, including asylum and non-refoulement. The seminar will be funded by the Ford Foundation.
61. Two series of three training seminars each for government officials, UNHCR staff and consultants in Hong Kong are scheduled for 1991. The focus of the seminar will be country-of-origin information and local and international legal instruments relating to refugees and asylum-seekers.
62. Two series of three training seminars for government officials, UNHCR staff and consultants are scheduled for 1991 at Chiang Mai for hilltribe Lao, at Khon Kaen for lowland Lao and at Rayong for Vietnamese. These series are follow-up seminars to those which began in 1989, and their aim is to provide government officials with the knowledge and skills essential to the performance of their duties under the CPA refugee status determination procedures.
VI. PROMOTION ACTIVITIES IN COOPERATION WITH OTHER INSTITUTIONS
63. As part of its ongoing collaboration with the International Institute of Humanitarian Law, UNHCR will organize and participate in a number of activities, as described in the following paragraphs.
64. The Sixteenth Round Table on Current Problems of International Humanitarian Law will take place in San Remo, Italy, from 3 to 7 September 1991. Following the established tradition, the first day of the Round Table will be entirely devoted to a review of the current refugee problems, in the light of particular issues that were discussed at the April 1991 meeting on reinforcement of international cooperation for solving refugee problems. The refugee problems arising from recent conflicts, particularly the Gulf conflict, will be emphasized.
65. The Second Round Table on Current Problems Relating to the International Protection of Refugees and Displaced Persons in Asia, postponed from its original date of December 1990, will take place in December 1991. This meeting of Asian experts is a follow-up to a First Round Table held in Manila in 1980 and to the working group on the same problems, which was held in San Remo from 19 to 22 January 1981. It is aimed at reviewing the international protection problems of the Asian region and making recommendations for their solution. The Round Table is to be attended by private and governmental experts and academics from the region, and is expected to cost $ 18,000.
66. The third seminar of Arab experts, which was also postponed owing to the Gulf crisis, has now been rescheduled for the second half of October in Amman, Jordan. It is aimed at following up the conclusions of the first seminar of Arab experts organized in Tunis in May 1989 by the San Remo International Institute of Humanitarian Law. The Amman seminar is to be organized in cooperation with the University of Amman and the Jordanian Red Crescent Society, and is placed under the auspices of UNHCR. Its aim will be to promote the accession of Arab states to the international refugee instruments and to explore the possibilities of an Arab convention on refugees.
67. The eighth refugee law course is to be held in San Remo in November 1991, under the auspices of the International Institute of Humanitarian Law in close collaboration with UNHCR. This course will be conducted in English and French, and will be directed towards high-ranking officials of various countries faced with refugee problems. The aim of the course will be to provide training to participants on refugee law principles and procedures which they may disseminate within their respective countries upon their return. The cost of the course to UNHCR is estimated to be $ 60,000.
68. As in previous years, the International Institute of Humanitarian Law will organize, at no cost to UNHCR, another refugee law course in San Remo for lawyers from the Mediterranean area (France, Italy and Spain). UNHCR's participation will consist of lectures and workshops.
69. UNHCR will also participate and assist in the organization of a course by the European Legal Network (ELENA) aimed at giving lawyers involved in the defence of refugees and asylum seekers in Europe a practical knowledge of the interpretation and implementation of refugee law principles and refugee rights, as defined in international refugee instruments. The course will also provide practical advice and appropriate training for lawyers on such important provisions of the 1951 Convention as the definition of a refugee, expulsion and non-refoulement. UNHCR's contribution to this course, to be held in Barcelona from 7 to 10 November 1991, is $ 6,000.
70. In cooperation with the Asian-African Legal Consultative Committee (AALCC), a Regional Workshop on International Refugee and Humanitarian Law in the Asian/African Region, which was twice postponed because of the Gulf conflict, has now been rescheduled for 22 to 24 October 1991 in New Delhi. The objectives of the Workshop are to promote wider awareness of refugee problems and human rights and/or refugee conventions in the South Asia sub-region. Some 40 participants, including officials from Bangladesh, Botswana, China, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Sudan, the United Republic of Tanzania and Uganda, are expected to attend. The cost of the Workshop is estimated at $ 25,000 and will be met by the Ford Foundation.
71. UNHCR will also lend its support to the organization of a colloquium arranged by the International Journal of Refugee Law on "The 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees: Principles, Problems and Potential", which is to take place in Geneva from 22 to 26 July 1991. About 60 experts will take part in this event, whose purpose is to commemorate the fortieth anniversary of the 1951 Convention. The major part of the cost of the colloquium will be met by the Ford Foundation. UNHCR's contribution will be $ 35,000.
72. UNHCR will cooperate again this year with UNITAR in the latter's International Law Fellowship Programme at The Hague Academy of International Law from 15 to 18 July 1991. UNHCR will conduct six working sessions on refugee law and protection for 20 government officials and jurists from developing countries, at an estimated cost of $ 1,400.
73. UNHCR has endeavoured to implement the conclusions and decisions of the Executive Committee by maintaining refugee law and protection training activities at a satisfactory level. It has also continued to perform other essential refugee law promotion tasks, including those aimed at encouraging further accessions to the international refugee law instruments. The promotion and dissemination of refugee law have thus retained their place as essential protection functions of UNHCR in safeguarding the human rights of refugees and asylum-seekers. UNHCR has nevertheless remained mindful of the financial limitations facing the Office, and has instituted various economy measures to reduce the cost of such activities. These measures include a reduction of regional seminars in favour of national ones, conducting seminars in adjacent locations wherever possible in order to reduce travel costs from Headquarters, using field resource persons as much as possible, increasing its collaboration with other organizations, and seeking private sources of funds. In this latter connection, UNHCR hopes that its ongoing cooperation with the Ford Foundation will continue.
1 The financial figures cited in this document generally do not include the travel costs of Headquarters and field office staff trainers, which are covered from other sources. In many instances, training missions are undertaken in conjunction with other field missions.