Information Note on UNHCR's Activities for Refugee Law Promotion, Dissemination and Training for the Period July 1989 to July 1990
1. As requested by the Executive Committee in its Conclusion No. 51 (XXXIX) on Promotion and Dissemination of Refugee Law, information is provided in this Note, as was done last year, on specific refugee law promotion and protection training activities undertaken worldwide, including their financial implications, for the period July 1989 to the middle of July 1990. The Note also covers those activities projected for the period from mid-July to the end of 1990.
2. The activities included in this Note are those in which UNHCR was, or will be, involved directly for the period under review. The specific cost for each varies considerably depending on the contributions or facilities provided by the host government or other organizations. The cost to UNHCR for the activities implemented in the period under consideration was $ 135,249. The travel expenses for which UNHCR is responsible depends on the number and points of departure of the participants. In some instances, no additional costs are met by UNHCR, apart from those for participation by its own staff.1
3. The training activities included in this Note have been designed and implemented in close collaboration with the UNHCR Training Service. While funding for promotion activities has been generally provided by the Division of International Protection, training has been funded by the Training Service from its general training funds. Efforts to identify additional sources of funding for some of these activities have been moderately successful and continue, with a view to expanding the participation of private donors.
A. ACTIVITIES UNDERTAKEN IN THE PERIOD 31 JULY 1989-15 JULY 1990
4. At the request of the Government of Togo, a refugee law training seminar for government officials dealing with refugees was held in Lomé from 8 to 10 November 1989. A total of 20 government officials participated from the Ministries of Foreign Affairs, National Security, Interior, National Defense, Justice, Social Affairs, National Education and Labour and from the National Commission of Human Rights. The objective was to familiarize the government officials concerned with the human rights of refugees and asylum-seekers. The cost to UNHCR was $ 2,675.
5. A protection and education workshop on Mozambican refugees was held in Harare, Zimbabwe, from 14 to 21 January 1990. Some 50 participants attended the Workshop. They included government officials from the Ministries of Education of Mozambique, Swaziland and Zimbabwe, the Ministry of Information of Zimbabwe, refugee co-ordinators from Malawi, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe, as well as UNHCR and NGO officials.
6. The protection component aimed at sensitizing participants on international refugee instruments regarding, in particular, the mandate of UNHCR and the search for durable solutions with reference to the Mozambican Caseload. The cost of the seminar was $ 65,000, towards which the Ford Foundation contributed $ 50,000. UNHCR's contribution amounted to $ 15,000.
Central African Republic
7. A refugee law training seminar for government officials was held in Bangui from 19 to 21 February 1990 and was attended by 20 Central African Republic government officials. The aim was to train these officials in refugee law and protection with special reference to refugee status determination. Officials included members of the National Refugee Commission and the Sub-Commission on Eligibility. A request was made by the government for a similar exercise in the near future. The cost to UNHCR was $ 5,495.
8. Two refugee law training courses were held in Khartoum and Gedaref in May and June 1990 at a cost to UNHCR of $ 6,500. The first training seminar took place in Khartoum from 27 to 29 May 1990. The purpose was to train government officials dealing with refugees and asylum seekers, as well as UNHCR staff in Branch Office Khartoum. The 20 participants included officials from the Office of the Commissioner for Refugees in Central Sudan and from the Ministries of Foreign Affairs, Labour and Interior, and from UNHCR.
9. This was followed by a two-day training seminar in Gedaref on 2 and 3 June 1990 attended by 39 officials from Kassala Province, the Northern Gedaref Council, the Passport Department, Internal Security, the Labour Office, the prison authorities, the Police, the Public Security Committee, Gedaref Hospital and the Office of the Commissioner for Refugees, as well as UNHCR staff in Eastern Sudan.
10. A refugee law training seminar for government officials in Kenya was held in Malindi from 2 to 5 July 1990. It was organized to train government officials dealing with asylum seekers and refugees in refugee law and protection. Some 20 senior Kenyan Government officials, including district commissioners, representatives from the Office of the President, Immigration, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of Home Affairs, as well as senior police and prison officers attended the seminar. The cost to UNHCR was $ 9,700.
II. EUROPE AND NORTH AMERICA
11. A refugee law training seminar for lawyers, government and NGO officials was held in Madrid on 29 and 30 May 1990. It was attended by 37 participants, in particular police officers from different parts of the country, as well as lawyers involved with refugees and asylum-seekers. The objective was to train the persons concerned in refugee status determination criteria and interviewing techniques. The cost to UNHCR was $ 665.
III. LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN
12. UNHCR collaborated with the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) in conducting a seminar for government officials in Bogota from 14 to 18 August 1989. The 60 participants included representatives from different government institutions working with issues related to refugees (Ministries of Foreign Affairs and Interior, Immigration, National Police and Armed Forces). Other participants included representatives from the Senate (Commission for Human Rights), the Attorney-General's Office, Presidential Advisers for Human Rights, the International Organization for Migration (IOM), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the United Nations Information Centre (UNIC) and the Co-ordinator for the Human Rights Committee of the Bishops' Conference. There were no conference costs to UNHCR.
13. A refugee law training seminar for government officials and academics was held in Lima from 21 to 23 August 1989. It was sponsored by UNHCR jointly with the National Council for Human Rights, the Peruvian Institute for Human Rights and the Peruvian Catholic Commission for Migration. The 80 participants included Immigration and Investigation Police officers. Among them were high-ranking officers, as well as middle-level and some migration officers from border posts. The agenda included international refugee instruments and national implementing legislation, as well as status determination criteria and procedures. There were no conference costs to UNHCR.
14. A refugee law workshop for government and NGO officials was held from 23 to 25 April 1990 in Palenque for some 20 participants. The objective of the workshop was to enhance practical knowledge and understanding of the principles of refugee law and international protection and to discuss national legislation and administrative measures relating to refugees, in particular the population law currently being drafted by the government. The cost to UNHCR was $ 7,565.
15. UNHCR co-sponsored jointly with the United Nations Centre for Human Rights, the Inter-American Institute of Human Rights, the International Organization for Migration and the ICRC a seminar on "New Dimensions of Protection to Individuals", organized by the Institute of International Studies of the University of Chile and the Chilean Society for International Law, from 11 to 13 July 1990 in Santiago. There were no conference costs to UNHCR.
IV. SOUTH-WEST ASIA, NORTH AFRICA AND THE MIDDLE EAST
16. A refugee law training seminar was held in Algiers from 14 to 16 May 1990, at the request of the Algerian government. It was to provide practical training in refugee law and protection to government officials, especially those from the Algerian Office for Refugees and Stateless Persons (BAPRA). There were 26 participants from the Ministries of Foreign Affairs, National Defense, for Universities, Justice, and Social Affairs, and the National School of Administration, the Department of National Security, the Customs Department and the Algerian Red Crescent. The cost to UNHCR was $6,075.
V. ASIA AND OCEANIA
Refugee Status Determination training under the Comprehensive Plan of Action (CPA) for Indo-Chinese Refugees
17. A training seminar was held in Manila from 3 to 6 July 1989 and attended by 22 government officials from the Commission on Immigration and Deportation, the Refugee Processing Centre and the Department of Foreign Affairs. UNHCR staff and consultants assigned to the Refugee Status Determination Unit in the Philippines also participated. The role of officials in the determination process in the context of the CPA was underlined and the guidelines on refugee criteria and interviewing techniques reviewed. The cost to UNHCR was $ 3,000. A follow-up training seminar was held in Manila from 26 to 28 March 1990, attended by about 20 participants including government and UNHCR officials dealing with the determination of refugee status of Indo-Chinese refugees. The cost to UNHCR was $ 1,840.
18. A refugee law seminar, which took place from 11 to 15 July 1989, was attended by 25 officials from the Department of Foreign Affairs, the P3V government officials handling refugees in Jakarta and Tanjung Pinang and the Ministry of Defence and UNHCR staff. It was preceded by a briefing of senior government officials on the CPA and its implications regarding reception and status determination. The objective of this seminar was to train government officials dealing with refugee status determination on criteria, procedures, interviewing techniques and country-of-origin information. The cost to UNHCR was $ 4,676.
19. A follow-up training seminar was held in Galang from 22 to 24 November 1989. Some 15 participants attended the two sessions. The first session dealt with the provisions of the CPA. The second was a practical exercise in the determination of refugee status, interviewing techniques and case studies. The cost to UNHCR was $ 2,950.
20. Forty government officials from the national, regional and state Task Forces, the Immigration Department and the Ministry of Defence, as well as 13 UNHCR staff members and consultants, participated in a training seminar held in Kuala Lumpur from 17 to 21 July 1989. Because of the large number of participants, two parallel sessions were held on the humanitarian nature of refugee status determination, its procedure and criteria, and interviewing techniques, including assessment of credibility. The cost to UNHCR was $ 8,070. Follow-up training seminars were held from 20 to 23 February 1990. They were attended by a total of 40 participants. The cost to UNHCR was $ 8,544.
21. Some 90 immigration officials attended a four-day training course in Hong Kong from 25 to 28 July and from 1 to 4 August 1989. Because of the large number of participants, two parallel seminars were held in each 4-day session. They concentrated on the nature of refugee status determination, criteria and interviewing techniques. They were preceded by a briefing on 24 July for senior government officials and members of the Refugee Status Review Board, as well as a separate session with the latter on refugee status determination. The cost to UNHCR was $ 3,990. An abbreviated version of the above course was held for 50 immigration officials from 3 to 5 May, followed by four follow-up seminars of two days from 7 to 10 May 1990 attended by some 100 immigration officials. The cost to UNHCR was $ 1,830.
Training Seminar on the Refugee Status Determination of Vietnamese Asylum-Seekers
22. This seminar, held in Rayong from 24 to 27 July 1989, was similar in substance and approach to the previous ones offered in the region. Some 18 officials participated from the Operations Centre for Displaced Persons of the Ministry of Interior, as well as 12 UNHCR staff members and legal consultants. Substantial documentation was made available in Thai. A briefing for senior government officials on the CPA and its implications preceded the seminar on 21 July. The cost to UNHCR was $ 9,092.
Training Seminar on Refugee Status Determination of Highland Lao Asylum-Seekers
23. A training seminar was held in Chiang Mai from 14 to 17 November 1989 and was attended by 22 Thai Ministry of Interior officials from national, provincial and district levels and 10 UNHCR staff members, including local field staff. Its objective was to provide the government officials with the awareness, knowledge and skills necessary to perform under the CPA determination criteria, which replaced those previously used in the Lao screening programme. The cost to UNHCR was $ 6,000.
Training Seminar on Refugee Status Determination of Lowland Lao Asylum-Seekers
24. This seminar was identical to the one at Chiang Mai, with the exception that it focused on the situation of Lowland Lao asylum-seekers. It took place in Khon Kaen from 6 to 9 December 1989 and was attended by 28 government officials and UNHCR staff members. Government participants included a Provincial Vice-Governor, members of the Refugee Status Determination Committee and of the Appeals Committee and interviewing officers. The cost to UNHCR was $ 4,000.
Training Seminar on Refugee Status Determination of both Lowland and Highland Lao
25. A Lao review training seminar on refugee status determination of the Lao was held in Phitsanuloke from 30 May to 2 June 1990. It was attended by 53 participants, among them officials of the Ministry of Interior, provincial and district officials, including examiners and members of the Refugee Status Determination Board. The cost of $ 11,650 was borne by the Ford Foundation.
26. Refugee law briefings for lawyers and government and NGO officials were held in Tokyo and Fukuoka on 23 and 24 April and from 25 to 27 April 1990. They included a total of 30 participants for the two sessions, from the Ministries of Justice and Foreign Affairs and the Fukuoka Regional Immigration Bureau. The focus was on refugee status determination including criteria, procedures, interviewing techniques and country-of-origin information. The cost to UNHCR was $ 5,815.
Other Refugee Law/Protection Training in Asia
People's Republic of China
27. A refugee law/protection seminar for government officials was held in Beijing on 15 March 1990. It was designed to promote international refugee law principles among government officials and to develop closer co-operation with them in respect to refugees and asylum-seekers. Some 13 officials from the Ministries of Public Security, Immigration, Foreign and Civil Affairs attended this seminar. The cost to UNHCR was $ 630.
28. A training seminar for government officials was held in New Zealand on 17 April 1990 near Auckland. It was attended by 45 senior immigration, police and customs officials and was conducted at the request of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The objective of this seminar was to discuss the existing status determination machinery and to enhance the knowledge and understanding of the international refugee protection instruments. The cost to UNHCR was $ 610.
VI. PROMOTION ACTIVITIES IN CO-OPERATION WITH OTHER INSTITUTIONS
29. UNHCR assisted the European Legal Network on Asylum (ELENA) in organizing a course that was held from 5 to 8 April 1990 in Brighton, England. The course aimed at training lawyers involved in the legal defence of refugees and asylum-seekers in Europe. Concurrently with the course, a seminar was conducted on fair asylum practices in Europe. The objective of the course was to provide practical advice to these lawyers on the main provisions of the refugee definition, detention, non-refoulement and expulsion. Arrangements are under way for a similar course and seminar to be held next year. The cost to UNHCR was $ 6,187.
30. Several courses or meetings had been scheduled in the framework of UNHCR's traditional collaboration with the International Institute of Humanitarian Law of San Remo. However, financial constraints led UNHCR to cancel or postpone some of the activities previously scheduled during this period. For example, the French session of the annual refugee law course was cancelled. The Seventh Seminar on Humanitarian Issues in the Contemporary World could take place only after alternative financial sources had been found by the Institute.
31. The Seventh Seminar on Humanitarian Issues in the Contemporary World was held in Berlin from 6 to 9 June 1990 under the auspices of the East and West German Red Cross Societies, the West Berlin Senate, the Mayor of East Berlin and UNHCR. It was attended by more than 80 government officials, academics, experts, scholars and representatives from Eastern and Central European countries, as well as from other countries and the Council of Europe. UNHCR's financial contribution was $ 5,500.
32. UNHCR participated in a Round Table on "The Movement of People" organized in San Remo from 3 to 5 May 1990 by the Institute in collaboration with the International Organization for Migration (IOM). There were no conference costs to UNHCR.
33. At the request of the United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR), UNHCR collaborated in its International Law Fellowship Programme by presenting six lectures on refugee law for 15 government officials from developing countries at The Hague Academy of International Law in the Netherlands, from 31 July to 3 August 1989. The topics included the nature of international protection, the UNHCR mandate, the refugee definition, asylum and non-refoulement. The cost of UNHCR's participation was $ 640.
34. At the request of the Faculty of Law of the Catholic University in Milan (Italy), UNHCR collaborated in its Annual Course on International Public Law by presenting the lectures on refugee law and human rights of refugees to 50 students from the Faculties of Law and Political Science. The cost of UNHCR's participation was borne by the Catholic University.
35. As part of the on-going collaboration with the International Institute of Humanitarian Law, UNHCR participated in a first course entitled "Asylum, Refugees and Aliens", which took place in San Remo (Italy) from 15 to 17 December 1989. It was attended by 35 participants including representatives from the Italian Ministry of Interior, magistrates, lawyers and police and immigration officials. An official from the Spanish Ministry of Interior also attended the course. The cost to UNHCR was $ 1,200.
36. In co-operation with the Venezuelan Bishops' Conference (CEV), the International Catholic Commission for Migration and the Pastoral Study Center for Migration Assistance (CEPAM), UNHCR participated from 12 to 16 March 1990 in a seminar entitled "Migrants and Refugees in Venezuela in the 90's". The seminar took place in Caracas and was attended by 50 participants from different Venezuelan ministries. There were no conference costs to UNHCR.
37. In co-operation with the Centre for Human Rights, UNHCR participated in a seminar for immigration officers which took place in Buenos Aires from 13 to 14 September 1989. Fifty Argentinian immigration officers attended the course. UNHCR's participation consisted of a lecture on refugee law and protection of refugees. There were no costs to UNHCR.
38. UNHCR participated in the XVI Course of the Inter-American Juridical Committee held in Rio de Janeiro in August 1981, in co-operation with the Organization of the American States (OAS). This course was a valuable opportunity to promote refugee law to an audience of 40 distinguished university graduate students and diplomatic officials from a large number of Latin American countries. There were no costs to UNHCR.
39. UNHCR co-operated with the Inter-American Institute of Human Rights in its annual human rights course for lawyers and government officials from the Americas. UNHCR's participation took the form of lectures on refugee law and financial support in the establishment of the Nansen Chair in Refugee Law. The cost to UNHCR was $ 3,000.
VII. UNHCR INTERNSHIP PROGRAMME
40. The on-going internship programme continued during the period under review with the selection of several interns in two rounds in September 1989 and March 1990 for 3-month internships with UNHCR. There were four interns from July to December 1989 and seven from January to June 1990, for a total of 11. Another six were expected for July to December 1990. UNHCR provides a limited number of scholarships to needy interns from developing countries, but due to the tight financial situation, only two such scholarships were granted between July 1989 and July 1990, for a total of $ 4,000.
B. PROPOSED ACTIVITIES FOR THE PERIOD 16 JULY - 31 DECEMBER 1990
41. Because of the financial difficulties of the Office, a number of refugee law promotion and training exercises scheduled for the rest of the year are being postponed to 1991. The remaining programme for 1990 is as follows:
42. A refugee law training seminar for government Officials is scheduled for Kampala at the end of July 1990, with the objective of providing these officials with the practical training in refugee law and protection necessary for the effective discharge of their functions in dealing with asylum-seekers and refugees. Approximately 20 participants from the Ministries of Justice and Foreign Affairs, as well as Immigration officers from border posts are expected to attend. The cost of the seminar is estimated to be $ 4,500.
United Republic of Tanzania
43. A similar training seminar was planned to take place in Arusha at the beginning of August 1990. Approximately 50 participants will attend, including officials from the Ministries of Justice and Foreign Affairs and Immigration officers from border posts. The budget for this seminar is $ 5,820.
44. A refugee law training seminar is due to be organized by UNHCR in Bujumbura at the end of 1990. The objective is to train Burundian officials concerned with the practical essentials of refugee law and protection. Approximately 20 government officials are expected to attend. The budget is estimated at $ 5,000.
45. A protection training seminar for 20 government officials and 10 UNHCR staff members is planned to take place in Addis Ababa in the last quarter of 1990. The purpose is to train government and UNHCR officials on basic refugee law principles and to improve their skills on protection of refugees and asylum-seekers. The budget is estimated at $ 10,000 including travel costs for the participants.
II. LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN
46. A protection workshop for 20 government and NGO officials is to take place in Zamorano during October 1990 to provide training in the basic principles and objectives of refugee law and protection. The seminar will concentrate on the refugee definition, regional and international instruments such as the Cartagena Declaration, and the UNHCR Mandate, as well as the application of basic refugee principles in Honduras. The budget is estimated at $ 1,715.
47. A refugee law training seminar for Argentine Immigration officials will be held in Buenos Aires in the last quarter of 1990 in order to provide these officials dealing directly with refugees and asylum-seekers with practical training in refugee law and protection. It is to be attended by 30 persons, including UNHCR staff from the region at an estimated cost of $ 7,000.
III. EUROPE AND NORTH AMERICA
48. A 3 day refugee law seminar for government officials in Portugal is projected for Lisbon in November 1990. It will be addressed to 20 officials of the Aliens Service dealing with refugees. The purpose is to provide a basic knowledge in the determination of refugee status to examiners and to help government officials in discharging their functions towards asylum-seekers in Portugal. The cost to UNHCR is estimated at $ 1,500.
49. A refugee law training seminar for government officials dealing with refugees and asylum-seekers is scheduled for Budapest in late 1990, with the objective of providing these officials with practical training in refugee law and protection. Approximately 25 government officials, particularly immigration and border officials, are expected to participate. The cost to UNHCR is estimated at $ 5,000.
IV. SOUTH-WEST ASIA, NORTH AFRICA & THE MIDDLE EAST
50. Fifteen United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) officials from Yemen, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Libya, Mauritius, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Syria and the United Arab Emirates are expected to participate in a refugee law training seminar to be held in Cairo by UNHCR in the latter part of 1990. The seminar is aimed at providing practical training in refugee law and protection to UNDP officials who act on behalf of UNHCR in providing assistance and protection to refugees in Arab countries where UNHCR is not represented. The cost is estimated at $ 15,000 including travel expenses within the region. A request for funding will be submitted to the Ford Foundation.
51. Following the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) Regional Seminar, a refugee law seminar is planned for Cairo in late 1990. The objective is to provide a practical framework for officials of the Egyptian Government, UNHCR, and other organizations, as well as academics to further their knowledge of the international system of protection of refugees, to review the procedures in Egypt and to improve their implementation. Efforts are being made to obtain outside funding. The cost of the seminar is estimated at $ 3,000.
52. A follow-up of the refugee law training seminars held in March 1989 for UNHCR, government and NGO Officials involved in the eventual repatriation of Afghan refugees from Pakistan, is due to take place in late 1990. Approximately 80 persons including local government officials, UNHCR staff directly associated with the repatriation programme, other United Nations staff and NGO Officials are expected to attend. The cost to UNHCR is estimated to $ 7,000.
V. ASIA & OCEANIA
Philippines, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand: Follow-up of CPA
Refugee Status Determination Follow-up Training
53. These follow-up training seminars are projected to take place during 1990 in selected venues in each of the countries concerned. The venues, number of participants and budgets remain to be specified.
VI. PROMOTION ACTIVITIES IN CO-OPERATION WITH OTHER INSTITUTIONS
54. UNHCR will organize and participate in a number of activities jointly and in close collaboration with the International Institute of Humanitarian Law as indicated in the paragraphs which follow.
55. The fifteenth Round Table on current problems of International Humanitarian Law will take place in San Remo (Italy) from 4 to 8 September 1990. On Refugee Day, which will be part of this event, the participants will be called upon to examine the refugee problem as a continuing challenge for humanity and to define the parameters of a realistic approach to asylum policy. The cost to UNHCR is estimated at $ 6,000.
56. A Round Table on Current Problems relating to the International Protection of Refugees and Displaced Persons in Asia is scheduled for 15 to 18 December 1990 in Manila, the Philippines. It is a follow-up of the Round Table of the same name held in Manila in 1980 and of the meeting of the Working Group on the same problems held in San Remo from 19 to 22 January 1981. It will review international protection problems of the region and make recommendations towards their solution. The seminar will be attended by legal and government experts from the region. After extensive fund raising by the Institute, the cost of this meeting to UNHCR has been reduced to $ 12,000.
57. The Institute is also organizing (at no cost to UNHCR) a Refugee Law Course for Refugee Lawyers from the Mediterranean Area, mainly Spain, France and Italy. The course was scheduled for 15 to 17 September 1990. UNHCR's involvement will include the delivery of lectures and chairing workshops. This course will also be attended by members of the European Legal Network on Asylum (ELENA).
58. UNHCR will co-operate again this year with UNITAR in the latter's International Law Fellowship Programme at The Hague Academy of International Law, in July-August 1990. UNHCR conduct six working sessions on refugee law and protection for 20 government officials and jurists from Third World countries during the week of 30 July to 3 August. The cost to UNHCR is estimated at $ 1,300.
59. UNHCR expects to co-operate as well with the Inter-American Institute of Human Rights in late 1990 in its annual human rights course for jurists and government officials from the Americas. The projected cost to UNHCR is $ 3,000.
60. In co-operation with the Asian-African Legal Consultative Committee (AALCC), a Regional Workshop on International Refugee and Humanitarian Law in the Asian/African region is scheduled to take place in New Delhi in late November 1990. The objectives of the workshop are to promote wider awareness of the refugee problem and the human rights of refugees, as well as to create the necessary impetus for accession to the refugee conventions in the South Asia sub-region. Some 40 participants, including officials from Bangladesh, Botswana, India, Nepal, Pakistan, the People's Republic of China, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Tanzania and Uganda are expected to attend the workshop. The cost of the seminar, estimated at $ 25,000, will be met by the Ford Foundation.
61. UNHCR has remained faithful to the conclusions and decisions of the Executive Committee calling for continuation of refugee law and protection training at a significant level. It has also continued to perform its other essential refugee law promotion tasks, including those aimed at encouraging further accessions to the international refugee law instruments. The promotion and dissemination of refugee law has indeed retained its place as an essential protection function of UNHCR, and now more so than ever to safeguard the human rights of refugees and asylum-seekers. In performing the tasks involved, however, UNHCR has remained ever mindful of the financial limitations facing the Office. For this reason, various economy measures have been adopted including a reduction of regional seminars in favour of national ones, holding back-to-back seminars whenever possible to reduce travel from Headquarters, using resource persons from the field to the extent possible, enhancing collaboration with other organizations, and seeking private sources of funds. This approach, too, will continue.
1 The financial figures in this Note do not generally include the travel costs of Headquarters staff trainers which are covered by regular mission travel funds. In many cases, training missions are also combined with other field missions.