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Orientation programmes and processes

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The focus of this section is on strategies for orienting new arrivals to life in the resettlement country. Since orientation may be offered in the context of various other social support or language training programmes, this section should be read in conjunction with the sections on social connections and language training. More detail on orientation to specific issues, such as health care and employment, is dealt with in relevant individual sections. Orientation, like integration, is a ‘two-way’ street. It is equally as important for receiving communities to understand the sociocultural background of resettled refugees as it is for newcomers to understand the context of the resettlement country. Strategies for enhancing receiving communities’ understanding of the backgrounds of resettled refugees are discussed throughout this Handbook and are the focus of the section on welcoming and inclusive societies.

When establishing a new programme, think about:
  • offering pre-departure orientation (PDO) sessions to those refugees offered resettlement including through multimedia tools such as videos.
  • determining the timing and logistical arrangements and resources available for the PDO.
  • developing PDO materials for children and youth and other specific subgroups.
  • ensuring that the following topics are included in the PDO sessions: information on travel procedures; rights, benefits and legal status of refugees in the resettlement country; and information around cultural norms and practices and expectations.
  • orientation in the context of early case-management and integration support.
  • preparing a brief written statement on the country and its resettlement program which can be used to counsel refugees during the pre-departure phase as well after their arrival.
  • incorporating ‘hands-on’ orientation into reception support i.e., enables refugees to learn by either doing or being shown.
  • recruiting and training orientation providers as well as local volunteers to assist with orientation.
  • obtaining translated information materials from other resettlement countries.
  • preparing a list of key support services with contact details.
  • obtaining cultural and country of origin information on refugee populations from other resettlement countries for orientation providers.
  • systems for monitoring and evaluating orientation programs.
  • regular updating of information provided to resettled refugees by maintaining links with service and program providers.

In the long term, aim for: 

  • course outlines, resources, information and manuals to guide orientation providers and enhance the capacity of personnel in other systems to provide orientation for orientation providers. 
  • training courses for orientation providers. 
  • technical support (e.g. websites, help-desk facilities) for orientation providers. 
  • teaching resources (e.g. audio tapes, videos, games) for orientation providers. 
  • curricula and resources to promote orientation through language training programs for orientation providers. 
  • providing information in refugee languages in written, audio or video formats for resettled refugees.
  • websites providing orientation information for resettled refugees.
  • formal pre- and post arrival orientation programs for resettled refugees.
  • engaging caseworkers and volunteers in orientation delivery for resettled refugees.
  • making use of other settings to provide orientation to specific services and programs (e.g. health care providers, schools) for resettled refugees.
  • tailored orientation programs for diverse groups with specific needs (e.g. refugee children and youth, those with little or no literacy, mature age, disability, mental health,  single parents, women-at-risk) or focusing on particular integration issues (e.g. culture shock, intergenerational conflict, parenting, women’s health, caring for a family member with complex health issues including mental health).


Planning orientation programmes and processes

Many resettled refugees come from countries with very different religious, sociocultural and political contexts than those in the resettlement country. Upon arrival resettled refugees will need to go through intense adjustment to an unfamiliar environment, a time when they will be coming to terms with a range of changes, from a different language, weather conditions and daily routines to new foods, shopping conventions and currency. This is also a time when resettled refugees must undertake a range of practical tasks such as opening a bank account, registering for income support and health care, and enrolling children in school.

Effective orientation can:

  • assist in managing the expectation of resettled refugees on topics such as housing, income support and employment opportunities.
  • develop a realistic picture of the receiving society and understand its cultural norms and practices.
  • develop an understanding of the receiving society’s expectations of them.
  • identify their individual needs and priorities in order to provide guidance and enable them to make informed choices.
  • access the resources needed for successful integration.
  • restore control and reduce anxiety through the provision of relevant information.
  • learn about common problems they may encounter in the integration process such as culture shock.
  • form positive first impressions of the receiving society.


Factors affecting orientation

While refugees have very diverse backgrounds, factors which may influence the way in which orientation is provided include:

  • the refugees’ literacy levels and educational backgrounds.
  • cultural learning styles. For example, in some cultures, formal instruction is valued. Others may learn better with interactive approaches.
  • whether there is a difference between the socioeconomic context from the refugee’s country-of-origin, country-of-asylum and the resettlement country.
  • whether the refugees have prior experience in the paid labour force.
  • refugees’ existing knowledge of the resettlement country’s language and the sociocultural context.
  • gender, age and diversity.
  • the level of family and community support available to resettled refugees.

Also influential are factors in the resettlement countries, including:

  • the existing infrastructure for refugee selection, reception and integration (including the opportunities for providing information during the pre-departure phase).
  • the receiving country’s integration objectives. For example, if the country has a high expectation of economic self-reliance, this will influence both the way in which orientation is delivered and the emphasis placed on finding employment.
  • prior contact with, and understanding of, the sociocultural background of resettled refugees among orientation providers.


Planning issues to consider

Methodology and approach 

Information and skills imparted in the orientation process are more likely to be retained by resettled refugees if orientation:

  • is delivered in the language of the resettled refugee. Ideally this should be by someone sharing the language of the refugee group. Where this is not possible, trained interpreters will need to be used.
  • is provided in a safe, risk-free and stress-free learning environment.
  • takes into consideration the childcare needs of individuals and families.
  • is based on adult learning principles for adult refugees (these are discussed in greater detail in the section on language training) and are age appropriate for refugee children and youth.
  • is competency based, that is, focused on fostering participants’ skills in addressing day-to-day needs and challenges.
  • emphasises learning through showing or doing.
  • adopts other interactive learning techniques such as discussions, group work and role playing.
  • involves a range of multimedia, to provide varied learning experiences and to accommodate those without mother-tongue or target language literacy.
  • is confined to issues relevant to resettled refugees’ stage of integration.

Wherever possible, the use of signs and symbols should be avoided. While these may have meaning in a particular context, they may be incompatible with the frame of reference of some resettled refugees. While one of the primary purposes of orientation is to assist resettled refugees to understand the culture and systems of the receiving society, programmes should also reflect an understanding and respect of the culture and past experiences of resettled refugees. As well as assisting orientation providers to tailor programmes to the needs of specific refugee groups, experience suggests that resettled refugees will be more receptive to learning about their new society in an environment in which they feel their own culture is respected and understood. 

Mutual understanding and respect can be promoted by:

  • using resettled refugees’ country-of-origin experience as a starting point for learning about the receiving society. For example, a programme designed to orient refugee parents to the education system might begin by exploring with parents how education was organised in their countries-of-origin;
  • consulting with refugee communities when designing orientation programs;
  • consulting with other resettlement countries on their experiences in orientation of refugees from the same background;
  • deploying members of refugee communities to deliver orientation programs (see box, below);
  • ensuring that orientation providers have relevant background information about the sociocultural context of resettled refugees. A list of sources can be found here. 

The advantages of expectation management and information sharing

Refugees may not clearly understand the scope of adjustment and challenges that await them upon arrival. Many have little to no knowledge about the language or culture of their receiving community. It is critically important to provide refugees with timely, accurate and repeated orientation messaging at every step of the process. Misinformation or unmet expectations can have a profound effect upon a refugee’s integration experience. In addition, it is important to ensure consistency with information delivered at the pre-departure stage and during post-arrival orientation.

When should orientation be delivered?

In many countries, orientation commences with a formal group programme offered prior (pre-departure orientation) to or soon after arrival (post-arrival orientation).


Pre-departure orientation (PDO)

Pre-departure orientation (PDO), or cultural orientation as it can also be called, is increasingly being considered a key element of resettlement programmes, and today most states that resettle refugees offer pre-departure training. This is provided after refugees have been selected for resettlement and before their departure.

By enabling refugees to ask questions and clarifying misunderstandings, pre-departure orientation programs can help to reduce anxiety among the refugees. Some countries also use it as an opportunity for resettled refugees to acquire skills to prevent, or deal more constructively with, difficulties in the resettlement country. Pre-departure orientation can also provide an opportunity for the resettlement country to collect additional information and increase their understanding of refugees’ needs, which can be helpful to the preparations of arrival services.

Research suggests that the most common goals of pre-departure programs are to:

  • inform refugees on what to expect when resettling to a new country.
  • help refugees develop realistic expectations.
  • inform refugees what will be expected of them during and after the resettlement process.
  • prepare receiving communities and/or service providers for refugees’ arrival.
  • lay a stronger foundation for integration.

The duration varies between a few hours up to several days or even weeks (average being 3-5 days). Most countries provide PDO shortly before departure. Some countries also arrange shorter information sessions at the time of the selection interview.

PDO for children and youth 

Recognizing that integrating children and adolescents is key to successfully integrating families, a number of countries have introduced youth programmes during the pre-departure period. The Canadian Orientation Abroad (COA) Youth Programme, delivered by IOM, has three main components: an orientation session with adults before departure; a session specifically for young people; and, for young people who express interest and meet specific criteria, individual email communication with a youth adviser in Canada. Beneficiaries, aged between 13 and 19 years old, can access the COA Youth Refugee Curriculum and COA Youth Orientation Package, which prepare young refugees for their arrival in Canada. An innovative partnership with YMCAs in Greater Toronto, Vancouver, Winnipeg, Ottawa and Halifax enables young refugees to make connections before they arrive via the COA-YMCA Refugee Youth Referral Programme.

A useful resources is the Europe Pre-departure Orientation (PDO) Youth Trainers’ Handbook - This Trainers’ Handbook was developed as part of IOM’s COMMIT project. The Handbook is for PDO trainers and community mentors engaged in assisting youth resettled in Europe.

Many pre-departure orientation programmes are delivered by partners such as the International Organization for Migration (IOM), on behalf of, and in close consultation with, national governments. Some countries, such as Belgium and the Netherlands, provide trainings fully or partly of their own, while others adopt a mixed model in collaboration with IOM or other partners. While programmes are tailored to fit specific resettlement countries and/or refugee groups, common topics include: travel procedures, information on legal status, rights, benefits and obligations, practical information about everyday life in the resettlement country, often including common values, behaviours and social norms. Some countries also incorporate language courses to varying degrees.

To complement face-to-face sessions, many countries provide written information, sometimes made available online. Some even provide opportunities for online meetings between refugees and staff from the resettlement country prior to departure, for instance by use of Skype. 
Although evaluations of the effects of pre-departure orientations remain limited, and the extent to which resettled refugees are able to learn and retain information prior to departure can be debated, research suggests that PDO does provide an opportunity to ease refugees transition from their ‘old’ to their ‘new’ lives.  In doing so, resettlement countries may want to consider the following recommendations:

  • Use engaging instructional techniques.
  • Tailor the trainings to refugees’ needs.
  • Incorporate the experiences of formerly resettled persons.
  • Build a bridge between pre-departure and post-arrival information or messages.
  • Seek to prepare both the refugees and the receiving communities.

When providing and developing information it is important to:

  • strike a balance between welcoming newcomers and promoting the country’s assets, while being realistic about its limitations.
  • outline the country’s prior involvement in refugee resettlement. The formal programme may be new, but many emerging countries have a wealth of experience in settling asylum seekers.
  • ensure that information is regularly updated to accommodate changes in conditions in the receiving country (both positive and negative) and developments in the resettlement programme. 

Country examples

Finland provides 3-days PDO at approximately 2-3 months after the State selection mission. The programme has been developed in collaboration with a Finnish university. In addition to face-to-face sessions which are carried out by IOM, Finland provides online orientation via a web portal, enabling refugees in various areas of the world, including those who need to move to Finland quickly, to access information in different languages.

The Netherlands has developed an extensive PDO programme which includes orientation sessions at three occasions: 20, 12 and 2 weeks before refugees depart. The programme is developed and implemented by national actors and spans over approximately 12 days in total. The Netherlands also provides a shorter PDO programme covering 2 days for refugees resettled out of Turkey. The programme also incorporates lessons learnt and feedback from resettled refugees, municipalities and service providers.

Video – Australian Cultural Orientation (AUSCO)

AUSCO trainers are filmed at the Beldangi Refugee Camp, Nepal as they teach refugees about the culture, customs and day to day living in Australia. Through interactive learning they are taught everything from how to shake hands to using household amenities.

Video - USA Cultural Orientation Exchange (CORE)

CORE developed the U.S. Refugee Admissions Program Overview video to provide refugee applicants and other stakeholders with insight into the resettlement process. The video guides viewers through the steps from pre-screening interview through arrival in the United States.

New and emerging resettlement countries may consider

  • providing pre-departure information sessions to refugees accepted for resettlement.
  • preparing basic written information about the receiving country.
  • providing information to UNHCR field staff involved in identifying refugees for resettlement.
  • providing pre-departure information sessions to refugees accepted for resettlement.



Post-arrival orientation

Resettlement countries all offer some form of face-to-face orientation on economic empowerment (such as labour market integration, banking and personal finance), education and health as part of the initial reception process. However, orientation should be understood as an ongoing process which occurs both formally and informally and which:

  • commences in the immediate post-arrival phase (linked to and building upon the PDO delivered in the country-of-asylum, if applicable).
  • extends from the reception period into the early integration period (often in the context of language learning and contact with professional and volunteer support providers).
  • continues through resettled refugees’ ongoing contacts with systems such as health, education, social services as well as employment services.
  • should be sustainable and have quality outcomes for the individual.

This approach recognises that resettled refugees have different needs at different stages of the integration process as well as different ways to retain and contextualise information. In the early integration period, the focus is therefore generally on information required to accomplish the immediately necessary tasks of integration.  This is a period when resettled refugees have numerous demands on their time and may be more interested on information related to their immediate needs. 

Orientation to some aspects of the receiving society may be more meaningful to resettled refugees later when they have a frame of reference and an experiential base to draw on. For example, resettled refugees may be better able to make sense of information about teaching approaches in the receiving society once they have some first-hand experience of the education system and a link with a particular school setting. If orientation is provided at the onset and continues in resettled refugee’s interactions with integration support providers, language training programmes and other systems, there are also greater opportunities for ‘learning by doing’.

How is post-arrival orientation delivered?

Some resettlement countries may opt for a group approach to orientation as this is an efficient way of dealing with large refugee intakes, where the volume may make it difficult to offer a more individualised approach. This is achieved through the development of structured group programs delivered by specially trained providers. In others, the level of support provided is tailored to the needs of the individual or family.  

This is usually followed by ‘hands-on’ orientation to basic systems such as accessing social services, school enrolment and banking services conducted as part of the reception process. In some countries this is offered routinely to all new arrivals and is relatively standardised during the reception phase.  Orientation may be offered by government agencies, integration/settlement agencies and others and may be linked to language training programs and/or professional or voluntary integration support programmes.

Recognising the importance of ongoing orientation, particularly to wider systems and resources (such as health care and education), a number of countries have developed strategies for engaging staff from these systems in the process of orienting new arrivals. Providing orientation through specific settings can also help reach refugees that may not otherwise participate in more formal programs (for example, refugee youth may be more readily reached through school settings or youth clubs). 

Former refugees in orientation roles

A number of countries have sought to involve people from refugee and diaspora communities in delivering orientation programs. In some countries for example, former refugees who have worked in integration settings at the domestic level may be engaged to deliver pre-departure orientation. In other countries, former refugees offer orientation through their participation in volunteer or community sponsorship programs. It is vital that orientation be provided by individuals who are appropriately trained, supported and supervised. These staff bring a number of unique skills, including:

  • detailed knowledge of the integration environment in the receiving society;
  • language skills;
  • an appreciation of the resettlement process based on their own experiences.

Orientation through language training

Some countries use language training programmes as a place for imparting information about the receiving society. Sessions can be provided on specific orientation topics in the refugees’ mother-tongue, or information can be imparted through curricula in the context of language learning exercises. This approach has a number of advantages: it enables resettled refugees to learn about the receiving society in the course of accomplishing another integration task; instruction is usually provided in a group context allowing interactive learning approaches; where curriculum approaches are used, refugees are able to learn simultaneously both conceptual information and the language they will require to negotiate systems and resources in the receiving society.

Ensuring consistency of information

It is important that there is consistency both in the level of information available to resettled refugees and in the information given at different stages of the resettlement and integration process. While consistency is more difficult to achieve in those contexts in which orientation occurs less formally (e.g. in the context of language learning or integration support), it can be promoted through effective training and ongoing support of staff providing orientation.


Content of orientation programmes

The below identifies some of the broad areas addressed in refugee orientation programmes and materials. It is intended as a guide only. The information included in specific programmes and materials will depend on a range of factors, including the setting in which orientation is being delivered, the stage of the selection and resettlement and integration process, the needs and ages of refugee participants, and conditions in and expectations of the resettlement country.

Where possible, orientation programmes and materials should be developed in close consultation with refugee communities in the receiving society. It is also important that close links are maintained between refugee service providers and other agencies involved in orientation as this will help to ensure that orientation programmes are updated in response to changes in service systems and entitlements.

Key messages are likely to be ‘heard’ and retained, if they are repeated both within formal pre-departure orientation programmes and later in the post arrival orientation process. It is important that the information provided at the different stages is consistent. 

From time-to-time it may be necessary to develop special programs to meet the needs of specific refugees. Special programs may be useful to address integration issues (such as domestic violence, and child welfare).

Orientation to basic characteristics, systems and resources of the receiving society


  • standards of living 
  • sociocultural context, population diversity, history
  • differences between urban and rural areas
  • public safety and provision of emergency phone numbers
  • languages spoken
  • climatic conditions and geography
  • health and hygiene
  • cost of living
  • media
  • governance and legal systems
  • expectations of economic self-sufficiency


  • public transportation  
  • private vehicle licence and insurance requirements   
  • banking (ATMs, cheque accounts, loans)   
  • income support, including programs for those participating in further education and training   
  • health care and health insurance    
  • housing   
  • law enforcement 
  • education (including post-secondary, and re-certification opportunities)    childcare
  • support for older persons or persons with disabilities 
  • shopping (e.g. purchasing conventions, speciality food markets)
  • labour unions and professional and trade associations

Resources - how to:   

  • apply for reunification with family members and navigate systems   
  • seek assistance to trace family members
  • secure integration and support, including specific services for resettled refugees 
  • access job preparation and placement programs
  • find a job
  • establish a business
  • make contact with refugee-led and/or community-based organisations and services
  • access language assistance
  • find a house
  • secure income support
  • enrol children in school
  • access health care and psychosocial support
  • access family support and counselling services
  • gain accreditation, certification or registration to practice a trade or profession
  • apply for citizenship
  • enrol in a target language training program
  • personal finance and budgeting

Rights and responsibilities:

  • obligations of sponsors/proposers
  • legal rights and responsibilities of refugees (as consumers, health care users, employees, etc)
  • services available to assist in protecting rights
  • family, marital and parenting relationships (e.g. domestic violence, child discipline and welfare)
  • female genital mutilation, forced marriage, child marriage

Sociocultural orientation:

  • rights and responsibilities
  • culture and norms of the receiving society (e.g. family relationships, gender roles)
  • stereotyping, racism, discrimination and xenophobia
  • approach to diversity in the receiving country

Orientation to the process of integration: 

  • skills building
  • the process of adjustment (culture shock)
Initiatives to support and promote orientation

Written materials

Some countries have developed booklets in key refugee languages conveying information about the receiving society to distribute to resettled refugees prior to, or soon after, arrival. See for example Welcome to the United States  and the Finnish Refugee Council's publication as well as the online guide ‘Welcome to Finland’. Written materials in the language spoken by the refugees provides a reliable source of information that resettled refugees can access prior to or after arrival in the resettlement country.

Programs and instructional guides for orientation providers

Formal programs and resources to guide orientation providers help to ensure the accuracy and consistency of information provided and are an efficient way of transferring skills and information to a wider pool of orientation providers. However, it is important that these materials are flexible enough to accommodate the needs of different refugee  communities. Countries offering structured post arrival orientation programs, such as the USA, have developed formal training courses and accompanying manuals for orientation program providers. 

Training courses and ongoing support for orientation providers

Providing orientation requires skills in adult learning and cross-cultural communication on the part of the orientation provider. It also requires an understanding of the refugee and resettlement experience, the integration policy of the receiving country, the rights and responsibilities of resettled refugees and the resources available to them in the receiving society. Those providing orientation will require appropriate training and support for their roles.

Resources to enhance the learning experience

Interactive and varied learning experiences are important strategies for ensuring that information is retained. Resources have been developed to promote this. For example, many countries have created the Welcome to… videos that are used as a tool to supplement and re-enforce a country’s reception orientation program.

Online Resources

A number of resettlement countries have developed websites with useful information on integration for resettled refugees as well as orientation providers (see for example CORE).

Language training curricula and resources

In countries where cultural orientation is built into language training programs, governments have sought to ensure that relevant areas are addressed through the development of national curricula. Other countries have developed specific teacher resource materials to serve the dual purposes of orientation and facilitating language acquisition.

Consider incorporating the following into training programs for orientation providers:

Planning and organisational skills

  • making sure the program is accessible (e.g., transport, childcare).
  • planning for resettled refugees with specific needs.
  • venue (non-threatening, risk-free, private).

Interpersonal and group work skills

  • establishing rapport
  • group dynamics.
  • cross-cultural communication.
  • listening skills.
  • adult learning techniques and principles for adult refugees and age appropriate approaches for  children and youth.
  • the impact of trauma and torture;training in vicarious trauma.

Cross-cultural skills

  • information about the various backgrounds and sociocultural contexts of resettled refugees.
  • information about different cultural learning styles.
  • exploring one’s own sociocultural context.
  • background information on relevant country-of-origin and country-of-asylum.
  • dealing with sensitive cross-cultural issues, such as female genital mutilation, forced/child marriage,  polygamy, domestic violence, and rights of the individual, including LGBTIQ+ rights
  • the role and importance of community in their daily life and decision-making processes.

Resource skills

  • information about the rights and responsibilities of refugees.
  • resources available
  • information on support systems available to orientation providers
  • identification and referral mechanisms for individuals requiring more intensive, professional support.

Orienting providers to the sociocultural backgrounds of resettled refugees

To counter inaccurate or stereotyped perceptions of resettled refugees, orientation providers should have relevant sociocultural context and country-of-origin information. This is particularly important in countries with limited prior experience of resettling particular refugee populations. A list of sources of cultural and country background profiles is available here. Alternatively, counterparts from other resettlement countries may be able to provide this information.


Good practice features

Overall, a sound integration programme would: 

  • support, plan, coordinate and resource orientation as a critical component of an integration programme.
  • deliver an appropriate level of orientation support based on the different needs of individual resettled refugees
  • incorporate mechanisms for monitoring and evaluation of orientation programmes in consultation with refugee communities and service providers.
  • have arrangements in place for orientation of resettled refugees with different needs (e.g. children and youth, unaccompanied minors, victims of violence, women at risk, elders, LGBTIQ+); orienting the receiving society on the sociocultural context and background  of resettled refugees.
  • foster opportunities to integrate orientation into other resettlement processes (e.g. language learning, accessing health care).
  • engage relevant systems (health care) in the orientation process.
  • plan to ensure that orientation is an ongoing process.
  • recognise that resettled refugees have different information needs and different capacities to absorb and contextualise information at different stages of the resettlement process (e.g. limited life experience, literacy level, lack of computer skills).


Services and programmes for orientating resettled refugees would: 

  • be inclusive and provide age appropriate learning principles and techniques.
  • be voluntary but encouraged.
  • be respectful to the sociocultural context and background of resettled refugees.
  • use interactive learning methodologies.
  • be delivered by personnel who are appropriately trained and supported.
  • be delivered (where possible) by people from the same sociocultural and language backgrounds as resettled refugees.
  • engage skilled interpreters where first language delivery is not possible.
Further links and resources
  • IOM LINK IT  The project LINK IT aimed to create a stronger link between pre-departure and post-arrival, with tools such as Skills Profiling and reception guides.
  • ICMC - SHARE Network  The SHARE Network was established in 2012 to provide resources and a platform for exchange.
  • EURITA (International Rescue Committee, IRC) EURITA is a training and resource hub for resettlement and integration practitioners in Europe.
  • Cultural Orientation Resource Exchange (CORE) The Cultural Orientation Resource Exchange (CORE), a technical assistance program, connects and supports refugee resettlement staff globally to deliver effective Cultural Orientation which helps refugees and Special Immigrant Visa holders achieve self-sufficiency in the United States.
  • Preparing for the Unknown: Designing Effective Predeparture Orientation for Resettling Refugees This report was written as part of the European Union Action on Facilitating Resettlement and Refugee Admission through New Knowledge (EU-FRANK) project, which is financed by the European Asylum, Migration, and Integration Fund (AMIF) and led by Sweden. Belgium, Italy, the Netherlands, and Switzerland are partner countries. This report explores the varied forms these programs take, with their content, timing, and delivery shaped by the refugees’ situation and the resettlement country’s resources and priorities. The study draws on interviews with resettlement policymakers, program implementers, and reception and integration service providers, and its seven case-study countries—Austria, Canada, Finland, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, and Romania—represent both longstanding and relatively new national resettlement programs.
  • Ontario Council of Agencies Serving Immigrants 
  • Cultural Orientation Resource Center, USA
  • Department of  Home Affairs, Australia