“Desperate journeys” 2017 доклад на ВКБООН: Трябва да се работи в посока създаване на сигурни и легални маршрути за бежанци и мигранти

Бежанците предприемат опасни пътувания, като често разчитат на трафиканти поради липсата на достъпни легални възможности да достигнат Европа. Движението по основните маршрути на Средиземноморието и Западните Балкани, които водят бежанци и мигранти към Европа, както и пътят им през Балканите и Италия, са основен фокус на доклада на ВКБООН “Desperate […]

Бежанците предприемат опасни пътувания, като често разчитат на трафиканти поради липсата на достъпни легални възможности да достигнат Европа. Движението по основните маршрути на Средиземноморието и Западните Балкани, които водят бежанци и мигранти към Европа, както и пътят им през Балканите и Италия, са основен фокус на доклада на ВКБООН “Desperate journeys“, който анализира тенденциите през първата половина на 2017 г. Докладът предоставя данни, реални истории и заключения на ВКБООН, основаващи се на хиляди пътувания на мигранти до Европа.

Според доклада през първата половина на 2017 г. над 105 000 бежанци и мигранти са влезли в Европа през трите средиземноморски маршрута и над 2 290 души са загинали по различни сухопътни и морски пътища.

Увеличаването на ограниченията за преминаване на границите без наличието на  безопасни маршрути означава, че бежанците ще бъдат изложени на все по-големи рискове. За да прегледате целия доклад, отворете този линк.

Summarized Findings and Conclusion

Refugees are taking more dangerous and diversified journeys, often relying on smugglers, because of the lack of accessible legal ways to Europe. The movement along the main Mediterranean and Western Balkans routes leading refugees and migrants to Europe, as well as onward movement through the Balkans and onwards from Italy are the focus of “Desperate journeys” report analyzing trends in the first half of 2017. The report provides key figures, real stories and conclusions of UNHCR based on thousands desperate journeys to Europe.

According to the report in the first half of 2017, over 105,000 refugees and migrants entered Europe via the three Mediterranean routes and over 2,290 are thought to have died along land and sea routes while undertaking the dangerous journeys usually necessary to cross borders.

  • Eastern Mediterranean route (from Turkey to Greece, Bulgaria, and Cyprus)

Numbers of those arriving in Greece from Turkey by sea (9,286) are 94% lower than in the first half of 2016, in particular compared to the first three months of last year when over 150,000 refugees and migrants arrived by sea in Greece. Overall, the number of refugees and migrants who arrived via the Eastern Mediterranean route (including Bulgaria, Cyprus and the Greek land border with Turkey) in the first six months was 92% lower than in the same period in 2016.

According to the report Syrians and Iraqis comprise around half of arrivals by sea to Greece. Over 1,900 refugees and migrants, mostly from Iraq, have crossed by boat from Turkey to Italy since the start of 2017. Allegations of push-backs and human rights violations in border areas have continued in 2017.Refugees and migrants continued to travel onwards irregularly, facing multiple dangers, including robberies at the hands of criminal gangs, abuses by smugglers and some state authorities, as well as the risk of death while trying to avoid detection.

  • Central Mediterranean route to Italy

The first six months of 2017 saw an increase in the number of refugees and migrants entering Europe via the Central Mediterranean route to Italy, with 83,752 arrivals. The report shows that many refugees and migrants crossing the sea to Italy have overcome great dangers and abuse along the route, such as the harsh desert crossing, detention, torture, and violence, including sexual and gender-based violence.

The trend of high numbers of unaccompanied children arriving in Italy continued with 11,406 UASC arrivals in this period, 14% of all arrivals. Eurostat data from the first quarter of 2017 shows that the average rate of protection, including humanitarian status, granted to the top 10 nationalities that arrived in Italy in the first six months of 2017 was 34% in the EU+ region. NGOs continue to play a critical role in saving lives at sea and were responsible 37% of the rescues conducted in the first five months of 2017.

  • Western Mediterranean route to Spain

Arrivals also increased via the Western Mediterranean route to Spain (by 93%) compared to the same period last year indicates the report. Between January and June 2017, 6,524 entered Spain by sea along with 2,983 by land, amounting to 9,507 arrivals, an average of just over 1,500 per month.

Sea arrivals to Spain have increased 196% compared to the same period last year. The sea crossing remains highly risky and 52 people are known to have died crossing the sea to Spain by the end of June 2017. Syrians, often families, continue to arrive in Spain using diverse routes including through countries such as Sudan, Mauritania, Mali, Algeria, and Morocco.

Conclusion

Despite some progress in increasing the number of persons able to access safe pathways to Europe, these opportunities are far too few to offer a feasible alternative to risky irregular journeys for people in need of international protection. More needs to be done to enable more refugees to enter legally, including for those trying to join family members already in the EU, rather than having to resort to irregular and dangerous journeys.

With so many lives at risk in the central Mediterranean, enhanced rescue at sea operations undertaken by all actors, including the Italian coastguard, NGOs, Frontex and crews of merchant ships must remain a priority. Those rescued at sea need to be provided with adequate reception facilities and services, including swift access to asylum procedures.

More solidarity is needed within the EU to ensure protection and assistance to those arriving in Europe, including through the speeding up, and extension of the relocation scheme, as well as efficient and speedy family reunion and implementation of the humanitarian and discretionary clauses under Dublin.

To view the full report, click here.