2013 UNHCR country operations profile - Chad
In September 2012 Chad hosted some 288,700 refugees from Sudan, 56,700 from the Central African Republic (CAR), 90,000 internally displaced persons (IDPs), 91,000 returned IDPs and 550 urban refugees and asylum-seekers. The political and security situation in the country is stable thanks to improvements in relations with Sudan and the work of the joint Chadian-Sudanese border-monitoring force.
Nevertheless, the majority of the Sudanese refugees in Chad are reluctant to return home due to ongoing instability in Darfur.
In June 2012, there was an influx of 1,550 refugees from the CAR into southern Chad as a result of violent clashes in northern CAR. As the situation in this area remains tense, there is a possibility of a further influx of refugees to Chad.
Some 90,000 people remain internally displaced in Chad. Since the Government announced a "Year of Return" for IDPs in 2011, UNHCR has been assisting them to return home, escorting them to their villages of origin and providing shelter and reintegration packages. It is expected that most IDPs will have returned in 2012. Consequently, in 2013, UNHCR's interventions will be limited to monitoring the 88,000 individuals who have opted for local integration in their areas of displacement.
The presence of a large population of refugees from Sudan and CAR weighs heavily on Chad in Chad weighs heavily on the country's resources. Measures to reduce the pressure on host communities and the environment are therefore indispensable.
In eastern Chad, where the climate is semi-arid, the large number of Sudanese refugees puts a strain on already scarce natural resources and leads to tensions with host communities. In southern Chad, where the climate is tropical, flooding regularly destroys refugees' homes and crops. This has hampered UNHCR's efforts to improve the self-reliance of CAR refugees and made them more vulnerable to malnutrition.
Given the volatile conditions in neighbouring Sudan and CAR, large-scale voluntary returns are unlikely. Basic life-saving activities such as the provision of water, food, shelter, health services and sanitation remain imperative. Providing education is equally important in order to protect boys from forced recruitment and discourage early marriage for girls.
Returning IDPs will continue to require support in terms of basic services and infrastructure in villages of return. Indeed, there is a need for development activities in Chad as the refugee and IDP operations are moving from crisis mode to a stage of transitional development.
Assuring the security of refugees, IDPs and humanitarian workers will remain at the forefront of UNHCR's work in 2013. The Chadian security force, or Détachement Intégré de Sécurité (DIS), has provided vital support in and around the refugee camps and IDP sites, and in escorting humanitarian workers in the operational areas. As attacks on humanitarian compounds remain frequent, the DIS has been essential in ensuring security and following up on acts of criminality to generate respect for the rule of law.
Unfortunately, very little funding was received in 2012 to support the DIS. For this reason, UNHCR will draw up a cost-sharing strategy with other UN agencies operating in the Field.
|UNHCR 2013 planning figures for Chad|
|TYPE OF POPULATION||ORIGIN||JAN 2013||DEC 2013|
|TOTAL IN COUNTRY||OF WHOM ASSISTED
|TOTAL IN COUNTRY||OF WHOM ASSISTED
Main objectives and targets for 2013
Favourable protection environment
Laws and policies are developed or strengthened.
Laws and policies relating to refugees are consistent with international standards.
Fair protection processes and documentation
The quality of registration and profiling is improved or maintained.
All persons of concern are registered on an individual basis.
Security from violence and exploitation
The risk of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) is reduced and quality of the response to it improved.
More than a third of refugees who are survivors of gender-based violence receive support.
The protection of children is strengthened.
Some 30-40 per cent of out-of-school adolescents participate in targeted programmes.
A best interest determination (BID) process is initiated or completed for 40 per cent of unaccompanied and separated refugee children from CAR.
Basic needs and essential services
The nutritional well-being of the population is improved.
The prevalence of global acute malnutrition among refugee children aged 6-59 months remains at or below 5 per cent.
The health status of the population is improved.
The under-5 mortality rate is reduced.
The supply of potable water is increased or maintained.
An average of 22 litres of potable water per person per day is available for CAR refugees and 19 litres per person per day for Sudanese refugees.
Refugees have optimal access to education.
Some 80 per cent of CAR refugees and 90 per cent of Sudanese refugees aged 6-11 are enrolled in primary school.
The potential for resettlement is realized.
More than 20 per cent of CAR refugees submitted for resettlement depart for third countries.
Strategy and activities in 2013
In 2013 UNHCR will assist and protect Sudanese refugees in eastern Chad, promoting self-reliance and mitigating the impact of large groups of refugees on the environment by providing cooking fuel.
UNHCR will also provide basic assistance to CAR refugees. It will focus on improving livelihoods and pursue resettlement for the most vulnerable individuals. UNHCR hopes to be able to move CAR refugees who have continued to suffer from severe flooding to dryer sites with the aid of the Government.
Refugees in urban areas will receive cash grants to develop livelihoods and will benefit from integration into national health and social services. Urban refugee children will be able to attend national schools. Voluntary repatriation and resettlement will also be pursued for urban refugees where appropriate.
The security situation in the region remains unstable, making large-scale voluntary returns of CAR and Sudanese refugees unlikely. Meanwhile, group resettlement of Sudanese refugees remains on hold by order of the Chadian Government. IDP areas of origin continue to lack basic infrastructure and social services, while the challenging natural environment and location of camps in remote areas make providing assistance to refugees logistically challenging.
Organization and implementation
UNHCR will work with UN agencies, especially WFP, UNICEF, UNDP and UNFPA, to reinforce joint programmes. It will also strengthen its relationship with government ministries, particularly those dealing with health, water, the environment, social action and education. Partnership agreements with national and international NGOs will be renewed and cooperation with development agencies, the European Union and the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation will be reinforced.
UNHCR's budget for Chad rose steadily between 2008 and 2011 owing to the rise in the number of Sudanese and CAR refugees. The increase was the result of small influxes and the natural birth rate. Since 2011 the budget has been more or less stable. The 2013 needs have been estimated at USD 171.7 million, of which USD 158.9 million is for refugees and USD 12.8 million to cover IDP protection and assistance.
Source: UNHCR Global Appeal 2013 Update