2014 UNHCR country operations profile - Ethiopia
| Overview |
Due to its geographical position, as well as environmental and geo-political developments in the region, Ethiopia is likely to continue to receive asylum-seekers from neighbouring countries in 2014 and 2015. The country has a history of receiving people displaced by cross-border movements due to droughts, conflicts, political events and civil wars in neighbouring countries, including Eritrea, Somalia, South Sudan and Sudan. The Government of Ethiopia maintains an open-door-policy and has continuously allowed humanitarian access and protection to those seeking refuge on its territory.
Ethiopia received over 44,000 new arrivals in the first eight months of 2013, leading to a total population of concern of more than 400,000 people, who are mainly accommodated in camps throughout the country. The Government has been generous in allocating land for the 18 existing camps, including in Dollo Ado, Shire, Gambella and Assosa, and for new camps to be opened as the majority of existing camps have reached their maximum capacity. In addition, the Government provides police forces in the camps and facilitates customs clearance for internationally procured items.
Eritrean refugees, including unaccompanied minors who continue to arrive in increasing numbers, tend to move on from Ethiopia to a third country, a situation which presents a major challenge in providing protection.
There are no provisions under Ethiopia's law for local integration of refugees. While the country maintains reservations to the 1951 Convention, notably to Articles 17-19, it supports an out-of-camp scheme, allowing refugees to live outside refugee camps and engage in informal sector activities as livelihood opportunities. The main beneficiaries thus far have been students absorbed into universities, whose fees are paid for by the Government (75 per cent) and UNHCR (25 per cent).
Environmental degradation around camps, the fragile ecosystem and scarce resources have led to tensions between host communities and refugees in some locations. UNHCR is working with partners and the Government to address and mitigate the situation within the confines of limited resources.
People of concern
In 2014, the main groups of people of concern under the Ethiopia operation are: Somali refugees, living in Dollo Ado and Jijiga camps (eight camps in total) and a small number in Addis Ababa, who sought protection in Ethiopia due to insecurity in Somalia or arrived as a result of the famine in Somalia in 2011; Eritrean refugees, including unaccompanied and separated children, seeking asylum in Ethiopia. Eritrean refugees are mainly located in camps in Shire, Tigray region and Afar region, with a number of urban refugees in Addis Ababa and Mekele; Sudanese refugees fleeing fighting between the Sudan People's Liberation Movement-North and the Sudanese Armed Forces in Blue Nile State of Sudan who live in three camps in the Assosa area in Benishangul Gumuz region; and South Sudanese refugees in camps in the Gambella region or in host communities in Wanthowa Woreda and Raad, most of whom fled Jonglei State to escape inter-ethnic conflict.
|UNHCR 2014 planning figures for Ethiopia|
|TYPE OF POPULATION||ORIGIN||Dec 2013||Dec 2014||Dec 2015|
|Total in country||of whom assisted
|Total in country||of whom assisted
|Total in country||of whom assisted
| Response |
Needs and strategies
In 2014, UNHCR will continue to provide protection and assistance to over 400,000 people in Ethiopia who are seeking refuge from insecurity, oppression or famine in the neighbouring countries. The Office will continue to carry out its strategy, developed in coordination with partners, to address the needs of the population of concern.
The Office will provide life-saving assistance in 18 existing camps and four new camps to open in 2014, while enhancing protection by improving registration, basic services, response to sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) and child protection strategies.
While emergency response preparedness will be strengthened, the Office will move to stabilizing the operations including focusing on fostering resilience through livelihood activities. Resettlement remains the most viable durable solution.
The above mentioned are priorities in Ethiopia for all groups.
| Implementation |
UNHCR's main Government counterpart and implementing partner in Ethiopia will continue to be the Administration for Refugee and Returnee Affairs (ARRA). The Office will build on achievements made in 2012 and 2013, including continuing coordination forums such as the Refugee Task Force, co-chaired by UNHCR and ARRA. Donor and NGO forums will continue to be held at the central level and inter-agency meetings at the field and camp levels.
The Office will continue to engage with UNICEF, guided by the letter of understanding and plan of action on the coordination of critical activities in the sectors of child protection, health and nutrition, education, and water and sanitation in 2014.
UNHCR is fully engaged in the Humanitarian Country Team in Ethiopia, where the refugee programmes are discussed strategically to ensure that the needs of refugees are adequately presented and addressed.
In 2014, UNHCR will continue leading the protection cluster within the Ethiopian cluster set-up with the main objectives of strengthening coordination and advocacy for further engagement with the Ethiopian Government, capacity building and mainstreaming protection into other sectors.
|2014 UNHCR partners in Ethiopia|
|Government agencies: Administration for Refugee and Returnee Affairs, Bureau of Agriculture, Ministry of Internal Affairs, Natural Resources Development and Protection, Natural Resources Development and Environmental Protection|
|NGOs: Action contre la Faim, Afar Pastoralists Development Association, African Humanitarian Action, African Humanitarian Aid and Development Agency, Development and Inter-Church Aid Commission, Ethiopian Orthodox Church, Gaia Association International Medical Corps, International Rescue Committee, Jesuit Refugee Service, Lutheran World Federation, Mother and Child Development Organization, Norwegian Refugee Council, Opportunities in Industrialization Centre, Oxfam Partner for Refugee Services, Partnership for Pastoralists Development Association, Pastoralist Welfare Organization, Rehabilitation and Development Organization, Save the Children, Save the Environment, Tselemetwereda Agriculture and Rural Development Office, World Vision International|
|Others: ILO, IOM, UNOPS|
|NGOs: Danish Refugee Council, GOAL, HelpAge International, Health and Human Services, HUMEDICA Médecins sans Frontières (France, the Netherlands and Spain), ZOA Refugee Care|
|Others: IOM, UNAIDS, UNFPA, UNICEF, WFP, WHO|
| Financial information |
Over the last four years, as a result of two emergency situations and the influx of refugees since 2011, the financial requirements for UNHCR's operation in Ethiopia have significantly increased from USD 100.2 million in 2010 to a revised 2013 budget of USD 192.8 million, and as high as USD 218.7 million in 2012. The 2014 financial requirements for Ethiopia are set at USD 199.8 million and are fully allocated to refugees across five groups: Eritreans, Somalis, South Sudanese, Sudanese, and urban refugees.
Source: UNHCR Global Appeal 2014-2105