Report of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
United Nations General Assembly Official Records: Thirty-fifth Session
Report of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
Supplement No. 12 (A/35/12)
1. During the period covered by this report,1 the refugee problem was aggravated by a number of distressing developments requiring urgent action by the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). Conflicts and tension, notably in Africa and Asia, gave rise to new major influxes in addition to the existing refugee caseload, already considerable, which continued to occupy UNHCR's attention.
2. The High Commissioner would like at the outset to pay tribute to the international community for its generous response to his appeals for additional funds, for more resettlement opportunities and for a more liberal policy of asylum. It is therefore all the more unfortunate that, during this period, there did occur several serious infringements of the internationally-accepted standards relating to asylum and non-refoulement resulting in serious danger to the persons concerned and, in many cases, to loss of life.
3. There were a number of positive developments which took place during 1979 and early 1980. The emergence of Zimbabwe as an independent State has been a particularly welcome and happy event in the African continent. UNHCR's actions with regard to assistance in the repatriation of former Zimbabwean refugees and in the co-ordination of the initial programme of United Nations humanitarian assistance to returnees in Zimbabwe will be taken up in the relevant chapters. So will the gratifying results of the actions of the Office in facilitating voluntary repatriation - the best long-term solution to refugee problems - in other parts of Africa as well as in Latin America and Asia where impressive numbers of erstwhile refugees and displaced persons returned to their countries of origin.
4. The growth in number and magnitude of the refugee problems in recent years has resulted in a corresponding increase in the responsibilities entrusted to UNHCR as well as in the need for a sustained high level of response from the international community. This has naturally necessitated maintaining close and regular contacts with all sectors of the international community. Thus, in addition to the normal, continuing consultations with interested and concerned Governments, intergovernmental bodies and voluntary agencies, the High Commissioner called ad hoc meetings in January and June of 1979, and again in January 1980, of Permanent Representatives in Geneva of States members of the Executive Committee. A meeting with Permanent Representatives in Geneva of African States was also held in January 1980. The High Commissioner valued highly these opportunities for exchanges of views and information on the latest developments in refugee situations and on the increasing demands on the Office.
5. Total expenditures during 1979 amounted to some $270 million. Of this amount some $162.3 million went to finance UNHCR's General Programmes of assistance while about $107.7 million were spent for Special Programmes. The Special Programmes were mainly financed from contributions made in response to separate appeals for funds issued during tile year to provide assistance for specific, never situations or unforeseen developments that required urgent, substantial commitment of funds.
6. A landmark during 1979 was the Meeting on Refugees and Displaced Persons in South-East Asia, convened by the Secretary-General of the United Nations, which took place in Geneva on 20 and 21 July (A/34/627 and Corr.1). This important meeting produced practical results in terms of increased resettlement offers, additional contributions either pledged or considered, proposals made regarding rescue at sea and the establishment of processing centres in the South-East Asia region.
7. The General Assembly at its thirty-fourth session passed five resolutions of direct concern to UNHCR.2 Two of these resolutions, inter alia, called upon the High Commissioner to report to the General Assembly at its thirty-fifth session. The present report contains, in the relevant sections, the information requested by resolution 34/62 (Report of the Secretary-General on the Meeting on Refugees and Displaced Persons in South-East Asia). The second resolution, dealing with the situation of African refugees (resolution 34/61), fully endorses the recommendations adopted by the Arusha Conference on the Situation of Refugees in Africa and asks the High Commissioner to report on the contributions made by his Office towards the implementation of the recommendations of the Arusha Conference. UNHCR, together with the Organization of African Unity (OAU), continues follow-up action with regard to the far-reaching recommendations and conclusions of this important conference which was jointly sponsored by the OAU, the Economic Commission for Africa (ECA) and UNHCR. The High Commissioner intends to submit in October of this year to the Executive Committee of his Programme a separate report on actions taken by his Office in this respect. The report of the Executive Committee will thus contain the required information which will be transmitted to the General Assembly at its thirty-fifth session as an addendum to the present report.
8. This report follows the same basic format as that of previous reports. However, a separate chapter has been included this year on general activities in the fields of counselling, education and resettlement in addition to the details on specific developments contained in the relevant country sections.
CHAPTER I INTERNATIONAL PROTECTION
9. The essential significance of the international protection function was underscored in the various refugee situations which either arose or continued during the reporting period. One problem which assumed overriding importance was that of asylum. While the majority of States continued to follow liberal practices in regard to the admission of refugees, in certain areas the reporting period was marked by a series of developments giving rise to most profound concern. These related in particular to the difficulties faced by asylum seekers arriving by land or by sea in securing asylum even on a temporary basis. Overland arrivals were either rejected at the frontiers or subjected to measures of refoulement on a large scale while arrivals by boat were turned away, sometimes in unseaworthy craft, to face the dangers of the high seas. In these various situations the refusal of even temporary asylum frequently led to the most serious consequences for the person concerned. Towards the end of the reporting period, however, there was an increasing acceptance by States in the areas concerned of the various principles relating to asylum.
10. UNHCR has continued its efforts to promote further accessions to the United Nations Convention3 relating to Status of Refugees and to the 1967 Protocol thereto.4 There have been a number of accessions to these instruments during the reporting period and accession is currently under active consideration by several Governments.
11. The reporting period also witnessed a number of very positive developments in regard to voluntary repatriation which, whenever feasible, represents the most desirable solution to refugee problems. Thus a large number of individual refugees returned to their respective countries of origin in different areas and large scale repatriation operations were either successfully completed or were initiated. There were also positive developments in regard to reunification of separated refugee families; in an increasing number of cases, positive solutions were made possible with the co-operation of the Governments concerned.
12. A major event in the field of international protection on the regional level was the holding of the pan-African Conference on the situation of refugees in Africa, which met at Arusha, United Republic of Tanzania, in May 1979. The Conference reaffirmed a number of fundamental principles concerning the treatment of refugees and asylum seekers and its recommendations - approved by the Assembly of Heads of State and Government of the Organization of African Unity (OAU) which met at Monrovia in July 1979 - will undoubtedly represent a major contribution towards improving the legal situation of refugees in Africa. The work of the Arusha Conference may also prove to be a valuable example for a constructive approach to the legal problems of refugees in a regional context.5
13. Also of special importance on the regional level was the Round Table of Asian Experts which was held under UNHCR auspices in Manila from 14 to 18 April to examine problems relating to the international protection of refugees and displaced persons in the Asia region. The Round Table adopted a number of significant conclusions relating in particular to asylum and non-refoulement.
14. In general, developments during the reporting period showed once again the need to promote a wider understanding of the accepted international standards for the treatment of refugees and for constant vigilance to ensure that refugees are treated in accordance with these standards.
B. Principles of protection and refugee rights
15. The most urgent need of a refugee is to receive asylum. During the reporting period many States continued to grant durable asylum in accordance with long-standing humanitarian traditions for the admission of refugees. Other States were only prepared to grant asylum on a purely temporary basis. In certain countries, when asylum seekers were admitted they suffered a number of difficulties because they were generally considered as illegal immigrants. In some instances, asylum was refused even on a temporary basis. In one area, as mentioned in the introduction, the large-scale refusal of even temporary asylum assumed particular seriousness and exposed asylum seekers to grave physical danger and, in many cases, to loss of life. As a result of special efforts by the international community to relieve the burden of first asylum countries in the area, these problems abated to some extent towards the end of the reporting period.
16. The question of asylum was given detailed consideration by the Executive Committee of the High Commissioner's Programme at its thirtieth session.6 In its conclusions, the Committee, inter alia, stressed that in situations involving a large-scale influx, asylum seekers should always receive at least temporary refuge. The Committee also placed emphasis on the principle of equitable burden-sharing to relieve those States which, due to their geographical situation, are faced with a large scale influx of asylum seekers.
17. In addition, the Committee devoted special attention to the difficulties facing individual asylum seekers, and considered that an effort should be made to resolve the problem of identifying the country responsible for examining an asylum request by the adoption of common criteria. The Committee indicated a number of principles to be observed in the elaboration of such criteria and it is hoped that the Committee's recommendations will facilitate the formulation of constructive solutions in the near future.
18. On the regional level, the question of asylum was considered by the Arusha Conference on the Situation of Refugees in Africa, to which reference has already been made. With regard to the principle of burden-sharing, the Conference recognized that the effective implementation of the principles relating to asylum would be further advanced by the development of institutional arrangements relating to burden-sharing, adopted within the framework of African solidarity and international co-operation.
19. During the reporting period, legislative measures relating to asylum were adopted or were in the process of adoption in a number of countries. In Switzerland and in the United States legislation was enacted which contained important provisions regarding the granting of asylum and procedures for examining asylum requests. Similar legislative measures are under consideration in a number of States in other regions. The High Commissioner is pleased to report that many of the concerns of this Office in regard to asylum and the determination of refugee status have been taken into account during the preparation of these various measures.
20. The High Commissioner continued his consultations with Governments regarding the possibility of convening a further session of the United Nations Conference on Territorial Asylum.
2. Rescue at Sea
21. During the reporting period the question of rescue at sea proved to be of particular relevance in relation to asylum seekers in South-East Asia. The High Commissioner is particularly gratified to note the very positive attitude to this matter generally adopted by ships masters and their respective flag States, which has enabled asylum seekers in distress on the high seas to be rescued in accordance with recognized international standards and despite the sometimes onerous burdens involved. The disembarkation of refugees and displaced persons rescued at sea has been greatly facilitated by guarantees of resettlement provided by certain flag States. In the absence of such guarantees the attitude of Governments of first asylum countries continued to be one of extreme reluctance to permit such persons to disembark. This problem was examined, inter alia, by a Meeting of Experts on Rescue Operations for Refugees and Displaced Persons in Distress in the South China Seas, attended by representatives of Governments which had shown particular interest in the question of rescue and convened by the High Commissioner on 14 August 1979. The meeting was also attended by a representative of the Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization, with which organization UNHCR has enjoyed close co-operation on the question of rescue at sea. Pursuant to a recommendation of the meeting, a reserve of resettlement opportunities has been placed at the disposal of UNHCR by a number of countries for cases where the flag State is not prepared to provide resettlement guarantees.
22. In the context of rescue at sea of refugees and displaced persons, an important development was the adoption in April 1979 of the Convention on Maritime Search and Rescue. The technical annex to this Convention imposes an obligation on States parties to ensure that assistance is provided to any person in distress at sea, regardless of the nationality or status of such a person, or the circumstances in which the person is found. The annex to the Convention contains a provision requiring the notification of the "office of the competent international organization" in the event of rescue at sea of a refugee or displaced person.
23. The principle of non-refoulement, according to which no person may be returned to a territory where he has reason to fear persecution, constitutes the most important single element in the international protection of refugees. This generally accepted principle has found expression in various international instruments and the need for its scrupulous observance has been stressed in successive resolutions of the General Assembly and in recommendations of the Executive Committee of the High Commissioner's Programme.
24. It is particularly disturbing that during the reporting period measures of refoulement were taken in different areas. In the majority of cases these measures affected individual refugees, but in one instance refoulement was carried out on a large scale and as a matter of policy by the Government concerned. Such measures are known to have caused extreme hardship and in many cases loss of life.
25. When measures of intended refoulement have come to the High Commissioner's notice in due time it has been possible for him to approach the authorities of the country concerned with a view to preventing refoulement. In other cases, however, the measure of refoulement was brought to his attention only after the event. Where this occurred, the High Commissioner nevertheless registered his serious concern. It should be noted that instances of refoulement have also resulted from the mere fact that border police and immigration authorities have not been sufficiently informed of the principle of non-refoulement or have not received appropriate instructions regarding the need for its observance. In this respect, therefore, the possibility for an asylum seeker to submit his request to the authorities under an appropriate procedure providing the necessary guarantees is directly related to the observance of the principle of non-refoulement.
26. As in previous years, the High Commissioner was required to approach the authorities of certain States to request the stay of an expulsion order in respect of a refugee or group of refugees while efforts were made by his Office to secure admission to another country.
27. While there may be circumstances in which a State may find it difficult to permit a refugee or a group of refugees to remain in its territory, article 32 of the United Nations Convention relating to the Status of Refugees makes it clear that expulsion of a refugee is a particularly serious measure and should only be resorted to in exceptional circumstances, i.e., where factors of national security or public order are involved. Moreover, in its conclusions on the matter adopted by the Executive Committee of the High Commissioner's Programme at its twenty-eighth session,7 the Committee recommended that in line with article 32 of the 1951 Convention such measures should only be taken in very exceptional cases and after due consideration of all circumstances, including the possibility of the refugee being admitted to another country other than his country of origin. The High Commissioner is able to report that to his knowledge the number of cases in which refugees have been subjected to expulsion measures in circumstances not justified by article 32 has decreased in comparison with previous years. Measures of this kind however continue to be adopted in certain countries and the matter therefore still gives rise to concern.
5. Personal safety of refugees
28. Measures to ensure the physical protection of refugees are primarily the responsibility of the authorities of the asylum country. During the reporting period however, a number of cases in which the personal safety of refugees was placed in serious danger again made it necessary for the High Commissioner, pursuant to the mandate entrusted to him by the international community, to make appropriate representations to the Governments concerned.
29. Particularly serious problems of this nature arose in South-East Asia, involving pirate attacks on asylum seekers in boats. From reports received it appears that a very high percentage of asylum seekers leaving their country of origin in boats have been the victims - and in some cases repeatedly - of such pirate attacks. The survivors of these attacks - and an unknown number of asylum seekers have lost their lives in this way - have given harrowing accounts of robbery, abduction, rape and murder. While the authorities of the States concerned are continuing their efforts to prevent further incidents of this kind and to punish those responsible, the problem remains a very serious one. The High Commissioner is therefore seeking ways and means of co-operating with these authorities with a view to finding appropriate solutions. Moreover, since the problem of piracy is a general one and is not limited to asylum seekers on the high seas, the High Commissioner has brought this matter specifically to the attention of the Secretary-General with a view to it being given consideration by the United Nations.
30. Infringements of the physical safety of refugees occurred in other regions during the reporting period and have assumed different forms. In southern Africa the safety of refugees was imperilled repeatedly by incursions across borders by national security forces and by bombing attacks on refugees. Such attacks have been strongly condemned by both the Arusha Conference on Refugees and by the Executive Committee of the High Commissioner's Programme. In several other instances refugees were subjected to systematic measures of harassment by the authorities of their countries of asylum with the result that the High Commissioner was obliged to make appropriate representations. As regards abduction of refugees, the High Commissioner is able to report that in one region where incidents of this kind had in previous years been the subject of much concern to his Office, no further cases of abduction came to his attention. In the same region however, and in spite of repeated representation by UNHCR at the highest level, no further clarification was received concerning the whereabouts of refugees who had disappeared or been abducted in earlier years.
31. In previous reports attention was drawn to the practice prevailing in certain countries of subjecting refugees to measures of unjustified detention. In certain instances such measures had been accompanied by abusive treatment including torture. Detention in these instances was based on the mere unlawful presence of the refugee in a particular country despite the frequent impossibility for refugees to enter the country in a regular manner or was the result of expulsion measures not justified by article 32 of the Convention. While further cases of unjustified detention came to the High Commissioner's notice during the reporting period, there was a decrease in the number of reported cases. There were also a number of cases in which refugees, who had been in detention for long periods in circumstances giving rise to serious international concern, were released during the reporting period.
32. In regard to the question of detention and imprisonment of refugees, a positive contribution was made by the Arusha Conference which expressed concern at such measures and at the fact that detention and imprisonment are in many cases not subject to ordinary administrative or judicial remedies. The Conference recommended that such practices be discouraged and considered that the matter warranted further study in order to ensure that the basic rights of refugees are fully guaranteed.
7. Economic and social rights
33. During the reporting period, the High Commissioner continued to monitor the enjoyment by refugees of a range of economic and social rights. While the enjoyment of economic and social rights is naturally of great importance to refugees, it is generally recognized that the granting of such rights may give rise to difficulty in countries where the necessary infrastructure has not yet been established. The extent to which refugees are able to enjoy these rights may therefore differ according to the particular area. In traditional countries of immigration, refugees normally have the same rights as other immigrants in regard to employment. In other countries refugees still encounter difficulties in securing formal access to the labour market but are often able to obtain employment on a de facto basis. In other areas refugees encounter severe difficulties with regard to employment and to the enjoyment of economic and social rights in general. The possibility for refugees to secure employment continues to be a matter of serious concern and the High Commissioner hopes that Governments will devote particular attention to this specific problem.
34. As regards access to primary and secondary educational facilities, the picture is generally encouraging in those countries where refugees have been accepted for permanent settlement. With respect to institutions of higher education, refugees are normally able to compete for entry on the same basis as nationals. In some countries, special treatment is accorded to refugees in the form of scholarships.
35. With respect to the enjoyment of other economic and social rights, refugees generally receive the same treatment as that accorded under existing legislation to nationals of their country of residence. Special mention should be made of legislation recently adopted by one country in Africa which allows refugees to recover their old age pension contributions in the event of their returning to their country of origin.
36. As indicated in the previous report8, a number of States parties to the Convention and the Protocol maintain reservations to one or more of the provisions of the Convention dealing with economic and social rights.
8. Travel and identity documents
37. It is particularly important for a refugee to have appropriate documents to enable him to travel outside the country of residence. Such travel may be in order to take advantage of educational training or employment opportunities or for resettlement. The need for States to issue travel documents to refugees was stressed in the conclusions adopted by the Executive Committee of the High Commissioner's Programme at its twenty-ninth session.9 The Executive Committee also recommended that travel documents should have a wide validity, both geographically and in time and should - as provided for in paragraph 13 of the schedule to the 1951 Convention - contain a return clause with the same period of validity, in the absence of exeptional circumstances, as the travel document itself.
38. Travel documents, as provided for by the Convention are regularly issued to refugees by many States parties to the Convention or to the 1967 Protocol. In some States, however, such travel documents are not made available to refugees as a matter of course, and in some instances are only issued by authorities with extreme reluctance. In other cases travel documents have been made subject to various restrictions as regards the period of their validity, their geographical scope or the right of the holder to return to the issuing country. Such practices unjustifiably impede the refugee's freedom of movement which, as explained above, may be of particular importance to him. In a number of cases such practices actually resulted in refugees having to forego educational or employment opportunities in another country.
39. During the reporting period the Office continued its efforts to encourage Governments to issue refugees with travel documents as provided for in article 28 and the Schedule to the Convention, or with alternative documentation if the State concerned is not party to the Convention or to the Protocol.
40. UNHCR continued to make Convention travel documents available to Governments upon request. An increasing number of requests - and for increasing quantities were received by the Office during the reporting period. The Convention travel documents thus provided by UNHCR now exist in English/French, French/English, Arabic/English/French and Spanish/French/English. A third trilingual version in Portuguese/French/English is in preparation and will become available to Governments during 1980.
41. Many States have continued to issue identity documents to refugees pursuant to article 27 of the 1951 Convention. During the reporting period identity documents were issued to large numbers of refugees in various African countries. In several such cases UNHCR provided financial assistance to the Governments concerned for the printing of identity documents.
9. Acquisition by refugees of a new nationality
42. In the case of a refugee for whom repatriation is not a feasible solution, naturalization, if requested by the individual concerned, represents the final stage of integration in his country of residence.
43. Progress in the field of naturalization has continued in various countries. As reported in previous years, the legislation of a number of countries contains provisions facilitating the naturalization of refugees.
44. During the reporting period figures for the naturalization of refugees in various countries were encouraging. In the Federal Republic of Germany, an increasing number of refugees benefited from recent legislative measures which grant refugees more favourable conditions than ordinary aliens as regards the qualifying period of residence for naturalization purposes. In Spain, a relatively large number of refugees from Latin America were able to avail themselves of a law which permits naturalization for persons from Latin America after two years' residence. In traditional countries of immigration, refugees continued to benefit from long-established procedures for the naturalization of refugees arriving from countries of temporary asylum.
C. Determination of refugee status
45. In previous reports the High Commissioner emphasized the importance of the establishment by States of procedures for the determination of refugee status in order to enable refugees to benefit from the treatment provided for in the relevant international instruments and in particular to ensure that they are protected against refoulement. At its twenty-eighth, twenty-ninth and thirtieth sessions,10 the Executive Committee of the High Commissioner's Programme expressed the hope that all Governments parties to the Convention and the Protocol which had not yet done so would take steps to establish procedures for determining refugee status in the near future and would give favourable consideration to UNHCR participation in such procedures in appropriate form.
46. In the African context, the Arusha Conference recommended that individual applications for asylum be examined according to appropriate procedures established for this purpose and appealed to African States to apply in such procedures the basic requirements specified in the conclusions adopted by the Executive Committee of the High Commissioner's Programme at its twenty-eighth session.11 At the same time, the Conference considered that individual determination procedures might be impractical in the case of large-scale movements of asylum seekers in Africa and called for the setting up of special arrangements for identifying refugees in such situations. At the request of the Conference, the Office of the High Commissioner is currently examining the type of procedures or special arrangements that might be appropriate.
47. During the period under review several States took measures for establishing procedures for determining refugee status. In the United States, the Refugee Act 1980 provides for the establishment of a procedure for examining asylum requests. In other refugee-receiving countries, measures have been announced with a view to consolidating and refining existing procedures for the determination of refugee status. In Canada, applicants will henceforth be informed of the reasons for a negative determination. In the Federal Republic of Germany, measures have been adopted with a view to streamlining existing determination procedures, in particular as regards the courts which are competent to examine appeals against a refusal of asylum. In Somalia, a Presidential Decree issued during the reporting period announced the Government's intention to establish a national committee to examine applications for refugee status. In Djibouti, UNHCR has co-operated with the authorities with a view to overcoming problems arising in the initial stages of the implementation of the newly-established determination procedure.
48. During the period under review UNHCR had consultations with the Governments of a number of countries regarding the establishment of determination procedures and continued to co-operate with the authorities of a number of other countries within the framework of already existing procedures.
D. Voluntary repatriation
49. The most desirable solution to the refugee problem is of course voluntary repatriation. Under its Statute, the facilitation of voluntary repatriation is stated as one of the basic objectives of the High Commissioner's Office.
50. The reporting period was marked by the successful completion of a number of, large-scale repatriation operations. In Bangladesh, the repatriation of some 187,250 refugees from Burma to their country of origin was brought to a successful conclusion. In Africa, the most significant voluntary repatriation operation involved the initial phase of the ultimate return of some 250,000 Zimbabwean refugees to Southern Rhodesia, now Zimbabwe. Under the amnesty decreed by the President of Zaire in 1978 and which was extended to mid-1979, a large number of Zairean refugees were repatriated to their home country. Operations for large-scale voluntary repatriation of refugees to Equatorial Guinea and Uganda were initiated during the reporting period and arrangements for the repatriation of refugees to Angola are under active consideration.
51. In Latin America, in the earlier part of 1979, civil conflict in Nicaragua gave rise to a sizeable number of refugees who were given asylum in neighbouring countries, but most of them had returned to their country of origin by the end of the year. In regard to another country in Latin America, a number of refugees have encountered difficulties in obtaining the agreement of the authorities to their return.
52. The High Commissioner's Office has made available its assistance or has actively co-operated in the implementation of these large-scale repatriation operations. Such operations are frequently facilitated by the adoption of measures - if necessary with UNHCR's assistance - for ensuring that adequate reception facilities and measures for rehabilitation are provided for returning refugees. The role of UNHCR in promoting durable solutions through such measures has been stressed repeatedly in resolutions of the General Assembly, including resolution 34/60.
53. There are also many cases in which UNHCR is called upon to facilitate the repatriation of individual refugees, e.g., by seeking to obtain the agreement of their home country and, where necessary, to assist in the completion of necessary formalities such as obtaining travel documents and/or transit visas and contributing towards travel costs. During the reporting period the Office was called upon to provide such assistance in a considerable number of cases.
54. Voluntary repatriation is frequently encouraged by the granting of an amnesty by the authorities of countries from which refugees have originated. Several such amnesties were issued during the reporting period.
E. Family reunification
55. The Office has always attached the greatest importance to maintaining the unity of the refugee family and seeks to facilitate the reunification of separated refugee families as part of its day-to-day work. The action taken by UNHCR in this respect most frequently involves making appropriate representations to the Governments concerned and where necessary ensuring that family members are provided with appropriate travel documents and transit visas. For the purposes of reunification, UNHCR regards the basic family unit as comprising at least the spouse and minor children but is also willing to assist, where Governments are prepared to accept a wider concept, e.g. aged parents or other dependent relatives.
56. During the reporting period, notable progress was made in the field of family reunion. In regard to one country in South-East Asia, the reunification of separated families was specifically provided for in a Memorandum of Understanding between the Government concerned and UNHCR. A number of cases of family reunification have been satisfactorily resolved pursuant to this agreement.
57. In Latin America, the movement of family members from a number of countries of the region to be reunited with their refugee heads of family in their respective countries of residence continued although, due to a smaller number of requests, on a reduced scale as compared with past years. In Europe, an increasing number of cases were satisfactorily resolved. In Africa, as in past years, measures were successfully undertaken by UNHCR to promote the reunification of refugee families in a number of individual cases in several countries.
F. International instruments12
1. Statute of the Office of the High Commissioner13
58. In recent years, the statute of the High Commissioner's Office has assumed increasing importance with the emergence of new refugee problems in countries not parties to the international instruments relating to the status of refugees. The statute, together with subsequent resolutions of the General Assembly, defines the mandate that has been entrusted to the High Commissioner by the international community. The practical significance of the statute derives from the fact that as a resolution of the General Assembly, it applies in respect of all States and provides a basis for UNHCR action to protect refugees irrespective of whether or not the State in which a refugee problem arises is a party to the Convention or to the Protocol or is a State which maintains the geographical limitation in respect of its obligations under these instruments. The statute continued to be a particularly effective instrument for UNHCR action during the reporting period.
2. The United Nations Convention relating to the Status of Refugees and the 1967 Protocol
59. The United Nations Convention relating to the Status of Refugees and the 1967 Protocol represent the most comprehensive codification of the rights and duties of refugees yet attempted at the universal level. The importance of the Convention and the Protocol and the desirability for States to accede to these instruments has been underlined by successive recommendations of the Executive Committee of the High Commissioner's Programme and in various resolutions of the General Assembly and most recently on the regional level by the Arusha Conference on the Situation of Refugees in Africa. Pursuant to paragraph 8 (a) of the statute of his Office, the High Commissioner seeks to promote further accessions to these basic international refugee instruments. During the period under review five States (Colombia, Liberia, Nicaragua, Rwanda and the Yemen Arab Republic) acceded to the Convention and/or to the Protocol. With these new accessions there are now 81 States parties to one or other or both, of these instruments and the High Commissioner has been informed that a number of other States are actively considering accession. It is nevertheless a matter of concern to the High Commissioner that nearly half of the membership of the United Nations, including a number of countries which are confronted with large-scale refugee problems, has not yet acceded to either the Convention or the Protocol.
60. A related question to which the High Commissioner attaches considerable importance, and which has received the attention of recent sessions of the Executive Committee, is that of the effective implementation of the Convention and the Protocol on the national level. The High Commissioner is in regular contact with the Governments of a number of States parties to the Convention and the Protocol with regard to various aspects of implementation, particularly as concerns procedures for determining refugee status (see para. 48 above). In some instances, UNHCR has been given the opportunity of commenting on draft legislation before it has been enacted.
3. Other international legal instruments relating to refugees adopted at the universal level
61. During the period under review nine further States ratified the Protocols Additional to the Geneva Convention of 12 August 1949. Protocol I contains important provisions relating to the status of refugees in armed conflict and to family reunification. There have been no further accessions to the 1957 Agreement and the 1973 Protocol relating to Refugee Seamen, to the 1954 Convention relating to the Status of Stateless Persons, or to the 1961 Convention on the Reduction of Statelessness. The promotion of further accessions to these various instruments remains a matter of concern to the Office.
62. There have been some significant developments with respect to various other international instruments which, in a wider sense, are also relevant to refugees. Further States have acceded to or ratified the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights - and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, bringing the total of States parties to these fundamental humanitarian instruments as at 31 March 1930 to 64 and 62 respectively.
63. The International Convention against the Taking of Hostages was adopted. By the General Assembly on 17 December 1979 (resolution 34/146). The article in this Convention relating to extradition is of particular note in that it provides that the request for the extradition of an alleged offender shall not be granted if there are reasons to believe that this request has been made for the purpose of persecuting or punishing that person on the grounds of his race, religion, nationality, ethnic origin or Political opinion.
64. During the reporting period, with a view to ensuring that the interests of refugees were taken into account, the High Commissioner's Office participated in a number of meetings where new international instruments were under consideration. These included the Special Committee of Governmental Experts which is preparing a draft Convention on the Recognition of Studies, Diplomas and Degrees in Higher Education in States of Asia and Oceania and the Diplomatic Conference on the Revision of the Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property. The Office also continued to follow developments in the Council of Europe, the OAU and in other international organizations on questions relating to the treatment of refugees.
4. International instruments concerning refugees adopted at the regional level
65. In the context of regional instruments relating to refugees, special mention should be made of the OAU Convention of 1969 governing the Specific Aspects of Refugee Problems in Africa. This instrument is of special significance in that it constitutes an invaluable regional complement to the United Nations Convention relating to the Status of Refugees in a continent where large-scale refugee problems exist. The OAU Convention gives expression to the fundamental principle of non-refoulement and contains, inter alia, important provisions concerning asylum and voluntary repatriation. During the reporting period there was one further accession to the OAU Convention, that of Rwanda, bringing the total number of States parties to the OAU Convention to 19. In view of the great significance of the OAU Convention in the African context, the Arusha Conference on the Situation of Refugees in Africa called upon States which have not yet done so to become parties to this instrument.
66. On the American continent, the American Convention on Human Rights of 1969 (the "Pact of San José, Costa Rica") contains important provisions relevant to asylum and gives expression to the fundamental principle of non-refoulement. The Convention is of importance for the protection of refugees in the American region in that some of the States parties have not yet acceded to the United Nations Convention relating to the Status of Refugees and/or the 1967 Protocol. In Europe the 1959 Agreement on the Abolition of Visas for Refugees is of importance in facilitating the movement of refugees between States parties to the Agreement. Fourteen member States of the Council of Europe have become parties to this Agreement. There were no further accessions during the reporting period.
G. Dissemination of the principles of protection and of refugee law
67. The Office is aware that in addition to working closely with Governments in relation to international protection, efforts must also be made to create a generally favourable climate of opinion with regard to refugee law beyond government circles.
68. An important event in this regard was the Round Table of Asian Experts on the International Protection of Refugees and Displaced Persons which was held under UNHCR auspices in Manila from 14 to 18 April (see para. 13 above). Further activities in the field of promotion and dissemination of refugee law included co-operation with the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), the International Committee of the Red Cross and international academic institutions such as the International Institute of Humanitarian Law, at San Remo, the international Institute of Human Rights at Strasbourg and The Hague Academy of International Law. During the year, regular contact was also maintained and developed with non-governmental organizations active in refugee matters. With a view to advancing the teaching of refugee law in institutions of higher education throughout the world, during 1979 the Office made contact with the United Nations University in Tokyo and maintained close relations with a number of other national university centres. UNHCR also participated in a number of seminars on refugee law which were convened during the reporting period by non-governmental organizations.
CHAPTER II ASSISTANCE ACTIVITIES IN AFRICA
A. General developments
69. The continent of Africa remains the region of the world sheltering the greater part of all those persons of concern to UNHCR. Notwithstanding the critical situations which continue to face the Office in some areas of the continent, notably in the Horn of Africa, it is gratifying to be able to report that the period under review saw the satisfactory resolution, or beginnings to that end, of several refugee problems through voluntary repatriation. A change of regime in Equatorial Guinea brought about a climate in that country favourable for the return of tens of thousands of persons who had sought refuge elsewhere, and whilst events in Uganda in mid-1979 resulted in an exodus at that time, the following months saw a return movement, mainly from Kenya, Sudan and the United Republic of Tanzania. In addition the UNHCR operation to assist with the voluntary repatriation and reintegration of Zairian refugees wishing to benefit from the amnesty decreed by President Mobutu in 1978 continued, for the benefit of some 190,000 persons.
70. At the end of 1979, agreement was reached at the Lancaster House Constitutional Conference in London on measures leading to independence for Southern Rhodesia as the new State of Zimbabwe. In the first two months of 1980 UNHCR carried out the first, pre-election phase of an operation to facilitate the voluntary return to that country of some 220,000 persons from Botswana, Mozambique and Zambia, and thus assist with relieving these three countries of a very significant burden on their national resources. At the request of the new Government of Zimbabwe, UNHCR was also designated to co-ordinate, for an initial period, a United Nations humanitarian assistance programme inside the country for the returnees and those displaced as a result of the years of conflict.
71. In the region of the Horn of Africa, the programmes of humanitarian assistance instituted in 1978 for the hundreds of thousands of refugees and displaced persons in Djibouti, Ethiopia and Somalia continued throughout the period under review. In December 1979, a United Nations interagency mission visited Somalia to assess the precarious situation of refugees in camps there, following which, in February 1980, the Secretary-General of the United Nations drew the attention of Governments to the findings and requested UNHCR to co-ordinate contributions made available against the over-all requirements. The High Commissioner's own particular concern at the dimension and nature of the refugee problems in the three countries mentioned above as well as in the Sudan, where there remained large numbers of Ethiopians, led him to appoint a Special Co-ordinator for the area from among his staff.
72. Other sizable groups of refugees to whom UNHCR continued to provide assistance under the General Programmes included Angolan refugees in Zaire, refugees from Burundi in the United Republic of Tanzania, Rwandese in Uganda and Zairians remaining in Angola. Namibian refugees in various countries of southern Africa continued to receive attention, as did refugee students from South Africa. In pursuance of the relevant resolutions of the General Assembly, UNHCR, as in the past, channelled certain measures of assistance to refugees from colonial territories through national liberation movements recognized by the Organization of African Unity.
73. A very significant event which took place in 1979 was the Conference on the Situation of Refugees in Africa which was held at Arusha, United Republic of Tanzania, in the month of May, under the joint sponsorship of the Economic Commission for Africa (ECA), the OAU and UNHCR. The recommendations made by the Conference were subsequently endorsed by the Council of Ministers of the Organization of African Unity and by the Assembly of Heads of State and Government of that Organization. In its turn the General Assembly of the United Nations, at its thirty-fourth session, adopted resolution 34/61 on the situation of African refugees which, inter alia., fully endorses these same recommendations and calls upon the High Commissioner to report to the General Assembly at its thirty-fifth session on the contributions made by his Office towards the implementation thereof. As indicated in the introduction to this report, the High Commissioner will comply with this request by means of a report to the thirty-first session of the Executive Committee of the High Commissioner's Programme to be held in October 1980 and the Committee's own report of that session. In January 1980, the High Commissioner convened a meeting of Permanent Representatives in Geneva of African States to exchange views on developments in refugee situations in Africa of concern to him and on the evolution of the relevant programmes.
74. Obligations in Africa in 1979 totalled over $43.7 million under UNHCR's General Programmes, and some $28 million under Special Programmes, as indicated in table 1 of annex II. As in past years, the greater part of the total amount (over $54 million) was for assistance towards local settlement. In addition nearly $2.2 million were made available from the Refugee Education Account and an amount of $250,000 was provided from the United Nations Trust Fund for South Africa for assistance to individual refugees.
B. Main developments in various countries or areas
75. Official government statistics put the number of refugees in Angola at the end of 1979 at 56,000, consisting of 20,000 Zairians, 35,000 Namibians and 1,000 South Africans. The reduction in the number of Zairian refugees resulted from a continuation and completion of the voluntary repatriation movement begun in 1978 as a result of an amnesty measure promulgated by the President of Zaire. The Zairians remaining in Angola who have chosen not to return to their native land will be settled in the provinces of Luanda, Malange, Kwanza Norte and Kwanza Sul, with a view to their achieving self-sufficiency in agriculture.
76. An amount of $1.5 million was obligated in 1979 under the UNHCR programme of assistance to Namibians in Angola, implemented through the South West Africa People's Organization (SWAPO), to provide them with shelter, domestic articles, food-stuffs, medicaments, clothing and agricultural tools. The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) and the World Health Organization (WHO) also made significant additional contributions, as did the World Food Programme (WFP). All the different agencies of the United Nations system represented in Luanda maintained close contact to ensure the best possible co-ordination of effort.
77. In March 1979, the Government of Angola requested assistance for former refugees returning voluntarily from Zaire. At that time an initial group of 50,000 had returned by their own means. UNHCR obligated an amount of $1,710,500 in favour of their immediate needs and for the purchase of agricultural tools, seeds, water supply equipment and educational equipment. WFP granted food aid worth some $860,000 over a five-month period. Negotiations are currently taking place between the Governments of Angola and Zaire concerning the possibility of an organized large-scale movement, in close co-operation with UNHCR, of those Angolan refugees still in Zaire who wish to return voluntarily to their homeland. In this connexion, UNHCR/WFP/WHO interagency missions have already made some preliminary assessments of eventual requirements inside Angola.
78. As stated in the High Commissioner's last report (E/19'T9/95) UNHCR assisted 1,100 Angolans to return from Portugal in the early part of 1979, and an additional 3,000 persons returned from Zambia, also with the assistance of UNHCR.
79. A total amount of $2,926,000 was obligated for assistance in Angola during 1979 under General Programmes, and an amount of $2,109,900 under Special Programmes, including over $315,700 made available from the Trust Fund for South Africa.
80. While it was estimated towards the end of 1978 that approximately 12,500 refugees from Ethiopia were living in the two camps of Ali Sabieh and Dikhil situated in the southern part of the country, the numbers increased to some 14,500 during the latter part of 1979 according to government sources. These same sources estimated that 13,735 urban refugees were living in Djibouti town at the end of 1979, and that the total number of refugees in the country was 28,800.
81. UNHCR provided regular food rations for refugees living in the camps to complement the basic items supplied by WFP, as well as soap and domestic utensils. Other items, including food, tents and blankets, were made available by voluntary agencies. Under a project started in 1978, five water basins were completed in Ali Sabieh in 1979. A prefabricated medical ward was constructed there, and work on the construction of 500 dwellings, begun in 1978, continued, as did work on a further 500 dwellings at Dikhil under the same project. At Ali Sabieh funds were obligated for the construction of a nutritional centre, and in both camps improvements were made to the water and electricity supply. A provision was made for primary education. The French associations, Volontaires du progrès and Médecins sans Frontières, continued to provide protect supervisors and medical personnel in the two camps.
82. In agriculture, the pilot project for irrigated farming which was initiated in 1978 progressed well in 1979. Twelve refugee families and an equal number of nationals participated.
83. Opportunities for the local integration of urban refugees in Djibouti town remained extremely scarce throughout the reporting period. A handful of individuals only were resettled, some 280 students were accepted in the educational systems of other countries, including 260 in Egypt, and a few students were accepted in secondary and technical schools in Djibouti town.
84. At the Government's request, and to relieve the pressures created in Djibouti town by the size of the refugee population there, UNHCR planned the construction of a transit/reception centre at Ali Sabieh for up to 500 young urban refugees. It is intended that some training will be provided at this centre, with a view to improving chances of resettlement.
85. Funds were also made available in 1979 for the purchase of a prefabricated building to be used by a legal service established within the Government in order to facilitate the procedures for the determination of refugee status in Djibouti. The project is planned for completion in 1980.
86. Total obligations in Djibouti in 1979 amounted to $1,379,400 under the General Programmes and to $656,100 under Special Programmes, including an amount of $250,740 provided from funds received in response to the High Commissioner's 1978 appeal in respect of humanitarian assistance in the region of the Horn of Africa.
87. The refugee population in Egypt in 1979 remained in the region of 5,000 persons. Of the assistance provided by UNHCR under the General Programmes, something approaching half the total expenditures was in the field of lower secondary education for the benefit of 264 refugee students, mainly Africans, and a further 25 per cent of the expenditures were directed at local integration measures. Some 600 refugees, mostly of Ethiopian and Armenian origin, benefited in this area, where the aim was to provide regular financial support as well as assistance towards primary education and vocational training, and to safeguard the health of the elderly and others who were in need of proper nourishment or special care. In addition, 55 persons were assisted to resettle in other countries, counselling activities benefited over 1,000 persons and some 600 persons were provided with supplementary assistance. Total obligations in 1979 under the General Programmes amounted to $556,000.
88. Obligations under Special Programmes amounted to some $479,200, of which $381,700 were allocated from the Education Account for the benefit of 215 refugee students attending secondary or other higher educational establishments. Further educational assistance was provided for Ethiopian refugees from Djibouti under the programme of assistance for refugees from the region of the Horn of Africa. Three donors provided funds to pay allowances to aged and handicapped Armenian refugees, and a small amount was made available from the United Nations Trust Fund for South Africa to refugees from that country.
89. During the reporting period the estimated number of refugees in Ethiopia remained at around 10,900, the majority of Sudanese origin. Refugees from southern Sudan had settled in the Gambela area and a group from northern Sudan in the Gondar region. A small number of refugees of other origins reside in Addis Ababa and other urban areas.
90. A small-scale industrial project, on which a number of refugees in the Addis Ababa area could be engaged, has been designed with the assistance of the International Labour Organization (ILO) and the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), and financing is under study. In addition, a number of urban refugees have undertaken retraining measures with a view to improving their employment prospects. Efforts continue to be made to identify durable solutions for the refugees in the rural areas.
91. In March 1980 the Government estimated at 750,000 the number of persons displaced in Ethiopia as a result of the conflict in the Ogaden region. The special Programme of humanitarian assistance, begun in 1970 to cater for the most needy of these persons, continued in 1979 and 1980. By the end of September 1979. the Relief and Rehabilitation Commission (RRC) under the Ethiopian Government was supervising 287 rural settlements in Bale province and 23 in Sidamo. UNHCR has provided basic domestic requirements and has instituted programmes to assist in the achievement of self-, sufficiency in agriculture. Food requirements are being covered largely by WFP and the European Economic Community, and by bilateral arrangements.
92. In addition, under this special programme, UNHCR is providing funds for the reconstruction of communal facilities, including schools and clinics, for the improvement of water supply systems, and for assistance towards the reconstruction of private dwellings on a self-help basis.
93. UNHCR obligated a total of $325,200 for assistance in Ethiopia in 1979 under the General Programmes, and $2,580,100 under Special Programmes, including an amount of $9,000 made available from the United Nations Trust Fund for South Africa.
94. Events in Uganda in 1979 led to an influx of some 4,000 nationals of that country into Kenya, many of whom repatriated later in the year. Other new arrivals numbered some 400, mainly of Ethiopian and Rwandese origin. The total number of refugees in Kenya at the end of the year was some 700 less than at the end of the previous year, at an estimated level of 5,800 persons comprising some 3,500 Ugandans and approximately 1,000 Ethiopians, with the remaining caseload mainly from Mozambique and Rwanda. Of the total number of Ugandan refugees some 1,400 persons had repatriated by the end of 1979 with the assistance of UNHCR.
95. Most of the refugees in Kenya live in and around the main urban areas. Assistance provided in 1979 included various measures designed to facilitate local integration - amongst them the offer of salary subsidies to encourage prospective employers to hire refugees - as well as monthly subsidies towards accommodation, clothing, transport and medical expenses, and financial assistance for education and vocational training within the national system.
96. The centre for the reception of asylum-seekers at Thika, near Nairobi, constructed to accommodate 140 persons, could not be brought into operation in 1979 for technical reasons. However, it is expected to become operational in 1900 and will also serve refugees in transit through Kenya.
97. Work on the establishment of the projected rural settlement at Witu, on land provided by the Kenyan Government, mentioned in the last annual report,14 has continued, and it is envisaged that the population of around 2,000 persons, of different origins, will be installed in 1980 with a view to their achieving self-sufficiency in agriculture.
98. For the implementation of its programmes in Kenya, UNHCR benefits from the co-operation of government services, UNICEF, and voluntary agencies including the Joint Refugee Services of Kenya, the All African Conference of Churches, the Kenya Red Cross and the League of Red Cross Societies.
99. A total of $2,065,900 was obligated during 1979 to finance project in Kenya, including $1,360,200 under General Programmes, notably for supplementary aid and local integration measures. An allocation of $66,000 was made from the Emergency Fund in response to the immediate needs of refugees arriving from Uganda. Obligations under Special Programmes amounted to $705,700, of which $454,221 were made available from the Education Account.
100. During 1979 Mozambique provided refuge for a growing number of Zimbabwean refugees. From a level of 100,000 at the beginning of the year, the caseload increased to 150,000 by the end of 1979. The majority of the refugees were placed in five large rural settlements sponsored by UNHCR - Doroi, Tronga, Mavudzi, Matenge and Memo - while a number of people were living in spontaneous settlements among the indigenous population.
101. UNHCR also assisted a smaller number of individual refugees from various countries, including South Africa, who were staying in Mozambique or were in transit, and contributed towards the costs of a Government-run reception centre in Maputo where many of these persons stayed. The Government continued to be the sole implementing agency for all UNHCR projects in Mozambique.
102. In the course of 1979 the assistance to refugees was disrupted by various factors. In the first place the settlements suffered harassment by Southern Rhodesian forces, and in addition floods on the one hand damaged access roads, causing vehicles to break down and disrupting the transportation of materials, and a severe drought on the other hand affected the agriculture programme, which, together with the raising of livestock, remained the principal activity of the refugees, who were thus able to pursue their past occupations.
103. For security reasons, the largest of the settlements, Doroi and Tronga, were divided into smaller units, each with its own service compound. This move entailed additional construction.
104. At the beginning of 1980, in the first phase of a voluntary repatriation operation which took place before elections in Southern Rhodesia towards the end of February, UNHCR assisted approximately 11: 000 Zimbabweans to return to their homeland from Mozambique. However, in view of the enormousness of the reconstruction task facing the new Government of Zimbabwe, it is expected that the UNHCR programmes for Zimbabweans in Mozambique will be needed for some time yet. This is particularly the case for orphans and unaccompanied children, and other vulnerable groups. Special attention has been focused on the welfare of refugee children in order to protect them from the stresses of their environment and the effects of prolonged idleness. Arrangements have been made for sporting activities and for formal education, and a home for children under five years of age is being established in Nampula province.
105. The World Food Programme (WFP) continued to carry the main burden of providing the refugees in Mozambique with staple foods. Further food shipments were provided by the European Economic Community and the Government of the United States of America. Supplementary and enriched food programmes for children and mothers were provided from UNHCR funds and by other donors.
106. Obligations under General Programmes in 1979 for programmes in Mozambique amounted to $11,587,4000 of which $4.4 million were for assistance to refugees in settlements. Under Special Programmes $1,929,600 were obligated, including $20,000 for assistance to South African refugees for the period July-1979 to June 1980 made available from the United Nations Trust Fund for South Africa.
107. Large numbers of people continued to arrive in Somalia in the course of 1979 from the neighbouring regions of Ethiopia. At the end of the year the Government estimated the total number of refugees in the country at 1,175,000, of whom 475,000 were in camps, 700,000 living among the local population, and others continuing their traditional nomadic life. The majority of the refugees in camps were women and children, and many of the men were elderly, ill or handicapped.
108. As a result of the continuing influx, the UNHCR programme of assistance in the country had to be revised upwards several times in 1979, with a substantial part of the programme concentrated on the immediate relief requirements in the camps. Funds were also provided for transportation, improvement of water supply systems, educational purposes and the extension of small-scale agricultural projects.
109. In addition, assistance was granted to an increasing number of urban refugees living mainly in Mogadishu.
110. With the increase in camp population reaching an average of 1,500 persons per day in the last quarter of 1979, a multidisciplinary United Nations interagency mission, initiated by the Secretary-General, went to Somalia in December 1979. It was composed of representatives of the Secretary-General, UNICEF, UNDP, UNHCR, WFP, ILO, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), UNESCO, WHO and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (World Bank). On the basis of an estimated average of 640,000 refugees in camps in 1930, the mission concluded that, in addition to over 83,400 tons of food commodities, various immediate relief measures totalling some $40.7 million would be required for the camps in 1980. The High Commissioner addressed an appeal to the international community on 4 March 1980 for contributions towards the requirements.
111. In its activities in Somalia, UNHCR has worked closely with the Office of the National Commissioner for Refugees, and has received valuable support from a number of voluntary agencies, including the Somali Red Crescent Society, Oxfam, Médecins sans Frontières, the Catholic Institute for International Relations and the Federazione di Organismi Christiani di Servizio Internazionale Volontario.
112. Total obligations in Somalia in 1979 amounted to $4,569,200 under the General Programme and $2,729,300 under Special Programmes.
8. Southern Africa (Botswana, Lesotho, Swaziland)
113. In 1977, the Secretary-General appointed the High Commissioner as coordinator within the United Nations system of assistance to South African refugee students. The programme of assistance for such refugees in Botswana Lesotho and Swaziland formed the basis of an appeal issued in June 1977 which was also designed to meet the over-all needs of southern African refugees in various African countries. The High Commissioner continues to fulfil this co-ordinating role.
114. The number of refugees in Botswana at the end of 1979 was 23,327, mostly Zimbabweans (22,531), with the remainder of Angolan, Namibian, South African and other origins. The total represented an increase of some 4,700 over the previous year.
115. In Lesotho, the total number of registered refugees was 503 at the end of 1979, of whom 365 had arrived in the course of the year. Other persons awaiting determination of their status by the Government are also assisted by UNHCR, and in addition the authorities estimate that refugee students, who are not formally registered, occupy a considerable number of places in primary and secondary schools and at universities.
116. In Swaziland the registered refugee population at the end of 1979 was 5,047, of whom 359 were new refugees, mostly South Africans.
117. UNHCR action to assist refugee students was included in the Secretary-General's report on assistance to South African refugee students which he made to the General Assembly at its thirty-fourth session (A/34/345). In Botswana, most of the refugees stayed at the transit centres at Francistown and Selebi-Pikwe, and at the agricultural settlement established at Dukwe in 1978. This latter settlement, which accommodated over 11,500 persons at the end of 1979, provided for some easing of the congestion in the transit centres, from which 3,000 refugees were also transferred to Zambia in the course of the year. Work on establishing Dukwe was largely completed in 1979, but agricultural activity was hampered by poor rainfall.
118. At the beginning of 1980, in the first phase of a voluntary repatriation operation which took place before elections in Southern Rhodesia towards the end of February, UNHCR assisted 18,203 Zimbabwean refugees to return to their country of origin. These departures enabled the transit centres at Francistown and Selebi-Pikwe to be closed and reduced the caseload of Zimbabweans in the Dukwe settlement to a negligible number. The Government decided that continued use would be made of Dukwe, to accommodate mainly South African refugees from urban areas of Botswana.
119. As regards assistance to individual refugees, 20 schemes were financed in 1979 to promote local integration and almost 50 were under consideration. Social counselling was undertaken by the Botswana Council for Refugees. The Educational Resource Centre at Gaborone, run by the Mennonite Central Committee, continued to provide correspondence courses and tuition at the lower secondary level, and 139 students of various nationalities found places at university and in other educational establishments in the national system. Of these, 71 were placed as part of an agreement under which UNHCR is financing the construction of two secondary schools. Over 250 southern African refugees travelled to other countries in Africa, to the Federal Republic of Germany and to the United States to continue their studies.
120. In Lesotho, the UNHCR programme focusing on educational facilities at the secondary and technical levels, and which is aimed at encouraging the authorities to continue their liberal admissions Policy towards South African refugee students, has continued. The construction of 18 additional classrooms, 5 laboratories and staff accommodation began in June 1979. In addition, funds were obligated towards the construction and equipping of three workshops and staff offices for tailoring, dressmaking and upholstery courses at the Lesotho Technical Institute. A further amount was obligated towards the construction of a transit centre for South African refugees, at Maseru. Counselling was provided for some 500 refugees by the newly-formed Refugee Counselling Service.
121. In Swaziland, plans are under preparation for determining the feasibility of establishing a rural settlement for some 3,000 South African refugees in the south-eastern region of the country. In the education field, the Mpaka Refugee Centre opened in May 1979 with 120 pupils (the Centre offers 200 places), of whom. 33 were South African refugees. Individual refugees benefited from counselling services and 138 refugees were assisted with travel expenses for resettlement in other countries.
122. A total of $5,576,400 was obligated by UNHCR in Botswana ($4,359,900), Lesotho ($610,600) and Swaziland ($605,900): $5,045,400 under General Programmes and $531,000 under Special Programmes. Of the total amount,, $136,000 were made available from the United nations Trust Fund for South Africa.
123. Refugees continued to enter the Sudan in large numbers in 1979. In the south refugees arrived from Uganda, in the east from Ethiopia, and in the west, though to a lesser extent, from Chad. The total number of refugees was estimated at 350,000 at the end of 1979. Official figures released in March 1980 put the caseload at 441,000 refugees in the country, comprising 390,000 from Ethiopia, 39,000 from Uganda, 5,000 from Zaire and 7,000 from Chad. While few refugees left the country to be reunited permanently with their families elsewhere, some 7,000 refugees left on a temporary basis for other countries where they had found employment. In the course of the year emergency programmes were instituted as a result of a sudden influx of 20,000 refugees from Ethiopia into the Red Sea province and also following the arrival of some 35,000 refugees from Uganda in the southern part of the country. These programmes included the opening of sub offices in Port Sudan and Juba.
124. Of the 10,000 Ethiopian refugees in the temporary camp in Was-el-Hileiwu, some 12,000 were moved to the established rural settlements at Abu Rakham, Um Gargu, Karkora, Oala-en-Nahal and Suki. In addition, 6,000 rural refugees were accommodated in new settlements at Khasm-el-Ghirba and New Halfa. By the end of 1979 the total number of refugees in rural settlements throughout the country had reached 42,000. Under the programmes for 1980, it is planned that up to 100,000 refugees can be accommodated by the end of the year.
125. From the appropriation for multipurpose assistance to Ugandan refugees, 185 persons were assisted in voluntary repatriation, resettlement, local settlement and were provided with supplementary aid. Moreover, 25,000 Ugandans were provided with assistance in the form of shelter, agricultural implements, medicaments and other measures to satisfy immediate requirements.
126. Just over 100 refugees received assistance to repatriate to Zaire and Ethiopia.
127. Other assistance provided included supplementary aid, medical assistance for handicapped cases, counselling, and educational assistance to some 2,500 refugees at the secondary and higher levels.
128. Obligations in the Sudan in 1979 under the General Programmes amounted to $3,891,100 including $683,000 made available from the Emergency Fund, and under the Special Programmes to $838,300.
129. Although the number of refugees in Uganda at the end of 1979 remained unchanged, at around 112,400, from the previous year, the events occurring in the country in the course of the year caused disruption to the organized rural settlements, some of which were destroyed, and to those refugees living in urban areas. Of the total caseload some 78,000 persons were of Rwandese origin, 34,000 Zairian and the remaining 400 of various origins. Prior to the events of 1979 about $42,000 refugees, mainly Rwandese, lived in eight rural settlements and were self-sufficient. Most of the remaining refugees lived in urban areas and were well integrated socially and economically.
130. Following a request to the Secretary-General of the United Nations by the new Government of Uganda in May 1979, the High Commissioner issued an appeal in July 1979 for an amount of some $13.3 million in respect of a programme to provide immediate assistance to displaced refugees and Ugandans within the country., and to Ugandan refugees outside the country wishing to repatriate. Of this latter category about 4,000 persons have so far returned to Uganda with UNHCR assistance since the beginning of the operation, mainly from Kenya, the United Republic of Tanzania and the Sudan. Several thousand persons in addition have returned by their own means. An agreement has been concluded with the Government of Uganda for the period to 31 December 1980 which should facilitate implementation of the over-all programme, to the extent that the international community makes available the necessary funds.
131. Apart from the additional activities undertaken in Uganda as a result of the particular humanitarian needs arising in 1979, UNHCR also pursued existing programmes relating to local integration, education, supplementary aid and, to a limited extent, resettlement and repatriation. South African refugees were assisted under the United Nations Trust Fund for South Africa.
132. Total obligations in Uganda during 1979 amounted to $1,575,300 under General Programmes, including $300,000 made available from the Emergency Fund in favour of displaced refugees inside the country and $2,477,400 under Special Programmes.
11. United Republic of Tanzania
133. The number of 160,000 refugees of concern to UNHCR in the United 'Republic of Tanzania at the beginning of 1979 was reduced during the year by the voluntary repatriation of some 4,000 Ugandan refugees to their country of origin. The remaining 156,000 included some 129,500 refugees from Burundi, 26,000 Rwandese and small groups of various other origins.
134. Most of the refugees from Burundi were accommodated in the three rural settlements of Katumba (over 69,000 persons), Ulyankulu (over 23,000 persons) and Mishamo (nearly 27,000 persons) at the end of 1979. Of these three settlements, Katumba had been handed over to the Government in mid-1978, and progress on work at Ulyankulu, which is being reorganized from 13 villages to 11, is advancing to the extent that it is expected to be handed over on schedule in June 1980. At Mishamo, established in 1973., good progress was also made in 1979, mainly due to the application of the principle of self-help in clearing, tilling and sowing seed and in the construction of homes and communal facilities. The land for the settlements at Ulyankulu and Mishamo was made available by the Government, which also has administrative support services on site. The Lutheran World Federation/Tanganyika Christian Refugee Service has provided financial assistance and contributions in kind.
135. In the early part of 1979 funds were obligated for the completion of the community education Centre and the water supply scheme at the Kigwa settlement, where 2,000 refugees from Uganda were accommodated. However, events occurring in Uganda later in the year Lave rise to the voluntary repatriation of Ugandans, with the result that the caseload there was drastically reduced. Consultations were begun with the Government concerning the future use of the settlement facilities.
136. In addition to the programmes relating to the settlements, UNHCR also provided assistance to individual refugees of various origins, including southern African refugee students. Fields covered included local integration, supplementary aid, education, counselling, resettlement and repatriation. In education and agriculture funds were made available., inter alia., towards the operation of an African National Congress vocational training school/community Centre and also for the expansion of a farm project under the auspices of the Patriotic Front/Zimbabwe African National Union. Unforeseen circumstances delayed the completion of the secondary school project at Tunduru, financed from trust funds made available to UNHCR. Construction work continued into 1980.
137. Total UNHCR obligations in the United Republic of Tanzania in 1979 under the General Programmes amounted to $3,668,500 including $3,666,250 for local integration measures (rural settlements and individuals), and to $472,800 under the Special Programmes.
138. The total number of refugees in Zaire was estimated to be around 299,000 at the end of 1979, with some 215,000 Angolans in the Bas-Zaire, Kinshasa, Bandundu and Shaba regions, 50,000 Ugandans in the Upper Zaire and Kivu regions, 11,000 Burundi and 22,000 Rwandese in the Kivu region, and 1,000 Zambians in the Shaba region. Some 190,000 Zairians in the Shaba and Kivu regions, former refugees who had returned under the voluntary repatriation operation begun in 1978, were also assisted under the Special Programmes.
139. In the Bas-Fleuve subregion of Bas-Zaire, the rural settlement programme implemented since 1977 by the Association Internationale de développement rural (AIDR) continued to progress satisfactorily. The number of Angolan refugees in the three rural settlements Kinbianga, Lundu Matende and Mfuiki increased from some 25,000 at the end of 1978 to 26,633 refugees (4,908 families) at the end of 1979. A programme for a further period from July 1979 to the end of 1981 was drawn up with AIDR in 1979.
140. In the field of agriculture the targets set have been on the whole reached, but irregular and insufficient rainfall in 1979 has jeopardized the prospects for the current growing season.
141. Food aid continued through 1979 in the Bas-Fleuve not only in the above settlements but also outside them. Blankets and soap were also distributed, as well as used clothing donated by the Danish Refugee Council. In the field of medicine emphasis has been placed on preventive programmes, in particular for mothers and children, and on health education.
142. The primary education programme continued during 1979 with some 6,193 pupils attending school.
143. In the Cataractes subregion of Bas-Zaire a programme to assist the spontaneous integration of Angolan refugees was begun in 1979. Under this programme some 3,000 houses were provided, and food aid (from WFP and Governments), blankets, agricultural tools and domestic utensils were distributed by a team of Swiss volunteers. Seeds and cuttings were distributed to some 60,000 beneficiaries.
144. A programme of education in nutrition and hygiene was undertaken by two doctors from Médecins sans Frontières and one provided by the Swiss authorities, and in the field of primary education existing schools had sufficient capacity for some 15,000 refugee schoolchildren.
145. In the Upper Zaire and the Kivu regions an influx of some 50,000 Ugandan refugees took place in April/May 1979. A relief operation undertaken with an allocation from the Emergency Fund was followed by a local integration programme, continuing into 1980, providing for the purchase of basic assistance commodities, seeds, kitchen utensils, medicaments, and for medical treatment.
146. The rural settlement and local integration projects in favour of Burundi refugees in South Kivu were successfully completed at the end of 1979 with the beneficiaries achieving self-sufficiency.
147. Of the some 190,000 Zairians who returned to the country under the terms of the amnesty decreed by the President in 1973, and for whom UNHCR provided assistance for repatriation and reintegration, the majority (around 155,000) were in the Shaba province. The material assistance provided to these persons by UNHCR in 197.0 was valued at more than $8 million in case and in kind. In addition WFP made available approximately 12,000 metric tons of food-stuffs. At the request of the Government of Zaire the High Commissioner agreed to extend this programme to the end of June 1980 to overcome the effect of certain delays in implementation. UNHCR is also studying, together with Médecins sans Frontières, means of maintaining a medical presence beyond this date limit.
148. Under a repatriation project in favour of Angolan refugees in Zaire, 411 refugees were transported by air from Kinshasa to Luanda. This project has been extended into 1930 to continue the repatriation of small groups of Angolans pending the possible repatriation of larger numbers.
149. Total obligations in Zaire in 1979 amounted to $6.273,200 under the General Programmes and $19,276,900 under the Special Programmes.
150. The number of refugees in Zambia, estimated at some 80,000 at the end of 1978, decreased considerably towards the end of 1979 owing to the voluntary and spontaneous repatriation of some 20,000 Zimbabweans, as well as smaller numbers of Angolans and Zairians. At the end of the year, the number of refugees in the country was estimate at 57,000 comprising 25,000 Zimbabweans, 26,000 Angolans, 5,500 Namibians and smaller groups from various other countries.
151. During 1979 the provision of assistance was hampered by the continuation of raids by Southern Rhodesian forces which resulted in the destruction of roads, railways and bridges and the consequent disruption of transportation of supplies and equipment. The problems were compounded by shortages, particularly of building Materials and price increases.
152. In view of the limited scope for durable solutions to the refugees' problems, multipurpose assistance was the major form of assistance in Zambia in 1979. A total of $5 223,001 was obligated for assistance to Zimbabweans and Namibians as well as to small numbers from other countries.
153. The largest single amount, $1,447,515, was obligated for the third phase of the Zimbabwe African People's Union (ZAPU) girls' school complex near Lusaka which was initiated in 1977. Due to the increase in the number of refugee girls and women from 3,000 to some 8,000 by August 1979, the facilities were expanded to more than double their initial size. Funds were also obligated in respect of furniture for 60 classrooms. A further sum of nearly $700,000 was obligated for the purchase of immediate needs for refugee babies and mothers. Assistance to some 12,000 young Zimbabwean boys, temporarily accommodated in a centre in the North - Western Province of Zambia, was provided at a cost of well over $1 million. A land survey was carried out and plans were finalized towards the end of the year for the creation of a complex for the boys, consisting of six villages, schools and other facilities. No further action was taken with regard to the actual implementation in view of the possible future voluntary repatriation of these young Zimbabweans as a result of the agreement reached at the Lancaster House Conference in London concerning an independent Zimbabwe. In early 1979 funds were obligated for emergency food and other supplies following Southern Rhodesian air-raids on refugee centres in Zambia. Other forms of assistance to Zimbabwean refugees included the provision of tools, equipment and supplies for farm programmes.
154. Multipurpose assistance for voluntary repatriation, for costs of documentation and transportation relating to family reunification and resettlement cases and for subsistence was also provided for individual refugees or small groups.
155. In addition, assistance was provided, as in the past, for the SWAPO Health and Education Centre at Nyango for Namibian refugees, the African National Congress farms near Lusaka for South African refugees, and under the United Nations Trust Fund for South Africa.
156. At the beginning of 1930 UNHCR undertook the first, pre-election, phase of a mass voluntary repatriation operation in favour of Zimbabwean refugees (see sections on Zimbabwe, southern Africa and Mozambique). By the end of this phase nearly 5,300 Zimbabweans had repatriated, including those repatriated by ZAPU.
157. The rural settlement at Meheba, which houses approximately 10,000 refugees, predominantly Angolans but some Zairians, is the only UNHCR assisted settlement in Zambia, and is administered under a tripartite with the Government and the Lutheran World Federation/Zambian Christian Refugee Service. Progress continued throughout the period under review, both on the work of completing the infrastructure and in implementing self-sufficiency project, (agriculture, livestock, carpentry, baking, sewing and milling co-operatives, domestic and child - care courses for the women). The settlement is expected to be ready for handing over to the Government in the course of 1981. Plans are being drawn up for a reorganization of the settlement into seven villages with a view to reviving a community spirit amongst the inhabitants and to encouraging them to take on increased responsibilities.
158. Approximately 220 refugee students benefited from assistance towards their education at various levels.
159. As in past years urban refugees continued to find employment Prospects limited, and so UNHCR assistance to these persons remained centred on care and maintenance, and counselling provided by the service offered jointly with the Christian Council of Zambia. Some work remained to be done to the transit centre at Makeni, on the outskirts of Lusaka furniture and equipment were required and the staffing and management was under discussion at the end of 1979.
160. Total UNHCR obligations in Zambia in 1979 under the General Programmes amounted to $5,585,900, and under Special Programmes to $833,700.
161. As a result of the agreement signed in December 1979, at the end of the Lancaster House Constitutional Conference in London, the United Kingdom Government assumed direct responsibility for the administration of Southern Rhodesia during an interim period leading to elections and the transfer of power to an independent Zimbabwe.
162. At the request of the United Kingdom Government, and with the agreement of the parties concerned, UNHCR undertook to co-ordinate a repatriation operation for the benefit of those Zimbabwean refugees (estimated at some 220,000) wishing to return to their homeland. The great majority of the refugees had been given asylum in Botswana, Mozambique and Zambia, where they were assisted by UNHCR. It had been agreed at Lancaster House that it was desirable that as many as possible should be able to return in order to exercise their franchise. The operation was therefore planned to take place in two phases, before the elections at the end of February 1980, and after, under the authority of the independent Government. The total cost of the operation was estimated at some $22 million, in respect of which the High Commissioner issued an appeal to the international community in January 1980. A UNHCR presence was established in Southern Rhodesia and additional staff members were deployed to Botswana, Mozambique and Zambia. During the first phase of the operation in January and February 1980, all Zimbabweans wishing to return from Botswana repatriated, 18,203 of whom did so under UNHCR auspices. From Mozambique and Zambia totals of 10,935 and 4,292 respectively were repatriated by UNHCR. In this phase of the operation UNHCR worked closely with the United Kingdom and. Local authorities, with the Governments of the asylum countries, with the Patriotic Front (Zimbabwe African National Union and ZAPU) and with voluntary agencies, including the Lutheran World Federation, which acted as the implementing partner in Botswana and Zambia, the International Committee of the Red Cross which provided medical tears at the reception centres, and the heads of denominations of the churches of Zimbabwe, on whose behalf Christian Care coordinated assistance to the repatriants after they left the reception centres. Total obligations for the first phase of the repatriation operation amounted to $11,150,000 at 31 March 1980. The second phase was begun on 24 April 1980.
163. At the end of March 1980, in accordance with a proposal made by the Prime Minister-designate of Zimbabwe, the Secretary-General of the United. Nations requested the High Commissioner to co-ordinate, for an initial period, a United Stations programme for the rehabilitation of returning refugees and displaced persons within Zimbabwe. A United Nations interagency team, led by UNHCR, travelled to Zimbabwe and, in consultation with the new Government, prepared a programme centring on the reinstallation needs for up to 660,000 returnees and internally displaced persons over a 12-month period to April 1981. These needs, including immediate assistance in settlement and agriculture, were valued at. $110 million. In addition, various food needs were estimated at 113,000 tonnes. On 13 April 1980, the High Commissioner appealed to the international community for resources to make it possible for the Government of Zimbabwe and the United Nations system to respond to these urgent needs.
15. Other countries in Africa
164. In other countries in Africa, mainly the central and western areas, there were approximately 137,000 refugees of concern to UNHCR at the end of 1979.
165. Following the change of regime in Equatorial Guinea in 1979, the new Government requested UNHCR to assist with the repatriation and rehabilitation of refugees returning voluntarily to their homeland. Total obligations under General and Special Programmes amounted to almost $1,886,720 of which an amount of $1,600.000 was made available under Special Programmes for assistance in the fields of agriculture, health, education and transportation. As a result of the spontaneous repatriation to spontaneous repatriation Equatorial Guinea from Gabon of some 30,000 persons the total caseload of refugees in Gabon had decreased to about 30,000 at the end of 1979. In the United Republic of Cameroon, the caseload of refugees decreased in a similar fashion, to an estimated total of 10,000 as a result of the voluntary repatriation of some 20,000 refugees who had entered the country from Equatorial Guinea. Total obligations in the United Republic amounted to $268,870 in 1979 under General Programmes, of which over one half was made available to provide educational assistance at the lower secondary level to 60 Namibian refugee students affiliated to SWAPO, and to $4,311 under Special Programmes. Savings made under the programmes prepared for the local integration in this country and in Gabon of refugees from Equatorial Guinea were reallocated towards repatriation costs. At the end of the reporting period the Government of the United Republic of Cameroon requested urgent assistance in the face of the arrival of an estimated 100,000 refugees from Chad. In April 1980 an allocation of $500,000 was made from the Emergency Fund.
166. In Senegal, where the estimated caseload remained at 5,000 in 1979, UNHCR continued to channel various forms of assistance through the National Committee for Aid to Refugees. Efforts included the search for employment and the provision of educational aid for young students. In various other countries in central and west Africa, refugees of concern to UNHCR continued to receive assistance administered by UNDP resident representatives.
167. In 1979 over $1,300,000 were obligated for educational assistance to refugees mainly southern Africans, in countries of west Africa, principally Nigeria, Ghana and Senegal.
168. The number of refugees in Burundi and Rwanda remained virtually unchanged in 1979, at 50,000 and 7,800 persons respectively. In Burundi. programmes established in previous years were pursued in both urban and rural sectors, and included counselling, training, educational assistance, repatriation and resettlement assistance, and rural settlements. In Rwanda multipurpose assistance, mainly in the form of supplementary aid, was provided to 563 individuals, and some 240 refugees were assisted at the secondary and higher levels of education. In addition, an amount of $60,000 was made available from trust funds for emergency assistance, including food.,, shelter and medical care, to persons uprooted by the events surrounding the change of government in Uganda. A donation in kind received for the same purpose was valued at $15,800. Obligations for the two countries in 1979 under the General and Special Programmes amounted to some $245,550 in Burundi and some $275,350 in Rwanda.
169. In Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia assistance provided by UNHCR continued to be mainly individual measures for aged refugees and refugee students. whose number remained at approximately 3,000. In addition, UNHCR continued to co-ordinate humanitarian assistance for the Sahrawis in the Tindouf area of Algeria, estimated by the Government of Algeria at approximately 50,000 persons.
170. Various other types of assistance, ranging from multi-purpose assistance to amounts made available for supplementary aid, repatriation and resettlement, were provided to refugees in 19 countries in Africa.
171. In Spring 1979, the Government of the Central African Republic requested UNHCR assistance in connexion with the arrival of some 1,000 refugees from Chad. By the end of the year $83,000 had been obligated from the Emergency Fund in response to this request.
172. A total amount of $4,667,200 was obligated in other countries of Africa in 1979 under both General and Special Programmes, including $689,400 in Nigeria, $441,600 in Senegal, $195,600 in Ghana, and $160,000 in Gabon.
CHARTER III ASSISTANCE ACTIVITIES IN THE AMERICAS
A. Latin America
173. During the first part of 1979 most of UNHCR assistance in the Latin American region was undertaken in favour of some 100,000 Nicaraguan refugees. This caseload decreased significantly with the voluntary repatriation of the great majority of them in the latter part of the year. The remaining caseload of refugees in the region comprised some $15,000 refugees of Latin American origin and 65,000 elderly refugees of European origin whose numbers, due to deaths and naturalization, continue to diminish.
174. UNHCR continued to maintain its representation in the area through three regional offices, in northern Latin America (Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua and Panama), north-western South America (Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Peru, Suriname and Venezuela) and southern Latin America (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay and Uruguay).
175. Despite the reduction in the overall caseload, new refugees did appear during the reporting period. In response to host Government requests UNHCR provided emergency material assistance followed by programmes designed to facilitate future local integration or resettlement. Most transportation in connexion with resettlement was, as in previous years, coordinated with the Intergovernmental Committee for European Migration (ICEM).
176. Several countries of the region offered only temporary asylum to refugees. In these cases, UNHCR acted to meet immediate needs and to assist refugees in taking advantage of resettlement opportunities as rapidly as possible. When local integration was possible, and pending resettlement, a range of legal, educational and social services was provided. Family reunification programmes were continued, and Indo-Chinese refugees were also resettled in two countries of the region.
177. In certain cases, long-term local integration measures continued to be necessary. The beneficiaries of this aid were mainly the refugees of European origin, spread throughout the region who, due to difficult economic conditions compounded by age and ill health, required UNHCR's assistance.
2. Northern Latin America
178. During the reporting period, countries of the region offered asylum to some 15,000 refugees from other South American countries and Haiti. Pending durable solutions within the area these refugees received care and maintenance and benefited from various types of assistance channelled through voluntary agencies and, in some cases, through UNDP resident representatives.
179. By far the biggest caseload comprised Nicaraguans who had fled their country of origin following the events of September 1978. During the first half of 1979, the bulk of UNHCR assistance was directed toward meeting the immediate needs of about, 100,000 Nicaraguans, mainly in Costa Rica and Honduras. While the change of regime in Nicaragua in July 1979 enabled the repatriation of large numbers of these people, leaving some 17,000 mainly in Costa Rica, it also occasioned the departure from Nicaragua of other.
180. UNHCR provided material assistance to Nicaraguan refugees in response to requests from the Governments concerned. Part of an allocation of $1.9 million for multi-purpose assistance enabled UNHCR to meet the immediate needs of refugees during the first half of 1979, and to facilitate their repatriation during the second half. Contributions in response to an appeal launched by the High Commissioner for humanitarian assistance for Nicaragua enabled UNHCR to provide for the purchase of agricultural equipment and for the purchase, transportation and distribution of food and medical supplies for the returnees. This assistance was channelled through two governmental bodies, the Institute Nicaragüanse de Reforma Agraria and the Comisión de Ayuda Hospitalaria and was extended mainly to the northern agricultural provinces of Nicaragua.
3. North-western South America
181. By the end of 1979, fewer than 20 Latin American refugees remained in Peru. These refugees were awaiting resettlement opportunities elsewhere, as Peru continues to maintain a policy of only accepting refugees in transit. As a result of the decreased number, the Comisión Ecuménica de Asistencia Social, an ad hoc organization which had been providing care and maintenance as well as training to this group of refugees, planned to wind up its activities in the course of 1980. The number of European refugees, most of them elderly, was estimated to be 850.
182. UNHCR continued to collaborate with local authorities in providing legal services, counselling, medical treatment to the handicapped refugees and language and vocational training pending resettlement-, ICEM assisted UNHCR in providing transportation for resettlement. In addition, UNHCR facilitated the voluntary repatriation of some 25 persons.
183. The decreasing caseload enabled further reduction of expenditures. A total of $US 233,800 was obligated under both General and Special Programmes, of which $65,787 were for supplementary aid.
(b) Other countries in north-western South America
184. The number of refugees of concern to UNHCR in other countries in north-western South America remained at approximately 21,000, mainly in Venezuela and Colombia. Due to new arrivals from the Caribbean, the number of Latin American refugees increased to some 8,000, while those of . European origin decreased to about 13,000.
185. During the reporting period, asylum seekers in Ecuador were gradually recognized as Convention refugees and allowed to remain in the country. Care and maintenance continued to be provided to refugees in the area pending durable solutions, and to elderly refugees of European origin. During the year,17 Nicaraguans were repatriated from Venezuela with UNHCR assistance.
186. Total expenditures for these countries amount to some $162,300.
4. Southern Latin America
187. The refugee population in Argentina continued to decline during this reporting period. Approximately 21,000 refugees of European origin and 5,000 of Latin American origin remain, representing a total decrease of about 3,000.
188. Aided by UNHCR, 556 persons repatriated, mainly to Chile, and 971 resettled in third countries, bringing to 10,324 the total number of refugees resettled with UNHCR assistance since September 1973. Most of the caseload awaiting resettlement as a durable solution have therefore been resettled. Local integration solutions also continued to be sought. Care and maintenance, counselling, training and legal assistance continued to be provided to refugees whose situations awaited durable solutions.
189. During the period under review the Government of Argentina offered to make resettlement opportunities available to 1,000 Indo-Chinese refugee families. By the end of 1979, 216 families comprising 941 persons had arrived in Argentina. UNHCR assistance in an amount of $US 43,495 financed the travel and related costs of the Argentine selection missions to South-East Asia; a further allocation of $828,700 provided for, inter alia, transportation, food, shelter and education of the Indo-Chinese refugees in Argentina.
190. Global obligations increased slightly to about $3.8 million, including amounts of $2 million for supplementary aid, $281,082 for resettlement assistance, $270,628 for repatriation and $388,500 for local integration.
191. As in previous years, UNHCR assistance in Chile was mainly directed towards reuniting Chilean nationals with refugee heads of family resettled abroad. In 1979, 197 cases of family reunion involving 471 persons were handled, leaving 208 cases (525 persons) pending.
192. The refugee population resident in Chile consists almost entirely of elderly refugees of European origin whose numbers further decreased to some 2,000 during the reporting period. These refugees, and others of Latin American origin, benefited from various forms of UNHCR assistance extended to them through such non-governmental organizations as the Fundación de Ayuda Social de las Iglesias Cristianas, the Instituto Católico Chileno de Migración, the Hebrew Immigrant Aid Society and the Tolstoy Foundation.
193. Total obligations for 1979 were $US 273,900, of which $120,000 were for resettlement.
(c) Other countries in southern Latin America
194. Benefiting from resettlement opportunities in third countries, over 600 refugees in the other countries of southern Latin America were resettled during the reporting period. The remaining refugee population is composed of some, 28,500 persons of European origin and about 350 Latin American refugees. In addition, 65 Indo-Chinese rescued at sea by a Brazilian vessel were settled in that country with UNHCR assistance.
195. The Latin American refugees, generally admitted in transit only, received care and maintenance as well as vocational training, legal aid and counselling while durable solutions to their situations were sought. The refugees of European origin, mainly composed of elderly persons, benefited from a variety of local integration measures including establishment of housing assistance, rehabilitation, monthly allowances and institutional care.
196. Total obligations for this area in 1979 were $633,911, of which $98,355 were for transportation of resettled refugees.
B. North America
197. UNHCR's co-operation with the Government of the United States of America was strengthened during the reporting period by the opening of a Liaison Office in Washington, D. C., while the Regional Office in New York continued to ensure close working relations between UNHCR and United Nations Headquarters. The Regional Office also continued to monitor refugee situations in the English-speaking countries of the Caribbean.
198. In Canada, co-operation with Government authorities at the federal and provincial levels was enhanced through the active role taken by the UNHCR Branch Office in Ottawa. It is to be noted that in 1979 contributions to UNHCR programmes were received from two Canadian provincial governments. In addition, a Standing Conference of Canadian Organizations concerned with refugees was constituted, with the support of the Branch Office, to co-ordinate the activities of various Canadian voluntary agencies.
199. Both Canada and the United States continued to provide a large number of resettlement opportunities to refugees and displaced persons from South-East Asia. During 1979 the United States accepted 110,452 such refugees, of whom 72,015 were "boat people", while Canada admitted a total 24,729 of whom 19,655 were "boat people". Both countries also continued to accept refugees from Latin America who could not be resettled in that region.
200. Total UNHCR obligations in the two countries in 1979 amounted to $93,674 for the United States and $64,1811 for Canada.
CHAPTER IV ASSISTANCE ACTIVITIES IN ASIA
A. General developments
201. The problem of refugees and displaced persons in Asia continued to be of major concern to the Office, with new and more acute situations developing, notably following the influx of Afghan refugees into Pakistan, and as regards the position of Kampucheans outside their country of origin.
202. The influx of refugees from Afghanistan into Pakistan began during the spring of 1979. By the end of the year the Government of Pakistan had registered more than 400,000 and, by early April 1980, their numbers were in excess of 700,000. A large proportion of the refugees are women and children, with a sizeable number of sick and elderly persons in addition.
203. During the period under review Kampucheans continued to leave their homeland for neighbouring countries, mainly Thailand. The situation in South-East Asia affecting the fate of Kampucheans remained fluid and complex, and there were important links between the different humanitarian programmes helping them. The relevant country sections in this chapter provide information on assistance measures made available by UNHCR to Kampucheans who had sought refuge in other countries of the region.
204. Resettlement efforts in favour of Indo-Chinese refugees were intensified during the period under review. A separate chapter on resettlement has been included in this report, giving overall statistical and other details on measures undertaken by UNHCR in conjunction with the countries concerned, intergovernmental bodies and voluntary agencies. The introduction of a common computerized system for the collection, recording and processing of biographical data on refugees was initiated in five centres in South-East Asia. The need for this tool in the interest of a speedy and effective resettlement process has been apparent for some time. In addition, the system is to provide tracing facilities and to assist in the exchange of information and bio-data on individual cases with other organizations and agencies collaborating with UNHCR in resettlement.
205. The Meeting on Refugees and Displaced Persons in South-East Asia convened by the Secretary-General of the United Nations on 20 to 21 July 1979 produced a number of tangible results that are reflected in the relevant country sections, especially in respect of added resettlement opportunities, increased pledges of financial support and practical offers for the establishment of refugee processing centres in the region. Several meetings were convened in Geneva, with governmental and non-governmental participation, as a sequel to this important conference. The purpose of these was to establish the basis for the rapid implementation of additional offers for resettlement, to study practical measures for the rescue of asylum seekers in distress at sea and to set up a standard co-ordination mechanism for the organization of assistance from various sources, while avoiding duplication of effort.
206. The end of 1979 signalled the final stages of a major operation to facilitate voluntary repatriation for the large number of persons who had entered Bangladesh in 1978 from the Arakan state of Burma.
207. Total obligations in Asia during 1979 were about $162.6 million, of which about $98.8 million were under General Programmes and $63.8 million under Special Programmes.
B. Main developments in various countries or areas
208. At the end of 1978 more than 36,000 persons had repatriated from the caseload of about 200,000 persons who had crossed the border from Burma to Bangladesh between March and July 1978. The repatriation rate increased rapidly during the first months of 1979. The last returnee crossed the border into Burma on 29 December 1979.
209. To facilitate this repatriation operation, the High Commissioner launched an appeal on 30 January 1979 for an amount of $5.5 million, of which the food component represented $3 million, to cover the cost for care and maintenance in Bangladesh and the repatriation itself. The main portion of the food component was supplied by WFP.
210. Some 10,000 tonnes of varied food packages were distributed to a steadily diminishing refugee population. Prescribed rations and some 10.5 million hot meals were served by the Bangladesh Red Cross Society for the supplementary feeding of vulnerable groups. With the added assistance of a voluntary agency team (Médecins sans frontiéres), the problem of malnutrition which had occurred the preceding year was brought under control during the early months of 1979.
211. Thirteen camps were established along the eastern part of the Chittagong Hill Tracts district on the Burmese border. These facilities were progressively dismantled in keeping with the reduction in the number of refugees due to repatriation. During the second half of 1979 only one camp was maintained.
212. Several voluntary agencies provided various measures of assistance including sizeable quantities of clothing for children and adults. The Government of Switzerland provided several teams of volunteers to help with the repatriation programme.
213. UNHCR provided for the hiring of buses, trucks and boats for the movement of refugees to Burma. Assistance also included the provision of funds for the employment of local non-governmental personnel and the establishment of office facilities. The refugees were provided with food for the journey back to their homes, as well as clothing items out of the stocks held by the Government.
214. The total expenditures made by UNHCR in respect of this repatriation programme by the end of 1979 amounted to $2,567,083. This figure does not include contributions in cash and kind made on a bilateral basis by various Governments and other agencies.
215. Also in 1979, at the request of the Governments of Pakistan and Bangladesh, and in co-operation with the International Committee of the Red Cross, UNHCR made available an amount of $4,03,285 to cover the costs of the airlift of 2,871 non-Bihari persons from Bangladesh to Pakistan. In addition, some 6,377 persons were transported by sea, on vessels provided by the two Governments.
216. The repatriation operation from Bangladesh to Burma was completed successfully by the end of 1979 (see section on Bangladesh above). The majority of the returnees are in three north-western frontier areas of the Arakan state. Because of the remote location, a series of logistical problems had to be solved to administer assistance towards the rehabilitation of these people in the most efficient way.
217. The High Commissioner launched an appeal on 30 January 1979 to the international community to finance a $7 million programme, including a substantial food component, which was geared to help the returnees attain self-sufficiency as early as possible, with strong emphasis on self-help projects. It is encouraging in this respect that the Government of Burma estimated that some of the returnee groups could reach the level of self-sufficiency by the middle of 1980.
218. During 1979, WFP started to provide some 11,783 tonnes of food-stuffs valued at $3,273,000 for the returnees. Deliveries continued in 1980.
219. To provide immediate shelter to the returnees, UNHCR obligated $110,000 for the construction of adequate reception camps and their extension. After this reception operation, the Government commenced its "return-to-the-village-of-origin" operation. Within this context, an amount of $520,000 was obligated to provide construction materials for more than 5,000 housing units. Other requirements for construction were met by the returnees themselves. However, UNHCR made available an amount of $70,1000 for the provision of water supply facilities for the three townships where the returnees were located, $50,000 for extension of two hospitals and reconstruction of rural health centres, and $65,000 for reconstruction of nursery and primary schools.
220. Other measures of assistance included the provision of immediate relief commodities, medicines, fishing equipment, livestock and agricultural tools.
221. To make the returnees economically self-sufficient as soon as possible, UNHCR placed special emphasis on the agricultural component of the programme and a total of $719,000 was obligated for this purpose.
222. Because of the momentum gained in the movement of the returnees, some immediate needs had to be responded to urgently. Supplementary food in the amount of $80,000 was distributed; 120,000 blankets valued at $260,000 and medicines valued at $50,000 were also provided.
223. The total obligations under this operation amounted to $3,109,100 in 1979.
224. As the last returnees crossed the border late in 1979, the Government of Burma requested that programmes which could not be implemented in 1979 be put into effect during the first part of 1980.
225. During 1978 and 1979, approximately 250,000 refugees crossed the Vietnamese border into China. About 100,000 have been integrated locally, another 100,000 are living in temporary quarters on state farms, and approximately 50,000 in other temporary camps. In addition, the Government has offered to resettle 10,000 Vietnamese refugees from countries of first asylum in South-East Asia.
226. UNHCR provided assistance towards the local integration of some 39,000 refugee farmers and 11,000 refugee fishermen, mainly for the purchase of medical equipment and the establishment of pig and chicken farms for the farmers, while funds were also obligated towards the purchase of timber for housing facilities for the fishermen as well as towards fishing equipment for them. Durable shelter was made available for the 100,000 refugees on state farms, with additional assistance measures for the resettlement of the Indo-Chinese refugees coming from countries of first asylum in South-East Asia.
227. Late in 1979, 2,552 Indo-Chinese refugees in Thailand opted for permanent resettlement in China and were transported by the General Administration of Civil Aviation of China to Quangzhou for onward transportation to Hainan Island where they are being resettled. UNHCR obligated an amount of $1,200,000 towards the initial settlement of this latter group in support of the measures already undertaken by the Chinese Government. This amount is to cover assistance in the fields of housing and communal facilities, the provision of seeds, fertilizers and fuel, and medical equipment for the hospitals.
228. Total obligations for 1979 for assistance measures in China, under the General Programmes, amounted to $6,200-,500.
4. Hong Kong
229. The caseload of Vietnamese "boat people" in Hong Kong at the end of December 1978 numbered 7,598. New arrivals increased sharply during 1979. Most of the refugees arrived by small boats, but several ocean-going freighters which had rescued Vietnamese docked in Hong Kong. Two of these vessels carried about 6,000 refugees between them. In May 1979, a total of 18,718 refugees arrived with 22,835 arriving in the following month. At the end of the year, 55,705 refugees were receiving care and maintenance, with the total number of arrivals in 1979 amounting to 72,020. There were 24,540 departures during the year.
230. At the beginning of 1979, approximately 5,000 refugees in Hong Kong were receiving care and maintenance assistance from UNHCR in two centres, one administered by the Hong Kong Christian Service and the other by the International Rescue Committee. There were also a few hundred who had to be accommodated in hostels and hotels until mid-1979, when places were arranged for them in camps. The remaining caseload was accommodated in Government-run establishments. To cope with the increased influx, two additional refugee centres were taken over by UNHCR, administered by CARITAS and the British Red Cross Society (Hong Kong branch).
231. In August 1979, UNHCR and the Hong Kong authorities agreed to expand these centres to accommodate up to 44,000 persons and further agreed that a fifth be taken over by UNHCR at the beginning of 1980 to provide for the remaining caseload by means of their transfer from camps run by the authorities. Furthermore, UNHCR agreed to meet basic care and maintenance costs for all unemployed refugees in Hong Kong as from 1 September 1979. With the agreement of the authorities, Vietnamese refugees were allowed to obtain employment in Hong Kong whenever possible, pending arrangements for their resettlement in third countries.
232. Considerable efforts were made to improve the living conditions and health of the refugees. Day clinics were established in each centre, administered by voluntary agencies. Cases requiring surgery or intensive care were referred to hospitals. Moreover, sanitation facilities in the centres, which are in most cases former military barracks or residential quarters, were enlarged and improved. Fire-fighting equipment and camp security was also improved.
233. As an estimated 40 per cent of the refugees in Hong Kong are under 15 years of age, the need for primary education in all camps became apparent. Volunteer teachers gave language courses, cooking and handicraft lessons, together with elementary teaching to children.
234. Obligations under General Programmes for care and maintenance of Vietnamese boat cases, including establishment of refugee camps and medical care, amounted to $8 million in 1979.
235. In June 1979, the High Commissioner increased his staff in Hong Kong to register the refugee caseload. Local staff were engaged to register the refugee backlog in government camps and to assist with the completion of dossiers in the UNHCR Resettlement Unit. The Association for Volunteer Service in Hong Kong was the implementing agency for this project.
236. During the year, 4,370 Indo-Chinese were resettled from Hong Kong with UNHCR assistance. A total of $1,981,309 was obligated for this purpose. UNHCR entered into an agreement with ICEM to cover the cost of transportation of refugees whose travel was not paid from government programmes of the respective resettlement countries.
237. UNHCR continued to provide financial assistance to refugees of European origin in transit in Hong Kong. During 1979, some 300 such refugees arrived and stayed in Hong Kong for periods of approximately three to four months. They were provided with board and lodging, medical care and assistance towards resettlement in third countries. During the year, 137 persons left for resettlement in other countries, mainly Australia. From January to December 1979, a total of $331,412 was obligated towards this project, administered by the Hong Kong Christian Service.
238. Total obligations in 1979 amounted to $10,952,600 under General Programmes and $135,700 under Special Programmes.
239. As a result of the large influx of refugees who arrived by boat from Viet Nam during 1979, the caseload in Indonesia went up from 2,218 at the beginning of the year to some 46,000 in July, with the month of June alone accounting for 22,743 new arrivals. During the latter half of the year the number of arrivals dropped sharply while resettlement to third countries increased, resulting in a caseload of 32,224 at the end of the year.
240. UNHCR established a branch office in Jakarta with a suboffice in Tanjung Pinang to co-ordinate UNHCR assistance programmes in the Riau Archipelago where the majority of the caseload is accommodated.
241. UNHCR assistance programmes are implemented by the Indonesian Government which has established a coordinating committee - responsible to the Ministry of Defence - to supervise all matters concerning refugees in Indonesia. Several voluntary agencies are involved in the different assistance programmes, notably in the fields of health, education and social welfare.
242. Most of the refugees are living in three island locations in the Riau Archipelago, namely the Anambas islands and Galang and Bintan islands near Singapore, while a small transit camp is maintained in Jakarta. Twelve million dollars were obligated by UNHCR for the care and maintenance of these refugees during 1979, including the construction of some 200 barracks on Galang for the accommodation of 20,000 persons, together with a hospital, administrative offices, warehouses and community facilities.
243. Because of its remoteness and the consequent logistic difficulties in relation . With resettlement and provision of relief goods and services, the Government of Indonesia decided to transfer the caseload from the Anarabas to Galang Island near Singapore. Of the original 35,000 refugees in the Anambas, approximately 20,000 had been moved to Galang by the end of 1979. In connexion with this transfer, UNHCR obligated $3,700,000 covering, inter alia, the transportation of the refugees by ship, and welcome kits for each family arriving on Galang including soap, towels, utensils, kerosene and stoves.
244. During 1979, a total of 18,463 refugees were resettled from Indonesia. UNHCR financed, through ICEM, the transportation costs of 47.0 of this group whose travel was not funded by the Governments of the countries of resettlement.
245. Total obligations under General Programmes in 1979 amounted to $16,955,000.
246. Pursuant to the decision to establish refugee processing centres in the region for those Indo-Chinese who already have firm resettlement possibilities but whose final admission to the resettlement country cannot take place for at least three months, a UNHCR-sponsored feasibility study was undertaken on Galang for the construction of such a centre which could accommodate up to 10,000 persons at a time. The construction of the centre started in April 1980, some 3 kilometres from the site of the aforementioned existing camp for 20,000 refugees. An amount of $7,350,000 was obligated for this purpose in 1979.
247. In addition, $307,000 were obligated under Trust Funds, of which $253,000 under an agreement with ICEM for the promotion of resettlement from the island of Galang to third countries and $54,000 being a donation in kind of food-stuffs from the EEC.
248. Total obligations under Special Programmes in 1979 amounted to $7,796,600.
249. In January 1979 the caseload of Vietnamese boat people in Japan numbered 597 refugees. The influx of refugees increased rapidly during 1979 and on 31 December the caseload stood at 1,255. The refugees, who were mainly rescued by foreign vessels, were granted landing rights in Japan upon receipt by the Government of a guarantee that UNHCR would assume care and maintenance costs and responsibility for resettlement. Five hundred and twenty-six refugees departed for resettlement countries in the course of the year.
250. UNHCR made funds available to four voluntary agencies, which provided care and maintenance to the refugees in 21 centres during 1979. Vietnamese who are able to find employment are permitted to work in Japan. Approximately 300 refugees are gainfully employed. A small number of Vietnamese children were admitted to primary schools during the year.
251. Thirty-nine families comprising 149 persons had been resettled in Japan by March 1980. In the early part of 1980 the Government of Japan sent a selection team to a number of countries in South-East Asia in connexion with the provision of further resettlement opportunities in Japan.
252. Total obligations incurred in Japan in 1979 under General Programmes amounted to $1,606,800. An amount of $86,732 was obligated in the first two months of 1979 under Special Programmes, after which all assistance was provided under the General Programmes.
7. Lao People's Democratic Republic
253. Following the visit of the High Commissioner to the Lao People's Democratic Republic late in 1978, a review of UNHCR's activities in that country was conducted. UNHCR's new objective, as a result of that review, is to phase out gradually its activities for displaced persons, which has been the main thrust of its programme since 1974, and reorient it towards the provinces bordering Thailand, particularly in the southern part of the country, with a view to creating economic conditions which would be favourable in the event of the voluntary repatriation of Lao refugees from Thailand.
254. The problem of displaced persons, whose number the Government put at 70,000 at the beginning of 1979, is now viewed more in the context of general socioeconomic development than as emergency relief assistance, and United Nations developmental agencies are being associated with projects undertaken for these persons. In line with this approach and in co-operation with the UNDP and technical ministries of the Government, in 1979 UNHCR proposed a plan for the utilization of an unspent balance of $796,471 from the 1976 and the 1977/78 programmes for projects in the fields of health, agriculture and transport. By the end of 1979, a total of $349,471 had been obligated. In addition, the Swiss Red Cross donated medicaments and hospital equipment to the value of $500,000. While it was initially expected that programmes for displaced persons could be completed by 30 June 1980, it now appears that December 1980 is a more realistic target date.
255. Food assistance amounting to some $3,680,800 which in the past had been used almost exclusively for general distribution in provinces with a high percentage of displaced persons was redirected mainly towards provinces bordering on Thailand and was more closely linked with UNHCR-funded projects. Assistance in the form of relief has been given to identified groups of persons who have returned to the Lao People's Democratic Republic on their own. Two projects were set up in 1979 costing $169,522 to benefit the repatriates. Two more projects in the South have been identified for creating resettlement facilities for present and potential repatriates.
256. An amount of $70,469 has been obligated for the transport Of rice donated by the European Economic Community and $202,000 towards the cost of Construction of a hospital in Paklay.
257. Total obligations in the Lao People's Democratic Republic during 1979 under the Special Programmes amounted to $5,097,400.
258. Events in the area continued to hinder local integration and resettlement possibilities. At the end of 1979 the refugee population in Lebanon had increased to an estimated 2,900, largely due to the arrival of a number of Ethiopian refugees.
259. During 1979, there were 83 beneficiaries under a programme for local settlement. An amount of $20,000 was obligated to finance kindergarten and primary school education, hospital and medical treatment. Supplementary grants were made available to 17 persons receiving annuities and to assist students at the lower secondary level. An amount of $20,000 was obligated for this latter purpose.
260. The programmes aimed at resettlement from Lebanon were severely limited because of stricter immigration regulations enforced by the authorities of traditional resettlement countries and due to difficulties in resettling refugees in other countries of the region.
261. A sum of $6,057 was obligated for resettlement purposes. Counselling services were maintained and refugees were also assisted with a supplementary aid programme including medical care. Total obligations in Lebanon under the General Programmes in 1979 amounted to $202,400.
262. In addition, UNHCR continued its co-operation with the Secretary-General's Special Representative in an effort to assist displaced persons inside Lebanon. During the year, a number of projects under implementation by the Government since 1978, mainly with the participation of the High Relief Committee, were successfully terminated. Obligations in 1979, under the Special Programmes, amounted to $111,400.
263. At the end of 1978 there were 850 Vietnamese refugees receiving care and maintenance in Macao pending resettlement in third countries. The number of boat arrivals increased steadily throughout the spring and summer of 1979. In May alone 918 refugees arrived in Macao. By the end of December 1979 those remaining for resettlement numbered 3,487, while a total of 792 refugees were resettled abroad during 1979.
264. Refugees accepted in Macao for temporary transit were accommodated in three centres administered by the Macao Social Welfare Department, which administered UNHCR assistance until replaced in August 1979 by Catholic Relief Services, Macao. Plans were being prepared to close one centre at the beginning of 1980 and to transfer its occupants to the other two camps, the capacities of which were expanded in 1979 and will be further increased in 1980.
265. In 1979, financial assistance included provision for food, repairs, improvement and maintenance of shelter, household equipment and relief supplies, local transportation costs and administrative support for personnel and office expenses.
266. UNHCR obligated an amount of $1,536,700 for assistance measures in Macao during the period under review.
267. The heavy influx of Indo-Chinese refugees into Malaysia continued to mid-1979, at which point the number of arrivals dropped considerably. A total of 53,365 refugees were admitted into the country for temporary asylum during the course of the year, with about 87 per cent arriving during the first six months. Permanent resettlement was provided for 68,646 refugees in 1979, leaving a caseload of 34,296 at 31 December. In addition, there are approximately 72,000 Filipino refugees in the state of Sabah.
268. Indo-Chinese refugees in Malaysia are accommodated in six camps and four transit centres. Four of the camps are located along the eastern coast of peninsular Malaysia and two in east Malaysia, in the states of Sabah and Sarawak. Obligations under the General Programmes for the care and maintenance of the refugees, as well as for a survey of the water situation at Pulau Bidong, amounted to $21,205,720 in 1979 for the period March through December. For the first two months of the year, care and maintenance was provided under Special Programmes at a cost of over $3,749,500.
269. Within the framework of the care and maintenance programme for Vietnamese refugees, UNHCR acts through its operational partner, the Malaysian Red Crescent Society.
270. In 1979, a rapid expansion of refugee camps was undertaken. Throughout the year, efforts were initiated or intensified to provide refugees with, inter alia, adequate shelter, food, sanitation, water and fire protection.
271. As the rate of resettlement increased during the course of the year, it became apparent that the transit facilities, to which refugees are moved prior to their departure from Malaysia, required strengthening. Under a Special Programmes obligation of $2,504,500, a new transit centre was constructed in Kuala Lumpur; it became operational in September 1979 and has had a considerable, beneficial effect upon the massive resettlement effort in Malaysia.
272. UNHCR entered into an agreement with ICEM concerning the cost of transportation of Indo-Chinese refugees whose travel was not paid from government programmes of the respective resettlement countries. During 1979, a total of 4,426 persons were resettled from Malaysia through ICEM.
273. Assistance to Filipino refugees in the state of Sabah continued under General Programmes funds of previous years. The measures undertaken included the provision of housing, latrines, water supply, fishing equipment and basic necessities at Kota Kinabalu, Labuan, Semporna and Tawau.
274. Total obligations in Malaysia in 1979 under the General Programmes amounted to $23,842,800 and under the Special Programmes to $6,421,000.
275. In April 1979, the Government of Pakistan requested UNHCR's assistance following an influx of refugees from Afghanistan. UNHCR made available an initial amount of $190,000 from the Emergency Fund to cater for the immediate needs of the refugees. Missions were undertaken to examine further requirements.
276. In October 1979, the Executive Committee, on the recommendation of the High Commissioner, approved an assistance programme for a caseload of 185,000 persons at an estimated cost of some $10.3 million, consisting of $4.1 million for the remaining months of 19-f9 and $6.2 million for the following period to September 1980.
277. The number of refugees grew rapidly during the latter part of 1979. By the end of the year more than 400,000 persons had been officially registered. In view of this development, the High Commissioner reviewed the programme and in consultation with the Government of Pakistan, launched an appeal to the international community on 16 January 1980 for contributions in cash and kind to meet the assistance requirements for a caseload of 500,000 refugees, estimated to amount to $55 million for 1980. This total amount was made up of two elements: $25 million for basic food requirements and $30 million for non-food requirements.
278. The World Food Programme is providing assistance amounting to some $12 million in food items. UNICEF is providing more than $400,000 in relief commodities. The European Economic Community is contributing more than $4 million in food items and $14 million in cash to the UNHCR programme. In addition, a number of Governments and voluntary agencies have provided food and other assistance on a bilateral basis. Among the latter, assistance was given by the Inter-Aid Committee and the League of Red Cross Societies, together with the International Committee of the Red Cross.
279. In 1979, UNHCR obligated an amount of $4,137,000, including contributions in kind, for assistance to refugees from Afghanistan under General Programmes. This allocation covered expenditures on immediate relief commodities such as supplementary food, shelter, clothing, blankets and utensils, as well as subsequent measures in the fields of health, education, water supply and agriculture. It also covered vehicles and logistical support. An amount of $335,700 was made available under Special Programmes from trust funds contributed by one government donor.
280. During the first three months of 1980, UNHCR obligated $25,777,000. At 31 March the caseload of refugees, according to Government statistics, totalled 6481,679 persons, and in early April the number had risen beyond 700,000.
281. In view of the fluid situation, UNHCR is keeping the assistance programme under constant review and has also worked out with the Government of Pakistan alternative budgets for possible additional requirements.
282. To respond adequately to the needs in Pakistan, the High Commissioner has opened two sub offices, one in Peshawar and the second in Quetta, in addition to the Chargé de Mission's office in Islamabad, to monitor his assistance programme.
283. During 1979, 7,821 Indo-Chinese refugees arrived in the Philippines by boat while 4,649 persons left the country for permanent resettlement in third countries, leaving a caseload of 5,315 persons awaiting a durable solution at the close of the year.
284. With the increased influx of refugees at the beginning of 1979, an asylum centre was established in Puerto Princesa City, Palawan. A second, temporary camp was set up in Lubang, Mindoro Island and later closed down when another camp was constructed on the island of Tara. The remaining 935 refugees on board the vessel An, which had arrived in Filipino waters in December 1978, were transferred to this latter camp on Tara. It was decided that the Puerto Princesa centre should function as the primary first asylum camp in the Philippines, and, particularly in view of certain operational difficulties experienced with the camp on Tara, and with the steady decline of the residual caseload in the country to a level of 3,600 persons at the end of March 1980, it became possible to transfer the inhabitants of Tara to the Puerto Princesa centre or to the refugee processing centre located at Bataan (see below). This operation was scheduled to be completed in May 1980. On the outskirts of Manila the José Fabella centre continued to provide transit facilities, as it had done since 1975, for refugees on their way from camps to resettlement in third countries.
285. In 1979, a total of $2,224,127 was obligated by UNHCR under General Programmes to cover costs of care and maintenance, construction of shelter, medical supplies and hospitalization, promotion of self-sufficiency, promotion of resettlement opportunities and counselling.
286. Following the decision to establish special refugee processing centres in South-East Asia for those Indo-Chinese already having resettlement places, construction of one such centre began at Bataan on Manila Bay in December 1979 and the first group of refugees from Tara Island first asylum camp arrived on 21 January 1980. By April 1980, 10,000 refugees from Thailand, Hong Kong and Malaysia had been moved to the centre. Depending on the availability of funds, the facilities at the centre will be expanded to hold a maximum of 50,000 persons. In 1979, $14,611,967 were obligated from Special Programmes for the construction of the centre and for operating costs for one year for 10,000 refugees.
287. Total obligations in 1979 for assistance programmes in the Philippines amounted to $2,324,400 under the General Programmes and $14,898,600 under Special Programmes, the latter including an amount of $267,121 made available for care and maintenance during the first two months of 1979 before this became a charge on the General Programmes.
13. Republic of Korea
288. A total of 150 Indo-Chinese refugees arrived in Korea by boat during 1979 and 57 departed for permanent resettlement abroad. The remaining caseload was 166 at the end of the year.
289. During the first two months of 1979, an amount of $22,000 was provided for assistance measures from funds available under the Special Programmes. As from March 1979 these measures became a charge on General Programmes under which an amount of $80,000 was obligated for the period to the end of the year. The Government also provided a subsidy towards care and maintenance costs of the refugees who are accommodated at the Pusan refugee centre, administered by the Korean National Red Cross.
290. In Seoul, the UNDP office maintained valuable liaison with UNHCR by notifying headquarters of new boat-arrivals in Korea and obtaining landing rights for the refugees from the Government.
291. During 1979, the number of Indo-Chinese refugees and displaced persons seeking refuge in Singapore was 5,451. Five thousand two hundred and ninety persons departed during the year to countries of permanent resettlement. The caseload at the end of the year stood at 901.
292. The Government of Singapore has continued to apply its policy of granting temporary asylum to Indo-Chinese refugees only against firm guarantees of care and maintenance and of resettlement in a third country.
293. Total obligations in 1979 amounted to $1,031,250 under the General Programmes, and to $42,200 under the Special Programmes, for care and maintenance and for assistance towards resettlement.
294. The total number of Indo-Chinese refugees and displaced persons in Thailand receiving UNHCR assistance (excluding 1979 arrivals from Kampuchea) rose from 139,285 on 1 January 1979 to a peak of 176,286 by 31 July. This trend was reversed during the remainder of the year and the caseload had declined to 147,553 by 31 December. A total of 68,896 refugees departed for resettlement in third countries during the year, the highest number to leave in any one year since the programme's inception. The monthly number of these departures was substantially higher in the second half of the year than in the first six months, exceeding the number of arrivals in each month after July. The excess of monthly departures over arrivals grew rapidly during this period, and the total caseload fell by almost 10,000 persons in the last month of 1979.
295. The refugees and displaced persons were housed in 15 camps administered by the Ministry of Interior, most of which were constructed in 1975 and 1976. Under the principal assistance project controlled by the UNHCR Regional Office in Bangkok, obligations toward the care and maintenance of these persons in 1979 amounted to $17,070,000, some two thirds of which represented expenditures on food.
296. In the autumn of 1979, the arrival in Thailand of large numbers of starving and destitute Kampucheans imposed greater burdens on UNHCR and other relief organizations. To cope with the new influx, temporary holding centres had to be established to accommodate the Kampucheans. At the end of October, a special UNHCR mission went to Thailand to formulate a comprehensive programme of assistance for the new arrivals in close collaboration with the Thai Government. Plans were in hand to expand existing facilities in the south-east of the country, as well as to create new centres. By the end of the year, the population of the largest of these was approaching 100,000 persons but other centres of this size are not envisaged. The total number of Kampucheans in the holding centres at the end of the year was 119,000.
297. Based on a planning figure of 200,000 Kampucheans and covering the period until the end of 1980, the programme budget amounted to a total of some $82 million, including $7.9 million for a special programme to assist Kampuchean children at the centres.
298. Problems in international assistance to Kampucheans were complicated by the presence of sizeable groups along the Thai-Kampuchean border. These groups fluctuated considerably in number, and tended to respond to various pressures by moving in and out of Thai territory. While UNHCR has provided assistance to Kampucheans in the holding centres within Thailand, UNICEF and the ICRC have been responsible for the distribution of supplies in the border zone. The latter two agencies also provided assistance to Kampucheans in Thailand, generally speaking within their traditional fields of responsibility.
299. The caseload of Vietnamese boat refugees in Thailand followed the trend in the total caseload (excluding Kampucheans) already noted. The number peaked at some 9,400 at the end of June 1979 and fell to about 6,800 by the end of the year. However, while monthly arrivals had fallen to an average of less than 200 in August, September and October, they rose to nearly 1,000 in November and December.
300. Many of the Vietnamese boat refugees arriving in Thailand had suffered badly as a result of attacks by pirates in the Gulf of Siam. The international media gave extensive coverage to this problem and the High Commissioner's Office took a number of steps, including démarches with the authorities concerned. Arrangements for the purchase of a fast patrol boat for the Thai Government were initiated by UNHCR to make possible more regular visits to the off-shore islands where much of the violence occurred.
301. To cope with the sudden additional demands created by the large Kampuchean influx, a Kampuchea unit was established within the UNHCR Regional Office in Bangkok and the number of UNHCR staff in Thailand was increased. It should be noted that in the implementation of the Kampuchean programme, UNHCR worked in close collaboration with a large number of voluntary agencies in various specialized fields. The Regional Office was also strengthened by additional staff in areas related to the accelerated rate of resettlement from Thailand.
302. Total obligations under the General Programmes in 1979 amounted to $26,335,200 including donations in kind, of which $21,139,588 were for care and maintenance and $4,780,000 for resettlement. Under the Special Programmes a total amount of $19,367,000 was obligated in 1979 of which $18,232,697 were for assistance to new arrivals from Kampuchea, including donations in kind.
16. Viet Nam
303. During 1979, UNHCR's programme in Viet Nam related to three areas: assistance to Kampuchean refugees and their resettlement abroad, rehabilitation of the displaced population and orderly departures.
304. An amount of $3.5 million was allocated under the 1979 General Programmes for the establishment of ten local rural settlement sites for Kampuchean refugees. However, the majority of the refugees, estimated to be about 150,000 at the end of 1978, repatriated to Kampuchea in the beginning of 1979. UNHCR continued to extend care and maintenance to the remaining Kampuchean refugees, approximately 35,000, living in Ho Chi Minh City and the surrounding areas.
305. By the end of 1979, $2,195,000 including donations in kind had been obligated under General Programmes in the course of the year for food, clothing, blankets, mosquito netting, medicines and housing for the refugees. The unobligated balance of the 1979 appropriation was carried over into 1980. Assistance from funds obligated in 1978 including food, clothing and other materials was also delivered during the first two months of 1979. In addition, about $2 million, including donations in kind, were made available from trust fund contributions for food, medicines and clothing for the benefit of both the refugees and the displaced population.
306. Concerted efforts continue to obtain resettlement for a group of some 5,000 Kampuchean refugees living in two pagodas in Ho Chi Minh City. The majority of these people are urban dwellers who fled Kampuchea as a result of the events of April 1975, and resettlement is considered to be the only viable solution for them. UNHCR is in the process of documenting the caseload. For the resettlement of Kampuchean refugees in 1979 UNHCR obligated an amount of $225,889 from General Programmes.
307. UNHCR's assistance towards the rehabilitation of displaced persons, begun in 1974, was continued in 1979. During the year modest progress was made in the fields of health, agriculture and fisheries. An amount of $193,011 was obligated in 1979 from contributions to the Special Programmes for displaced persons within Viet Nam, comprising $150,777 for procurement of fishing materials and equipment and $42,234 for procurement of equipment for a buffalo breeding farm.
308. Following the announcement on 12 January 1979 by the Government of Viet Nam that it was prepared, under given conditions, to permit legal emigration, UNHCR entered into negotiations with the Vietnamese Government to facilitate the orderly departure from Viet Nam of family reunification and other humanitarian cases.
309. A memorandum of understanding was concluded on 30 May 1979 between UNHCR and the Government of Viet Nam establishing procedures for legal departure. Eleven UNHCR charter flights left Viet Nam between 30 May and 31 December 1979, carrying 1,174 Vietnamese to 12 countries of resettlement. During the same period, over 800 Vietnamese left Ho Chi Minh City on scheduled commercial flights for resettlement abroad.
310. Negotiations with both the Vietnamese Government and receiving countries were underway at the end of 1979 to permit the orderly departure from Viet Nam of substantial numbers of persons in 1980.
311. A total of $460,000 was obligated in 1979 for the orderly departure programme.
312. Total obligations in Viet Nam in 1979 amounted to $5,706,100, of which $2,732,700 were made available under the General Programmes and $2,973,400 under the Special Programmes.
17. Western Asia
313. This section concerns Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, the Syrian Arab Republic and the United Arab Emirates. The numbers of refugees of concern to UNHCR increased as compared to the previous year.
314. The Regional Office in Beirut continued to co-ordinate UNHCR activities in co-operation with UNDP and a number of voluntary agencies in various countries of the region.
315. An amount of $40,000 was obligated for assistance to refugees of mainly European origin in Syria and from East Africa in the United Arab Emirates. In addition, an amount of $50,000, from an appropriation of $300,000 approved for assistance to 15,000 refugees from Democratic Yemen, was made available to assist in the local settlement of some 350 persons of Ethiopian origin in Yemen. The balance of the appropriation was carried over to 1980 pending further study of the needs of the refugees from Democratic Yemen by the Government of Yemen.
316. Needy refugees in Iran, East Africans in the United Arab Emirates and Ethiopian refugees in Jordan were provided with supplementary assistance. Individual cases of various origins were also assisted in Israel, Kuwait, Syria and Democratic Yemen. An amount of $25,000 was obligated for lower secondary education, mainly in the United Arab Emirates, with an additional obligation of $40,000 for the benefit of Ethiopian students in Lebanon and other countries in the area.
317. Total obligations in Western Asia amounted to $164,300 under General Programmes and $104,500 under Special Programmes.
CHAPTER V ASSISTANCE ACTIVITIES IN EUROPE
A. Assistance in various countries
318. In the course of 1979, the number of refugees in Europe increased for a second consecutive year, reaching some 555,000 at the end of 1979. This increase is mainly due to generous admission under UNHCR auspices of refugees from other continents and also to a larger influx of asylum seekers from various parts of the world. The increase took place in spite of the naturalization and/or departure of a sizeable number of refugees. The number of asylum seekers rose, in one country by more than 55 per cent over the previous year, thus giving rise to a number of serious problems regarding the examination of applications under the established procedures for determining refugee status.
319. Through considerably increased resettlement opportunities and financial contributions towards assistance to refugees both inside and outside their borders, the European countries in 1979 provided UNHCR with decisive support, and this despite continuing high levels of unemployment and economic difficulties.
320. The UNHCR assistance programmes in Europe had to be increased in order to keep pace with the above-mentioned developments. The now well-established sharing of responsibilities with non-governmental or semi-public bodies and voluntary agencies again produced satisfactory results.
321. Counselling has always been a major component of UNHCR programmes in Europe. The services of social workers and counsellors were made available to refugees awaiting resettlement or experiencing difficulties in adapting to their new environment. This type of assistance, extended mainly to non-Europeans, helped to minimize the sense of cultural and emotional disruption and facilitated local integration. This was coupled with legal assistance on matters relating to asylum procedures, refugee status, naturalization and social rights in asylum countries.
322. Elderly and handicapped refugees continued to benefit from special forms of assistance. The aged were given institutional and medical care, annuities and monthly allowances. Programmes for the rehabilitation and training of the disabled were also undertaken in a number of countries.
323. More than 40,000 refugees from South-East Asia arrived in Europe under UNHCR auspices during 1979: 15,300 arrived in France (where a total of 76,000 Indo-Chinese had found permanent asylum by the end of the year); 8,740 arrived in the Federal Republic of Germany under a quota of 20,000; some 5,000 were admitted to the United Kingdom and some 2,200, many rescued by Dutch vessels on the high seas, settled in the Netherlands. By admitting more than 2,500 Indo-Chinese refugees in 1979, Switzerland surpassed its announced quota while continuing to include a high proportion of handicapped families. The Government of Austria, in addition to its own quota, set up a transit facility for Kampucheans from Viet Nam. Belgium, Greece, Italy, the Nordic and other European countries also generously offered numerous resettlement opportunities, bringing the total number of Indo-Chinese resettled in Europe to just over 110,000 at the end of the reporting period. UNHCR participation consisted mainly in co-operating with governmental and voluntary agencies by providing intensive language training, orientation counselling and supplementary assistance.
324. At the end of 1979, the total number of Latin American refugees who had arrived in Europe under UNHCR auspices exceeded 14,500, including 1,300 who arrived in the course of the year. In addition, several hundred African refugees were received or transited through Europe under Special Programmes.
325. Spain, which in 1978 acceded to the United Nations Convention and 1967 Protocol, proceeded with drawing up national legislation relating to refugees. These efforts made possible a more realistic estimate of the number of refugees in that country. Latin American refugees, including an increasing number arriving in transit and requiring UNHCR financial assistance, numbered about 20,000 at the end of 1979; those from Equatorial Guinea numbered about 6,000. Funds allocated for establishment assistance, annuities and other local integration measures proved insufficient and had to be supplemented from reserve funds.
326. In 1979, the Government of Portugal undertook a national census which is not yet completed but which has provided a better estimate of the refugee caseload in Portugal. Displaced persons from Africa, mainly from Angola, officially numbered approximately 7,500. Voluntary repatriation to Angola, begun in 1978. continued, but at a slower pace. The group of fewer than 100 Latin Americans was further reduced due to the voluntary repatriation of 43 persons to Brazil. Multi-purpose assistance to the displaced persons channelled through the Instituto de Apoio as Retornao Nacionais, was increased and accounted for the bulk of UNHCR's assistance. Latin American refugees were helped to establish small businesses and to obtain vocational training by means of assistance extended through the Portuguese Council of Christian Churches.
327. Total obligations in 1979 for UNHCR activities in various European countries (excluding Cyprus) amounted to nearly $8.3 million.
B. United Nations humanitarian assistance for Cyprus
328. The High Commissioner, at the request of the Secretary-General, continued to act as coordinator of United Nations humanitarian assistance in favour of the persons displaced as a result of the events of August 1974.
329. In collaboration with the United Nations Peace-keeping Force in Cyprus, and with the close co-operation of WHO, UNHCR continued to provide medical supplies to those in need. Activities involving principally agriculture, small businesses and handicrafts which were undertaken in previous years and which aimed at re-establishing the self-sufficiency of the population in their traditional occupations, were continued. Special attention was given to the handicapped, who benefited from special forms of assistance, and to improving educational facilities. Work advanced on the construction of low-cost housing to replace temporary shelters.
330. At the request of the Government of Cyprus, donors continued to channel contributions through UNHCR to finance the United Nations Programme. Obligations totalled $5,987,400 in 1979, of which the main items were shelter ($4.8 million), reafforestation and agriculture ($393,548) and health care and medical supplies ($239,029); an amount of $141,157 was also obligated for multi-purpose assistance.
331. Additional information concerning the humanitarian activities carried out by the United Nations in Cyprus in the course of 1979 may be found in the relevant chapters of the progress reports submitted by the Secretary-General to the Security Council in the months of May (S/13369) and December (S/13672).
CHAPTER VI ASSISTANCE ACTIVITIES IN OCEANIA
332. In accordance with the practice maintained in previous years, the representative for Australia and New Zealand, stationed in Sydney, represented UNHCR, UNICEF and the United Nations Information Centre in the area. The joint representatives activities included close liaison with the Australian and New Zealand authorities and non-governmental organizations over protection matters, questions of resettlement, counselling and fund-raising.
333. In the course of 1979, the Government of Australia accepted for resettlement 14,347 refugees and displaced persons from South-East Asia, of whom 12,812 were "boat people". New Zealand, during the same year, admitted 1,047 refugees and displaced persons from the same area, of whom 673 were "boat people".
334. Total obligations for the region in 1979 were $132,900, including an amount of some 2,900 toward the voluntary repatriation of four Ugandan refugees and an amount of $6,100 towards the resettlement in Australia of eight refugees from China and three from Yugoslavia.
CHAPTER VII ASSISTANCE ACTIVITIES - COUNSELLING, EDUCATION, RESETTLEMENT, THE HANDICAPPED
335. Counselling services offered to refugees have been instrumental in mitigating, to a large extent, the individual personal difficulties which refugees have to cope with as they endeavour to adjust in new countries of asylum and find the appropriate opportunities for immediate or eventual self-support. The range of such activities is geared to the particular needs of the caseload in a host country and the capacity of each country to attend to such needs without outside assistance.
336. In 1979, there were 30 counselling projects aimed mainly at refugee integration in countries of asylum to which UNHCR contributions were made. These projects covered the four continents of Africa, Asia, Europe and Latin America, with the largest number being implemented in Africa. The establishment and expansion of these services was seen as an essential element in meeting the needs of the growing number of refugees in urban areas. The increasing complexity of their problems and the scarcity of opportunities available for fostering durable solutions in a number of these countries required a constant and consistent input by counsellors.
337. The staff of the counselling services were able to assist in the documentation of the refugee caseload in urban areas, in matching refugee skills with local opportunities for employment, in helping refugees to avail themselves of self-employment possibilities, in orienting them towards appropriate educational openings and in mobilizing the resources of Governments, intergovernmental bodies and voluntary agencies towards meeting refugee needs.
338. In order to ensure the effectiveness of counselling services, emphasis continued to be placed on the employment of professionals in the field of social welfare. In addition, social consultants are instrumental both in the identification of special needs for counselling and in the advancing of counsellors skills through in-service training and regular consultations.
339. During 1979, UNHCR continued to provide educational assistance to refugees with emphasis in developing countries. The figures given below reflect scholarship assistance to refugees at the secondary and tertiary level. It should be noted, however, that over and above these efforts, refugee children are offered primary education usually within the context of the settlements in which they are established or in camps/centres where they are awaiting resettlement.
340. During the academic year 1978/79 a total of 4,500 refugee students were assisted by UNHCR to pursue their studies at the post-primary level. The programme was geared to meeting the needs of refugee students who could benefit from further training and the manpower requirements in the regions in which they found themselves. This represents an increase of 29 per cent in terms of beneficiaries over the previous academic year. The bulk of these refugees (90.6 per cent) were helped to pursue secondary school studies. Refugees in Africa received the highest percentage of educational assistance (95 per cent).
341. Counselling services to refugees have emphasized the importance of selecting fields of training in which vocational skills in rare supply can be acquired and self-sufficiency thus attained by the refugees within reasonable periods of time. This effort has resulted in increasing the number of refugees receiving vocational training from 7.5 per cent of the total number assisted by UNHCR in 1966 to 25 per cent of those assisted in 1978/79. In real terms this figure rose from less than 80 to more than 900.
342. In view of the fact that a number of organizations as well as the United Nations Education and Training Programme for Southern Africa (UNETPSA) cater to the needs of refugees seeking education beyond the secondary level, the UNHCR programme during the academic year 1978/79 assisted some 425 refugees only to pursue post-secondary studies. The field of study which the students planned to pursue was a major consideration in granting educational assistance, emphasis being laid on training responsive to manpower needs in the area where the refugees were likely to seek employment.
343. The UNETPSA fellowship programme for the year 1978-1979 assisted 1,560 refugee students. The subjects pursued by these students were guided by the "priority list of studies" established by the OAU/ECA. In addition, the World Intellectual Property Organization awarded three fellowships for short-term courses to southern African refugee students.
344. UNHCR continues to benefit from the collaboration of UNESCO which has seconded experts to UNHCR and has made available consultants for the planning and implementation of refugee education projects, both at UNHCR headquarters and in the field.
345. During 1979 UNHCR assisted refugees in various parts of the world who were seeking resettlement, securing for them new homes in some 40 countries willing to admit them. While resettlement activities were dominated by the overwhelming need to obtain offers of admission for refugees from Indo-China, of whom 193,129 were resettled in the course of the year, refugees in other parts of the world for whom resettlement seemed to be the appropriate solution were assisted to find countries in which they could start new lives.
346. The resettlement caseload in Africa continued to be relatively small as African countries in general adhered to the traditional neighbourly policy of integrating people in the countries of asylum within the region. Developments in Djibouti, however, necessitate securing opportunities for the resettlement of selected groups of persons, while placement in education of several hundred refugees is also being pursued for those who need training. In line with recommendations adopted by the Conference on the Situation of Refugees in Africa held at Arusha in May 1979 and in collaboration with the OAU's Bureau for the Placement and Education of African Refugees, UNHCR continued to interpret to African countries the need for sharing the responsibility of absorbing refugees. In cases where the problems of the refugees are such that possibilities for absorption do not exist in Africa, it has been possible to find resettlement in other continents these cases are limited to particularly vulnerable groups, including some handicapped refugees.
347. In 1979, the situation of Indo-Chinese refugees in need of durable solutions became increasingly dramatic. Faced with the necessity of finding durable solutions for the escalating numbers of Indo-Chinese in camps all over South-East Asia, the High Commissioner intensified his drive to secure more resettlement opportunities, while the Secretary-General of the United Nations also appealed to Governments to admit refugees. In response to these efforts some 30 countries increased the total number of resettlement opportunities available from 125,000 to some 260,000 places. Thus monthly departures increased from an average of 8,906 persons during the first six months of 1979, to 23,,174 persons during the last half of the year. Despite these extraordinary efforts, however, over 280,000 persons in Thailand and in other South-East Asian countries remained in camps, without durable solutions as of 31 December 1979, not counting the new influx of Kampucheans into Thailand.
348. UNHCR paid particular attention in its resettlement programme to the most vulnerable groups such as the handicapped and unaccompanied minors and special efforts were made towards their speedy resettlement. The attention of Governments was drawn to the fact that great caution should be exercised in the matter of adoption of minors because of the difficulties of assessing whether they have close relatives with whom they should be reunited at a later stage.
349. Several countries have rendered signal service to Indo-Chinese refugees and displaced persons by accepting them for resettlement in situations of great urgency, or by providing resettlement guarantees after a ship carrying their flag has rescued persons in distress on the high seas. In 1979 alone over 9,500 persons were rescued on the high seas, most of them benefitting from resettlement guarantees given by the country of the flag flown by the ship.
350. In Europe, where the immigration apparatus of the traditional countries of refugee resettlement has been in operation the longest, refugees seeking emigration are, as a rule, able to achieve their aims. Opportunities for local integration are used by those who do not emigrate, while special programmes for the resettlement of handicapped refugees, such as the "Ten or More Plan"' cover the needs of those with physical, mental or social handicaps. Although the traditional European caseload increased slightly, the opportunities for resettlement, particularly to Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United States, largely kept abreast of needs. By the end of 1979, some 3,000 were awaiting resettlement, among them a few hundred who have not been able to meet selection criteria and have thus been exposed to an extended waiting period.
351. Efforts to resettle refugees in Latin America have succeeded in reducing the number seeking offers of admission to new countries at 31 December 1979 to some 300 persons, in addition to some 500 persons in Chile who are waiting to join family members abroad. During 1979, a total of 1,636 refugees were resettled from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Peru to some 20 countries. There continues, however, to be a limited refugee influx in various countries in Latin America, particularly Brazil. An average of 100 persons register for resettlement each month and therefore offers of admission are still required. Over 40 countries have contributed to the over-all effort to resettle Latin American refugees since 1973. Some 77 per cent of those resettled under UNHCR auspices were accepted in Europe, some 20 per cent in northern American and the remainder in other parts of the world.
352. UNHCR's obligations in the field of resettlement, mostly for the transportation of refugees, amounted in 1979 to some $10.8 million., Most of the transportation was entrusted to the services of the Intergovernmental Committee for European Migration to whom UNHCR disbursed $US 9.7 million, mainly for the transportation of refugees from South-East Asia. As in previous years, additional funds were also used to finance resettlement counselling, documentation, medical examinations and other related expenses. In July 1979, an agreement was concluded with the International Committee of the Red Cross to assist in tracing relatives and in making arrangements for mail services, both of fundamental importance in the resettlement of refugees.
D. Treatment and rehabilitation of the handicapped
353. In 1979 a total of 152 refugees, predominantly of Latin American and African origin, benefitted from the UNHCR Project for the Treatment and Rehabilitation of the Handicapped. The original obligation of $35,000 was increased to $110,000 to cover the necessary expenses for 1979.
354. As in the past years, the project covered the cost of special medical and psychiatric treatment of refugees in their countries of temporary or permanent asylum and, whenever required, movement of a handicapped refugee to a country where the necessary medical intervention and rehabilitation services were available. Preventive and curative psychiatric treatment were utilized in group settings and have proved most useful in averting complete psychological breakdown among refugees whose past traumatic experiences have weakened their capacities for adjustment to the new situation in which they find themselves.
355. In addition to the UNHCR funds, the resources of other international organizations, voluntary agencies and individual donors are also mobilized whenever possible to meet the needs of handicapped refugees. An increased awareness of the needs of handicapped refugees is expected as preparations are made for the International Year of the Handicapped in 1981.
CHAPTER VIII RELATIONS WITH OTHER ORGANIZATIONS
A. Co-operation between UNHCR, the United Nations and other members of the United Nations system
356. The reporting period saw concerted action taken by a number of United Nations agencies to provide both immediate relief and long-term assistance to large refugee populations in Africa and Asia. The programme of the High Commissioner to assist displaced Ugandans seeking voluntary repatriation provided for the participation of other United Nations bodies, as did the plan for assistance to Afghan refugees in Pakistan. Both the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) and the World Food Programme increased their commitments of food and technical expertise to refugee assistance in the Horn of Africa. UNHCR also continued to collaborate with the United Nations Education and Training Programme for Southern Africa and the United Nations Trust Fund for South Africa in carrying out their programmes. Several United Nations bodies contributed toward assistance programmes throughout South-East Asia on behalf of Vietnamese refugees. Towards the end of 1979, concerted efforts were also made within the United Nations system on behalf of Kampuchean refugees in Thailand.
357. UNHCR and the Economic Commission for Africa (ECA) joined in co-sponsoring, with the Organization of African Unity (OAU) a Conference on the Situation of African Refugees held at Arusha, United Republic of Tanzania, in May 1979. Other United Nations bodies attended and will participate in the follow-up action. The recommendations of the Conference were endorsed by the General Assembly resolution 31/61.
358. The valuable support of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), particularly in countries where UNHCR is not represented, was strengthened during the period under review, notably in Asia. In Bangladesh the local representatives of UNDP and UNHCR worked closely on the repatriation of individuals from Burma. Following the July 1979 meeting on South-East Asian refugees, UNDP made available funds to finance the recruitment of United Nations volunteers to work in refugee camps assisting UNHCR personnel; 16 volunteers are currently working in this capacity. The Office has also closely followed the progress of the UNDP procurement unit which is investigating the possibilities for setting up a centralized system of purchasing for all United Nations agencies.
359. Refugees, displaced and newly repatriated persons benefited from WFP food aid in over 40 countries, including China, where UNHCR's efforts on behalf of refugees accepted for resettlement there were complemented by the provision of foodstuffs by WFP.
360. Throughout the reporting period, UNICEF co-operated with UNHCR in several refugee situations. In Indonesia UNICEF funds made it possible to improve water supplies, provide medical equipment and supplement donations of food for Indo-Chinese refugees. During the repatriation of Burmese nationals from Bangladesh, UNHCR and UNICEF consulted frequently on such matters as nutrition, tuberculosis vaccinations and repair and maintenance of vehicles. In Africa, UNICEF undertook a wide range of assistance activities on behalf of refugees at the Dukwe settlement in Botswana, in the fields of agriculture, education and health. Medical equipment for Namibian refugees was purchased by UNHCR from UNICEF stocks in Denmark. As always, UNICEF's experience in procurement proved invaluable to UNHCR.
361. Routine activities on behalf of refugees, such as the purchase and shipment of medical supplies, continued to be carried out by WHO; WHO publications on such topics as primary health care, essential drugs, sanitation in disaster situations, and others were distributed to UNHCR field offices. WHO experts advised UNHCR on several occasions when cholera and. meningitis epidemics threatened to break out; they also evaluated medical requests received at headquarters from the field. For the first time, during the reporting period, a WHO health coordinator was appointed to work with the Thai Ministry of Health to organize the medical inputs of donor agencies on behalf of Kampuchean refugees. It is anticipated that this kind of co-operation will be repeated in the future for other large refugee assistance projects with health components. WHO also played an active part in the assistance programme in favour of displaced persons from Burma in Bangladesh both before and after repatriation.
362. UNHCR has on a number of occasions consulted the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations on agricultural matters; a joint team was involved in the preparation of rural projects in the Lao People's Democratic Republic. Reviews of problems related to the achievement of durable solutions for refugees were held with the United. nations Industrial Development Organization, the International Labour Organization and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). During 1,079 two UNESCO associate experts assisted UNHCR in Africa and one at UNHCR headquarters. Also at the request of UNHCR, a UNESCO consultant travelled to Djibouti to assess the educational needs of the refugees in that country. Co-operation with other United Nations bodies such as the Office of the United Nations Disaster Relief Co-ordinator, the Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization (IMCO) and the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) was maintained in their respective spheres of competence. Collaboration with IMCO centred on working towards a solution to the problem of rescue on the high seas (see para. 22 above).
363. As in the past, UNHCR took part in a variety of interagency endeavours in the period under review, a major priority being to ensure co-ordination of assistance programmes and to avoid duplication of effort. 'Rae Office also participated in the meetings of the Administrative Committee on Co-ordination and its subsidiary organs, as well as in the Governing bodies of several other United Nations agencies and programmes.
B. Relations with other intergovernmental organizations
364. UNHCR maintained its close relations with OAU both at headquarters and in the field, particularly as regards assistance to refugees in southern Africa pursuant to the pertinent General Assembly resolutions. The OAU was represented at the thirtieth session of the Executive Committee of the High Commissioner's Programme. UNHCR was represented at sessions of the Council of Ministers of OAU, and the High Commissioner attended the sixteenth summit conference of Heads of State and Government. UNHCR also co-sponsored, with OAU and the Economic Commission for Africa, a Conference on the Situation of African Refugees held at Arusha, United Republic of Tanzania, in May 1979, to which reference is made in various sections of this report.
365. As in previous years, the Intergovernmental Committee for European Migration continued to be a most valuable partner and proved instrumental in arranging transportation for the resettlement of large numbers of European, Indo-Chinese and Latin American refugees.
366. UNHCR has considerably increased its co-operation with the European institutions. The newly-elected European Parliament has taken a very active interest in humanitarian affairs which has in turn led to an increase in the contribution of the European Economic Community (EEC) to UNHCR's programmes. In 1979, more than 40 million in cash and in kind were received from EEC, which further demonstrated its support of UNHCR at joint conferences held with the EEC Associated Countries and the countries of the Association of South-East Asian Nations. In order to comply with the increased information needs of the European institutions, and to further develop financial co-operation, the High Commissioner instituted a special liaison unit in June 1979.
367. As regards the Council of Europe, UNHCR was represented at the thirty-first session of the Parliamentary Assembly and has followed closely the work of the Committee on Migration, Refugees and Demography and UNHCR has continued to follow the work of various other organs of relevance to the protection function of UNHCR.
368. Relations with ASEAN were strengthened during the reporting period, particularly in relation to the problem of persons leaving the Indo-Chinese peninsula by small boat.
369. The Office has also continued to strengthen its relations with a number of other regional organizations, such as the Organization of American States, the League of Arab States and the Asian-African Legal Consultative Committee.
C. Co-operation with liberation movements
370. Pursuant to the relevant resolutions of the General Assembly, UNHCR continued to maintain close working relations with liberation movements recognized by the OAU and the United Nations. The African National Congress, the Pan Africanist Congress of Azania, the South West Africa People's Organization, the Zimbabwe African National Union (ZANU) and the Zimbabwe African People's Union (ZAPU) attended the thirtieth session of the Executive Committee of the High Commissioner's Programme in an observer capacity. ZANU and ZAPU were active parties to the arrangements for the repatriation of Zimbabwean refugees from Botswana, Mozambique and Zambia in early 1980.
D. Relations between UNHCR and non-governmental organizations (voluntary agencies)
371. The period under review saw a dramatic increase in the number of non-governmental organizations engaged in refugee assistance. Over 200 such agencies are currently participating in humanitarian assistance programmes of UNHCR. Consultations at all levels between the voluntary agencies and UNHCR continued to take place regularly, and close contacts were maintained with the various national coordinating councils, and particularly with the International Council of Voluntary Agencies. A total of 79 voluntary agencies were represented at the thirtieth session of the Executive Committee of the High Commissioner's Programme.
372. Voluntary agencies were especially active in the areas of greatest refugee concentration providing emergency assistance, including technical expertise, to seriously affected regions of Asia and Africa in particular. Prominent among the caseloads for which they provided support were Kampucheans in Thailand, Indo-Chinese refugees and displaced persons in or arriving in countries of South-East Asia, and hundreds of thousands of refugees in Somalia and Zaire.
373. The relief operations of the International Committee of the Red Cross and the League of Red Cross Societies for the benefit of Indo-Chinese refugees in South-East Asia were particularly significant and included a tracing service designed to facilitate family reunification. They also participated in the programmes of the High Commissioner for Afghan refugees in Pakistan and refugees from Burma in Bangladesh. The traditional partnership between UNHCR and these two humanitarian organizations continues to provide significant support to the Office in the performance of its protection and assistance functions.
374. Other voluntary agencies continued to play a vital role in the fields of both protection and resettlement which included, inter alia, providing sponsorship for refugees seeking a country of permanent residence. Agencies such as Amnesty International, the Inter-Parliamentary Union and the International Commission for Jurists co-operated with UNHCR on problems concerning basic human rights.
375. The total financial contributions of voluntary agencies to the various programmes of UNHCR in 1979 amounted to some $17.6 million, which represented approximately 6 per cent of all contribution to the Office.
Nansen Medal Award
376. The Nansen Medal for 1979 was presented to Mr. Valéry Giscard d'Estaing, President of the French Republic, in recognition of the traditional concern shown by France for the uprooted and of the general policy of asylum extended to millions of refugees and displaced persons over the last 50 years. The Government and people of France have made a significant contribution to resolving the problem of refugees from South-East Asia by assisting large numbers of Indo-Chinese to resettle in France.
377. In 1979, for the first time, the award of the Nansen Medal carried a monetary prize of $50,000. President Giscard d'Estaing announced that half the prize would go towards financing a rural hospital in Kampuchea, and the other half towards building a school for children in a refugee camp in Botswana.
E. The International Year of the Child
378. The International Year of the Child (IYC) in 1979 provided an opportunity to draw attention to the particular plight of refugee children. Throughout the year UNHCR participated in the work of the IYC Advisory Group which was set up to co-ordinate the activities of the United Nations system. At the final meeting of the Advisory Group, in April 11080, it was decided that UNHCR would receive 40 per cent of the proceeds of the IYC Trust Fund to continue its activities on behalf of refugee children. It is expected that UNHCR will derive not less than $2 million from this fund.
379. The compendium of projects entitled The Refugee Child was widely distributed. In addition to serving as an excellent public information tool, the publication inspired contributions of some $3 million to projects for refugee children. Other public information activities were undertaken in the course of 1979 in collaboration with the IYC secretariat, the non-governmental organizations/IYC Committee, UNICEF offices throughout the world, Governments, national IYC commissions, voluntary agencies and individuals.
380. It was gratifying to note that measures in the fields of international protection, health and welfare and education were implemented in a number of countries on behalf of refugee children.
CHAPTER IX FINANCING OF MATERIAL ASSISTANCE ACTIVITIES
381. As is evident from the foregoing report, 1979 has seen an unprecedented growth in the number of refugees falling within the scope of the assistance activities of UNHCR. The financial requirements have increased proportionately, demanding considerable resources in order to implement these programmes effectively. Recognizing these needs, the Executive Committee of the High Commissioner's Programme, at its thirtieth session in October 1970, approved an increase in the General Programmes for 1979, from $87,880,000 to $177,658,000.15 The response of the international community was generous and the Programmes were fully financed. During 1979 non-governmental organizations contributed $17 million towards all programmes, which represents nearly a 100 per cent increase over the previous year.
382. During 1979, the High Commissioner launched a number of appeals for Special Programmes: the Kampucheans in Thailand, the repatriation of Burmese from Bangladesh and the humanitarian assistance to returning refugees and displaced persons in Uganda and Nicaragua. Some were well funded while others, unfortunately, failed to reach the requisite targets. Given the unpredictability of refugee needs, it is inevitable that a number of programmes either under the General Programmes or under Special Programmes will need to be launched or expanded during a given year, thus requiring an additional effort from donors if unanticipated needs are to be met.
383. At its thirtieth session, the Executive Committee approved a target of $233,895,000 for General Programmes in 198016 reflecting increased needs especially in Africa and South-East Asia, where UNHCR's ongoing activities need to be expanded and consolidated in order to achieve UNHCR's established Coal of seeking durable solutions for the refugees. This target, together with requirements anticipated under already identified Special Programmes, means that some $500 million may be required from voluntary contributions during 1980. These Special Programmes include three appeals launched during the first quarter of 1980, namely for Afghan refugees in Pakistan, the repatriation of Zimbabwean refugees and to cover increased needs for refugees in Somalia. Total contributions in 1980 for both General and Special Programmes as of 31 March 1980 amounted to some $257 million.
384. Table 3 of annex II shows contributions to UNHCR General and Special Programmes for the years 1979 and 1980, which were paid or pledged as of 31 March 1980.
385. Governments have clearly demonstrated their willingness to support the activities of the High Commissioner's Office, as can be appreciated by their response to the increased needs. It is crucial for the well-being of refugees and the balanced and effective delivery of assistance by UNHCR that donors continue to recognize the importance of early and unearmarked pledges as well as the flexibility to respond to additional needs as they arise.
CHAPTER X PUBLIC INFORMATION
386. Public Information continued its activities aimed at the international media and at focusing attention on the plight of refugees and, in particular, as 1979 was the International Year of the Child, on children. World-wide publicity was given by the media to the departure by boat of tens of thousands of Indo-Chinese and to the Meeting on Refugees and Displaced Persons in South-East Asia convened at Geneva in July 1979 by the Secretary-General of the United Nations. A large number of journalists attended this conference and continued to cover follow-up activities. The role of UNHCR in providing protection and assistance to refugees often figured prominently in articles and television programmes devoted to refugee questions.
387. As a result of this increased Publicity the media began to give greater coverage to the missions of the High Commissioner and the Deputy High Commissioner to Africa, Europe and Asia, and to the press conferences held at Geneva and elsewhere by other members of the High Commissioner's staff. The pan-African Conference on the Situation of Refugees in Africa was widely reported in Africa and helped underscore the fact that the largest number of refugees in the world is on the African continent.
388. Public Information maintained regular contact with the press, radio and television. UNHCR representatives continued to keep the press in their respective countries informed, and in a number of regions where media interest is high, staff members in the regional office have been specifically designated to work with the media. There were an increased number of requests by journalists and television crews for UNHCR assistance in reporting on various situations around the world.
389. Co-operation between UNHCR and voluntary agencies is of long standing. UNHCR continued to provide public information materials in the form of films, photos, posters, printed materials, calendars, etc. to support the fund-raising projects and information campaigns of these organizations. The basic brochures outlining UNHCR's history and objectives were translated into new languages for wider distribution.
390. The Film Department was particularly active during the reporting period. The following films were among those produced and distributed: "Neither Here nor There", on the "boat people" in Pulau Bidong; "The Monsoon of Hope", on repatriated Burmese from Bangladesh; "The End of the Road" on H'mong camps in Thailand; "Sigaalow, Town of Dust" on refugees in Somalia; and "Waiting for a Future", on Ethiopian refugees in the Sudan. Other films were being produced in English, French and certain other languages, on refugee women (in the context of the United Nations Decade for Women), on Kampuchean refugee children in Thailand and on the camp of Khao-i-Dang which accommodates Kampucheans in Thailand.
391. The photolibrary continued to expand. Demand for black and white and colour photos increased three-fold during the reporting period. More than a dozen photo exhibits were organized in Europe and elsewhere by Public Information.
392. The bimonthly publication News from UNHCR was published regularly in English and French; special issues were devoted to topics such as the Conference on the Situation of Refugees in Africa and voluntary agencies. The publication has been expanded from 8 pages to 12, with colour used for the first time on the front page. Special editions were prepared in Spanish and German.
393. The circulation of Refugee Update, the fortnightly fact sheet containing the latest information concerning refugees around the world'. has increased five-fold and has gained a wide audience among the press, voluntary agencies and Governments.
394. Co-operation continued with the United Nations Department of Public Information, both in Geneva and New York, especially in the field of radio.
(Note: Financial and statistical data tables not included in this online version. See your nearest UN Depository Library.)
1 1 April 1979 to 31 March 1980; except for statistical and financial data, most of which cover the calendar year 1979.
2 Resolutions 34/60, 34/61 and 34/62 of 29 November 1979, 34/161 and 34/174 of 17 December 1979.
3 United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 189, No. 2545, p. 137.
4 Ibid., col. 606, No. 8791, p. 267.
5 See Report of the Conference on the Situation of Refugees in Africa, Arusha, United Republic of Tanzania, 7-17 May 1979 (REF/AR/CONF/Rpt.1), abridged version issued as A/AC.96/INF.158.
6 Official Records of the General Assembly, Thirty-fourth session, Supplement No. 12A (A/34/12/Add.1), para. 72 (2) (f).
7 Ibid., Thirty-second Session, Supplement No. 12A (A/34/12/Add.1), para. 53 (5) (c).
8 Ibid., thirty-fourth Session, Supplement No.12 (A/34/12), para.34.
9 Ibid., Thirty-fourth Session, Supplement No. 12 (A/34/12), para. 34.
10 Ibid., Thirty-fourth Session, Supplement No. 12A (A/34/12/Add.1), para. 72 (1) (f); Thirty-third Session, Supplement No. 12A (A/33/12/Add.1), para. 68 (l) (I); Thirty-second Session, Supplement No. 12A (A/32/12/Add.1), para. 53 (6) (d).
11 Ibid., Thirty-second Session, Supplement No. 12A (A/32/12/Add.1), para. 53 (3).
12 See annex I to the present report for a table showing the status of accessions to the relevant instruments.
13 Adopted by the General Assembly on 14 December 1950 as the annex to resolution 428 (v).
14 Official Records of the General Assembly, Thirty-fourth Session, Supplement No. 12 (A/34/12), PARA. 94.
15 Ibid., Thirty-fourth Session, Supplement No. 12A (A/34/12/Add.1), para. 125 (f) (ii).
16 Ibid., para. 125 (f) (iv).