The Republic of Tajikistan currently hosts the largest number of refugees in Central Asia, originating primarily from neighbouring Afghanistan. The country has a National Law on Refugees and Government conducts refugee status determination (RSD). UNHCR continues to work with Government to ensure that its legal framework is in line with international standards, while supporting refugees to locally integrate in their host communities. Greater emphasis has been placed on livelihoods in order that refugees can become independent, contributing members of society.

Under its statelessness mandate, UNHCR in cooperation with the Government of Tajikistan is working on preventing and reducing statelessness. Statelessness in Tajikistan, as with many of the Central Asian States, has been the by-product of the dissolution of the former Soviet Union; migration, including in the context of the civil war and mixed marriages; gaps in nationality legislation and policy or administrative obstacles preventing the acquisition or confirmation of nationality.

UNHCR works with the Government, UN agencies, international organizations and NGO partners in Tajikistan on emergency preparedness in the framework of the Inter-Agency Working Group on the Afghanistan Situation.