Refugees from Angola's Cabinda enclave cautious about returning

News Stories, 7 March 2005

© UNHCR/T.Vargas
The visiting refugee delegation discussing home conditions with residents of Miconge commune in Angola's Cabinda region.

LUANDA, Angola, March 7 (UNHCR) Refugee leaders who fled Angola's oil-rich enclave of Cabinda during the long-running separatist conflict, recently went back home on a "go-and-see" visit to assess whether conditions were suitable for them to return. But after a three-day trip visiting three municipalities, leaders said they would be reluctant to come home unless conditions improved. Now, they've gone back to the Republic of Congo (Congo) to tell their fellow refugees what they saw.

The "go-and-see" visit by six refugee representatives in late February was the first of its kind to Cabinda, an oil-rich piece of Angolan territory separated from the rest of the country by a strip of Congolese territory and embroiled in a 27-year-long conflict between the government and separatist rebels.

Since the peace accords were signed in April 2002 ending Angola's own civil war, more than 310,000 Angolan refugees have returned home to the main territory from surrounding countries. But because of the continuing separatist conflict, only limited numbers have returned to Cabinda, leaving some 1,750 Angolan refugees from the enclave in Congo and a similar number in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Many have lived outside Cabinda since the 1970s, when separatist troops sparked trouble in the enclave.

After visiting the potential return municipalities of Dingo, Buco Zau and Belize with staff of the UN refugee agency and high-ranking representatives of both governments, the refugee leaders from three communities in Congo said they were concerned about the massive presence of the Angolan military and lack of infrastructure. They also said more needed to be done before they would be willing to return home.

One refugee women noted that "all we saw were troops, troops, troops!" The authorities explained that troops were found in all countries and were there to establish and provide security for all citizens. The same refugee responded that the visiting group had concluded there was not yet peace. "If there was peace, we could come back tomorrow. But for now, we would have to go from village to village in search of peace, and we are just tired of that." Another refugee said they saw that "we can live in the towns but we still can't live in the villages."

Given the delicate security situation, UNHCR is not promoting repatriation to Cabinda yet, but the visit is seen as a first step towards reviewing the current policy. Cabinda's provincial government is keen to see refugees repatriate in larger numbers than previously, and briefed the refugee visitors on efforts for the socio-economic rehabilitation of the enclave and reiterated support for a larger repatriation operation with UNHCR assistance. The Cabinda authorities have already identified a site for a future reception centre some 40 km north of Cabinda Town, the provincial capital.

In 2002, some 7,000 refugees returned to Cabinda, many with UNHCR assistance. But the refugee agency does not organise or encourage group repatriation at this stage, and does not have a permanent presence in Cabinda. Earlier in 2001, UNHCR helped some 800 Angolans in Congo return home in a convoy.

© UNHCR/Geographic Information and Mapping Unit

The recent visit by refugee representatives from Congo was organized after a recommendation by the Tripartite Commission for Repatriation, which includes the governments of Angola and Congo, plus UNHCR.

Currently some 133,000 Angolan refugees are still in exile in neighbouring countries, with nearly half of those expected to return back to Angola in 2005 the last year UNHCR is organising a voluntary repatriation programme.

By Fernando Mendes and Melita H. Sunjic in Angola




UNHCR country pages

Return to Swat Valley

Thousands of displaced Pakistanis board buses and trucks to return home, but many remain in camps for fear of being displaced again.

Thousands of families displaced by violence in north-west Pakistan's Swat Valley and surrounding areas are returning home under a government-sponsored repatriation programme. Most cited positive reports about the security situation in their home areas as well as the unbearable heat in the camps as key factors behind their decision to return. At the same time, many people are not yet ready to go back home. They worry about their safety and the lack of access to basic services and food back in Swat. Others, whose homes were destroyed during the conflict, are worried about finding accommodation. UNHCR continues to monitor people's willingness to return home while advocating for returns to take place in safety and dignity. The UN refugee agency will provide support for the transport of vulnerable people wishing to return, and continue to distribute relief items to the displaced while assessing the emergency shelter needs of returnees. More than 2 million people have been displaced since early May in north-west Pakistan. Some 260,000 found shelter in camps, but the vast majority have been staying with host families or in rented homes or school buildings.

Return to Swat Valley

Tanzanian refugees return to Zanzibar

The UN refugee agency has successfully completed the voluntary repatriation of 38 Tanzanian refugees from Zanzibar who had been residing in the Somalia capital, Mogadishu, for more than a decade. The group, comprising 12 families, was flown on two special UNHCR-chartered flights from Mogadishu to Zanzibar on July 6, 2012. From there, seven families were accompanied back to their home villages on Pemba Island, while five families opted to remain and restart their lives on the main Zanzibar island of Unguja. The heads of households were young men when they left Zanzibar in January 2001, fleeing riots and violence following the October 2000 elections there. They were among 2,000 refugees who fled from the Tanzanian island of Pemba. The remainder of the Tanzanian refugee community in Mogadishu, about 70 people, will wait and see how the situation unfolds for those who went back before making a final decision on their return.

Tanzanian refugees return to Zanzibar

The Reality of Return in Afghanistan

Beyond the smiles of homecoming lie the harsh realities of return. With more than 5 million Afghans returning home since 2002, Afghanistan's absorption capacity is reaching saturation point.

Landmine awareness training at UNHCR's encashment centres – their first stop after returning from decades in exile – is a sombre reminder of the immense challenges facing this war-torn country. Many returnees and internally displaced Afghans are struggling to rebuild their lives. Some are squatting in tents in the capital, Kabul. Basic needs like shelter, land and safe drinking water are seldom met. Jobs are scarce, and long queues of men looking for work are a common sight in marketplaces.

Despite the obstacles, their spirit is strong. Returning Afghans – young and old, women and men – seem determined to do their bit for nation building, one brick at a time.

Posted on 31 January 2008

The Reality of Return in Afghanistan

Nigeria: Back to schoolPlay video

Nigeria: Back to school

When gun-toting Boko Haram insurgents attacked villages in north-eastern Nigeria, thousands of children fled to safety. They now have years of lessons to catch up on as they return to schools, some of which now double as camps for internally displaced people or remain scarred by bullets.
Return to SomaliaPlay video

Return to Somalia

Ali and his family are ready to return to Somalia after living in Dadaab refugee camp for the past five years. We follow their journey from packing up their home in the camp to settling into their new life back in Somalia.
One Year On: Angelina Jolie-Pitt Revisits Syrian Refugee FamilyPlay video

One Year On: Angelina Jolie-Pitt Revisits Syrian Refugee Family

In June 2015, the UNHCR Special Envoy Angelina Jolie-Pitt made a return visit to Lebanon to see Hala, a feisty 11-year-old girl she met a year ago and one of 4 million Syrian refugees. Jolie-Pitt introduced her daughter Shiloh to the Syrian family.