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Far from family, young female refugees from Myanmar find friendship

News Stories, 7 March 2007

A group of refugee women in Malaysia. Several hundred female refugees under the age of 18 are in Malaysia on their own and finding others to live with can provide them with a surrogate family in exile.

KUALA LUMPUR, March 7 (UNHCR) Two teenagers sip iced tea at a roadside stall in Kuala Lumpur, their conversation peppered with laughter. But despite their happy demeanour, the two young women have suffered a lot and face an uncertain future far away from their families in Myanmar.

Sarah and Rachel fled Myanmar two year ago at the age of 15 to escape a very real threat of sexual and physical abuse and they have been struggling to find their footing in Malaysia ever since. Their story is not uncommon.

"In the refugee world, we often encounter the unfortunate situation where refugee children end up on their own in the host country because their parents were unable to leave for a variety of reasons or because they got separated from them during flight," said Volker Turk, UNHCR representative in Malaysia.

In most cases, a relative or a friend takes care of them, but sometimes they are completely on their own. "For these children, in particular girls, their age and gender make them especially vulnerable to exploitation and abuse, and we must do everything to prevent that from happening," Turk added.

UNHCR has registered some 43,000 refugees and asylum seekers in Malaysia. About 4,000 are females aged under 18, and half of them are in the country on their own, while some 27,000 of the total come from Myanmar.

With International Women's Day on Thursday, UNHCR is putting a spotlight on uprooted females and reaffirming its commitment to prioritising women's and girl's protection risks and support gender equality. This year's theme is, "Ending Impunity for Violence against Women and Girls."

Sarah and Rachel met last year while taking part in a UNHCR-organised hairdressing course that they hope will increase their chances of finding a decent job. Their similar experiences in Myanmar and Malaysia and their shared sense of loneliness have brought the girls very close together.

Both were happily studying at school when their lives were overturned by violence, or the threat of violence and sexual abuse; both had a traumatic time leaving the country; and both have experienced hard times in Malaysia.

"People often say I was very brave because I was so young to be travelling without family, but I had no choice," said Sarah. "Unknown men had come to my house and ordered me to work for them. But I was sick and I said I could not do it. They beat me up. The villagers were afraid to help and they told my father that I should leave the village because the men will come back looking for me."

In Rachel's case, her mother arranged for the girl and her sister to leave after armed men raped her sibling and threatened to come back. The two sisters were separated during their trip. "I was physically and emotionally sick for a long time after I arrived because I had never been separated from my family before," Rachel recalled.

To pay off the outstanding amount on her family's debt, Sarah said she was forced to work for the agent who had arranged for her to be smuggled into Malaysia. "I cleaned, washed and did other household chores, but there were many male tenants living in the house and I felt uncomfortable," said Sarah, who alleged that she was physically and verbally abused.

She moved out last year after finding work at a Japanese restaurant, but quit this job when the manager asked her to entertain clients in a new karaoke room. Rachel, meanwhile, works in a restaurant for a minimal wage. The hours are long, but she is glad to have a job.

Despite the hardships, both girls believe things have taken a turn for the better and despite low moments they remain optimistic about the future. They have also found a surrogate family brought together at the UNHCR hairdressing course, Sarah and Rachel and other asylum seekers from Myanmar share a flat run by a local community group.

"I think about going home, but I can't right now," said Rachel. "I want to be educated and become a nurse. In the small village I come from, I have seen many poor people die because they didn't have access to medication, doctors or nurses. I want to take care of these kinds of people whether they are in Myanmar or anywhere else in the world."

For the time being, she hopes to use the skills picked up during the two month UNHCR course to make enough money to live on and, one day, pay for a college course. The course was aimed at giving new marketable skills to young refugee women from countries like Myanmar and Indonesia.

"I was really interested in the programme even though I had never considered becoming a hairdresser," said Rachel. "When we began, I didn't know anyone in the class but by the end we were all friends."

By Yante Ismail in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia




UNHCR country pages

How UNHCR Helps Women

By ensuring participation in decision-making and strengthening their self-reliance.

UNHCR's Dialogues with Refugee Women

Progress report on implementation of recommendations.


Women and girls can be especially vulnerable to abuse in mass displacement situations.

Women in Exile

In any displaced population, approximately 50 percent of the uprooted people are women and girls. Stripped of the protection of their homes, their government and sometimes their family structure, females are particularly vulnerable. They face the rigours of long journeys into exile, official harassment or indifference and frequent sexual abuse, even after reaching an apparent place of safety. Women must cope with these threats while being nurse, teacher, breadwinner and physical protector of their families. In the last few years, UNHCR has developed a series of special programmes to ensure women have equal access to protection, basic goods and services as they attempt to rebuild their lives.

On International Women's Day UNHCR highlights, through images from around the world, the difficulties faced by displaced women, along with their strength and resilience.

Women in Exile

Refugee Women

Women and girls make up about 50 percent of the world's refugee population, and they are clearly the most vulnerable. At the same time, it is the women who carry out the crucial tasks in refugee camps – caring for their children, participating in self-development projects, and keeping their uprooted families together.

To honour them and to draw attention to their plight, the High Commissioner for Refugees decided to dedicate World Refugee Day on June 20, 2002, to women refugees.

The photographs in this gallery show some of the many roles uprooted women play around the world. They vividly portray a wide range of emotions, from the determination of Macedonian mothers taking their children home from Kosovo and the hope of Sierra Leonean girls in a Guinean camp, to the tears of joy from two reunited sisters. Most importantly, they bring to life the tremendous human dignity and courage of women refugees even in the most difficult of circumstances.

Refugee Women

Statelessness and Women

Statelessness can arise when citizenship laws do not treat men and women equally. Statelessness bars people from rights that most people take for granted such as getting a job, buying a house, travelling, opening a bank account, getting an education, accessing health care. It can even lead to detention.

In some countries, nationality laws do not allow mothers to confer nationality to their children on an equal basis as fathers and this creates the risk that these children will be left stateless. In others, women cannot acquire, change or retain their nationality on an equal basis as men. More than 40 countries still discriminate against women with respect to these elements.

Fortunately, there is a growing trend for states to remedy gender discrimination in their nationality laws, as a result of developments in international human rights law and helped by vigorous advocacy from women's rights groups. The women and children depicted here have faced problems over nationality.

Statelessness and Women

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