Report of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
United Nations General Assembly Official Records: Thirty-seventh Session
Report of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
Supplement No. 12 (A/37/12)
1. Until their plight has been permanently resolved, refugees rely on the generosity of the international community for their survival. During the reporting period, the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) pursued the search for appropriate and durable solutions to the problems of refugees. At the same time, new arrivals in Africa, Central America, Asia and Europe required emergency relief and enlarged many existing refugee populations.
2. Special attention was given by the international community to the situation of refugees in Africa; while there were promising results in some areas, continued vigilance and intensified action were required elsewhere. In South-East Asia the resettlement of massive numbers of Indo-Chinese through the concerted efforts of resettlement countries, UNHCR and voluntary agencies has significantly reduced the overall caseload, although an important number still remain in need of durable solutions. Elsewhere in Asia, the situation of Afghan refugees in Pakistan continued to give rise to serious concern and to require a substantial amount of assistance. In Central America, the refugee situation remained tense and volatile, requiring increased UNHCR presence and action. New outflows of refugees in Europe called for involvement by the Office on a slightly larger scale than usual on that continent. Against the background of such serious developments in various parts of the world, the High Commissioner welcomed several important instances of voluntary repatriation, with encouraging signs that this would continue.
3. In the field of international protection, 10 countries acceded to the 1951 United Nations Convention relating to the Status of Refugees and/or to the 1967 Protocol, including States in a region which was hitherto unreprsented several States also adopted national legislation in line with the provisions of those international instruments. However, during the reporting period, the High Commissioner was also deeply concerned by occurrences of cases of refoulement and detention of refugees.
4. The leading responsibility of the High Commissioner in emergency situations regarding refugees was again reaffirmed by the General Assembly.1 At its thirty-sixth session, the Assembly adopted a total of 11 resolutions2 requesting UNHCR to continue or initiate action on behalf of refugees and other persons of concern to the Office.
5. The High Commissioner depends on the support of the international community in effectively executing the responsibilities accorded to him under the Statute of his office. He was grateful for the generous responses he received to his special appeals for support to various programmes. Relations with the members of the Executive Committee of the High Commissioner's Programme have been strengthened through improvement of the flow of information between member States and the Office. A Sub-Committee on Administrative and Financial Matters was established at the thirty-first session of the Executive Committee and contributed constructively to preparations for the thirty-second session. Informal meetings with members of the Executive Committee kept them abreast of the major refugee developments between the annual sessions. The High Commissioner was also grateful for the co-operation and support of other United Nations organs, specialized agencies and non-governmental organizations.
6. Expenditure for 1981 amounted to some $474 million, an overall reduction of the 1980 figure. A total of $319 million was spent under General Programmes, and $155 million under Special Programmes.
7. On 14 October 1981, during the thirty-second session of the Executive Committee, the Permanent Representative of Norway took the floor to announce that the Norwegian Nobel Committee had awarded the 1981 Nobel Peace Prize to the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. In accepting the Prize in Oslo on 10 December 1981, the High Commissioner announced that the 1 million Swedish kroner ($184,162), awarded along with the Prize, would be used to establish a Trust Fund for Handicapped Refugees.
CHAPTER I INTERNATIONAL PROTECTION
8. The following paragraphs describe developments that have occurred in the field of international protection during 1981. While some of these developments have certainly been positive, the more general context contains elements which necessarily give rise to concern.
9. There are indications that Governments in different areas of the world are adopting an increasingly restrictive approach in granting durable asylum and in identifying persons to be regarded as refugees of concern to the international community. This restrictive approach may be due to the continuing arrival of substantial numbers of asylum-seekers which, in certain countries, has led to a wave of public hostility against asylum-seekers in general. Moreover, the economic recession in a number of countries has encouraged the view that all aliens - including refugees - were potential competitors for limited or decreasing economic opportunities. This in turn has resulted in an identification of refugees with ordinary aliens and thereby overlooking their special situation.
10. In line with these developments increasing attention is being paid in many quarters to the causes of refugee situations and to problems connected with large-scale influx. In this specific context it is, however, of the utmost importance to ensure that the fundamental principles of international protection, defined in international instruments and in the legislation of many countries, should not in any way be weakened, endangered or called into question. This applies in particular to the principles relating to asylum and non-refoulement.
11. Needless to say, as further refugee problems arise, fresh responses from the international community may be called for. The formulation of such responses, while fully preserving the standards already achieved and accepted, will be the challenge for international protection in the years ahead.
B. Principles of protection and refugee rights
12. During the reporting period, countries in various parts of the world were confronted with increasing requests for asylum. while large numbers of refugees were granted admission on a durable basis, the overall trend has been for States to pursue more restrictive policies with regard to the finding of durable solutions for refugees and asylum-seekers. In certain parts of the world, asylum-seekers are admitted as a matter of principle on a temporary basis only - a practice frequently resorted to by States confronted with a large-scale influx of asylum-seekers. The various problems associated with this phenomenon were discussed by the Executive Committee at its thirty-second session. Basing itself on the conclusions of a Group of Experts convened by the High Commissioner in April 1981, the Executive Committee specifically stated that asylum-seekers in large-scale influx situations were entitled to international protection.3 It also identified a number of basic minimum standards of treatment to which asylum-seekers who have been admitted temporarily - pending the finding of a durable solution - should be entitled.
13. The Executive Committee also concluded that the measures of protection so defined should extend both to persons who are refugees within the traditional refugee definition as well as to persons meeting 'wider' criteria, i.e., persons who are compelled to seek refuge outside their country of origin because of external aggression, occupation, foreign domination or events seriously disturbing public order in either part or the whole of that country. During the reporting period, large numbers of persons falling within the latter category of refugees were granted or continued to enjoy asylum on a temporary basis, pending voluntary repatriation or resettlement in a third country.
14. It is, of course, important that the principle of asylum whether it be granted as a durable solution or only on a temporary basis - be applied in a even-handed and non-discriminatory manner. The need for States to accord refugees the benefits of universally accepted principles of protection without discrimination as to race, religion or country of origin is recognized in the major international refugee instruments, viz. the 1951 United Nations Refugee Convention, the 1967 Protocol and the 1969 OAU Convention Governing the Specific Aspects of Refugee Problems in Africa. The High Commissioner was therefore concerned to note that during the period under review several countries were more restrictive in their approach to asylum requests from certain groups than they were with regard to others. The High Commissioner hopes that these States will apply the principles of asylum in such a way as to benefit all groups of asylum-seekers without distinction.
15. At the treaty-making level, the institution of asylum has been further strengthened. An important event in this regard was the adoption in July 1981 of the African Charter of Human and Peoples' Rights, which recognizes the right of every individual, when persecuted, to seek and obtain asylum.4 The Universal Islamic Declaration on Human Rights, adopted in September 1981, is also of significance in that it states that every persecuted or oppressed person has the right to seek refuge and asylum, irrespective of race, religion, colour or sex.5
16. On the national level, new laws and administrative measures concerning the admission of refugees or procedures for determining refugee status - which, of course, are of relevance to asylum - were adopted in a number of countries during the reporting period. Legislation enacted by Japan, pursuant to its accession to the 1951 United Nations Refugee Convention and the 1967 Protocol, contains a provision concerning the grant of temporary asylum to persons arriving by sea and also provides for the possibility of granting permanent residence to recognized refugees. Amendments to immigration legislation adopted by Australia during 1981 also specifically mention persons recognized as refugees as being eligible for permanent residence in that country. A decree establishing a national refugee commission for the purpose of examining asylum requests was adopted in Panama, and in Belgium, revised aliens legislation containing more liberal provisions relating to asylum came into force. In Africa, draft legislation on the admission of refugees is under consideration in Burundi, Kenya, Zambia and Zimbabwe and in several of these countries such legislation has reached an advanced stage of preparation. In Swaziland, comprehensive guidelines were issued for the grant of asylum and determination of refugee status.
17. The importance of the principle of non-refoulement has repeatedly been stressed by States which have consistently reaffirmed their support and adherence to this fundamental norm. It is therefore disappointing to record that during the reporting period asylum-seekers were forcibly returned to countries where they were in danger of persecution or even in risk of their lives.
18. A number of measures of refoulement brought to the High Commissioner's attention involved asylum-seekers who were fleeing conflict or civil disorder in their home country. In one region, agreement between the military forces of neighbouring countries of asylum and origin resulted in repeated measures of refoulement involving individuals and small groups of asylum-seekers. In the same region, some 2,000 asylum-seekers were returned to their strife-torn country while efforts were being made to ascertain the validity of their claims for asylum.
19. In the Office's experience, it has happened that refugees were forcibly returned because they did not have documents attesting to the fact that their asylum request was under consideration or, if asylum had already been granted, to their legal status as refugees. During the reporting period, two incidents occurred in one region in which measures of refoulement were taken against refugees because they had no such documentation in their possession or because such documentation as they did have was not considered sufficient.
20. Such recurring violations of the principle of non-refoulement are of the utmost concern. They show that continued vigilance by the Office is called for to ensure universal observance by States of this most fundamental principle.
21. Circumstances may arise in which the activities of a refugee may lead the country of asylum to envisage his or her expulsion. In view of the serious consequences of such a measure for a refugee, the 1951 United Nations Refugee Convention permits expulsion only in very exceptional circumstances, i.e. when factors of national security or public order are involved. UNHCR seeks to ensure that measures of expulsion should only be taken in respect of a refugee if these are clearly justified, and that the refugee can benefit from the procedural guarantees provided for in article 32 of the 1951 United Nations Refugee Convention. The High Commissioner is encouraged to report that comparatively few refugees were subjected to expulsion measures from their country of asylum during the reporting period and that in those cases where expulsion was resorted to, the circumstances involved were of a serious nature.
22. UNHCR encourages the inclusion by States in their refugee or aliens legislation of provisions delimiting the circumstances in which an expulsion order may be issued against a refugee. In Portugal, an article contained in the Decree Law on Entry, Residence, Departure and Expulsion of Aliens adopted in 1981 specifies that the measures of expulsion shall only be taken with regard to refugees in conformity with the international refugee instruments, to which Portugal is a party. Provisions along similar lines are contained in draft refugee legislation currently under consideration by a number of other countries.
4. Physical safety of refugees and asylum-seekers
23. Threats to and violations of the physical safety of refugees and asylum-seekers have continued and, to a certain extent, intensified during 1981. The High Commissioner has frequently been called upon to express his serious concern at incidents involving acts of physical violence against refugees.
24. The problem of pirate attacks on asylum-seekers in the South China Sea, which the High Commissioner first brought to the attention of the international community some four years ago, showed no sign of abatement during the reporting period. Evidence compiled during 1981 showed that some 50 per cent of asylum-seekers reaching the shores of their country of first asylum had fallen victim to physical assault and robbery in the course of their flight. Numerous cases involving murder and abduction were also recorded.
25. It is gratifying to note that the coastal States in the region have consistently undertaken such anti-piracy activities as they were able to within the resources available to them. It should, however, be recalled that piracy has been condemned as an international crime, for the repression of which all States are responsible. The 1958 Convention on the High Seas specifically calls upon all States to co-operate to the fullest possible extent in order to combat this most heinous of crimes, an appeal which is also contained in the recently adopted Convention on the Law of the Sea. UNHCR, for its part, has closely co-operated with the States in the area in the implementation of their anti-piracy programmes. In Geneva, the High Commissioner has regularly met representatives of interested Governments and the International Committee of the Red Cross in order to identify ways in which the international community as a whole could combat this grave problem.
26. The incidence of pirate attacks in the South China Sea dramatically highlights the dangers encountered by asylum-seekers in search of safe refuge. It is also believed that others - an undocumented number - have died on the high seas from other causes, such as drowning and starvation. Elsewhere in the South Asia region and in Central America, refugees were shot down - sometimes by the hundreds - while trying to reach the safety of a refugee camp.
27. In certain parts of the world, the conditions of treatment of refugees in camps where there is no international presence has given rise to concern. In one region, the office had cause to request the authorities to investigate allegations of brutality against refugees by camp security guards. In other countries, refugees in camps were once again the victims of attacks by the military forces of neighbouring countries. Pursuant to a decision of the Executive Committee at its thirty-second session,6 UNHCR is examining the serious humanitarian problems resulting from such attacks on refugee camps and settlements which are of concern to the Office and the need for special measures to ensure the safety of the refugees accommodated in these camps.
28. The reporting period witnessed an increasing number of incidents in which refugees and asylum-seekers were detained on account of their illegal entry or presence in a country of asylum. Where such cases came to the attention of UNHCR, the Office was able to visit the location - often prisons - where the refugees were detained and its démarches were sometimes successful in securing their release. Such démarches may extend over a period of time. In one country, where the situation of a group of refugees who were held for some time under a state of siege was the subject of ongoing discussion, all the cases have now been resolved successfully and the persons concerned permitted to settle abroad.
29. There have also, however, been cases in which the detention of refugees only came to the Office's attention after they had been imprisoned for long periods of time because they had been denied the opportunity of obtaining any form of legal representation or of contacting UNHCR. On several such occasions, the refugees were subsequently found to have been mistreated during their period of imprisonment. Irrespective of whether they are detained or not, it is of course important that asylum-seekers be able to contact UNHCR. In the specific context of large-scale influx, the need for UNHCR to be given access to asylum-seekers was recognized by the Executive Committee at its thirty-second session.7
30. The Office has found that refugees are frequently detained because, pending clarification of their status, they are regarded as illegal immigrants. It should be recalled in this connection that article 31 of the 1951 United Nations Refugee Convention provides that states should not impose penalties on refugees on account .of their illegal entry or presence, nor should they apply to the movements of such refugees restrictions other than those which are necessary and these only until their status is regularized or admission is obtained into another country. The practice of States with regard to the detention of refugees during the determination period varies. In some States, asylum-seekers are not detailed at all. In others, asylum-seekers are detained for short periods and then released under bond or to relatives. In still other countries, asylum-seekers are kept in detention for the entire period during which their applications are being considered.
31. There are indications that the practice of detaining asylum-seekers, sometimes for indeterminate periods of time, is on the increase. This development is a matter of grave concern, as is the practice adopted by several States during the reporting period to detain refugees in order to deter others from seeking asylum in their territory. It is hoped that States will refrain from resorting to such measures of deterrence and that in future refugees will only be detained in clearly exceptional circumstances.
6. Economic and social rights
32. As in past years, practices of States with regard to the granting of economic and social rights to refugees have differed widely. As regards gainful employment, refugees and asylum-seekers were affected by the general economic downturn and encountered difficulties in obtaining lawful access to the labour market. An additional factor in certain countries of Western Europe was the increase in the number of asylum requests, which led to a more restrictive attitude on the part of the authorities in regard to the granting of work permits to asylum-seekers. Recognized refugees in those countries, however, have generally continued to receive work permits and were thus allowed to seek gainful employment under the same conditions as nationals or their country of residence. Such practices may be specifically provided for in the labour legislation of States. In Portugal, as a result of administrative measures issued during the reporting period, the position of recognized refugees with regard to the right to work has been assimilated to that of nationals.
33. Apart from the economic difficulties which refugees who are unable to obtain gainful employment will necessarily encounter, extended periods of idleness may give rise to social problems vis-à-vis the local population, particularly where the refugee is receiving international assistance. Where limited employment opportunities exist for refugees, they can be assisted by being permitted to work in internationally funded development projects. An agreement to grant work permits to refugees benefiting from such projects was reached between UNHCR and the authorities of several countries during the reporting period.
34. As regards access to educational opportunities, the practice of States is more encouraging. In most countries, refugees encounter little difficulty in entering primary schools on the same basis as nationals. They may also generally compete for places in educational institutions at the secondary and tertiary levels, often with the assistance of nationally or internationally funded scholarships. In countries where asylum has been granted on a temporary basis only, refugees are generally barred from attending schools, but primary and secondary schooling is frequently available in the context of internationally funded assistance programmes. Liberal practices with regard to the education of refugee students at the tertiary level are followed by a number of countries in Africa. In Lesotho, 25 per cent of annual university admissions are reserved for, refugees and consideration is being given to a proposal along similar lines in Swaziland. In Gabon, university places have been made available to refugees granted asylum in other African countries.
35. Some problems have been encountered by refugees with regard to the recognition of their educational and professional qualifications. Obtaining evidence of such qualifications frequently involves procedures which often lead to negative results. In this connection, it should be noted that the provisions governing the recognition of academic and professional qualifications contained in various regional Conventions for the Recognition of Studies, Diplomas and Degrees in Higher Education8 also apply to refugees.
36. It is, of course, important that refugees be issued with appropriate documentation, so that they can readily be identified as persons entitled to international protection and also to enable them to travel outside their country of residence. Steady progress has been achieved over the years with regard to the issue by States of identity and travel documents to refugees.
37. With regard to identity documents, as noted in paragraph 19 above, measures of refoulement were taken against undocumented refugees during the reporting period. Such incidents highlight the importance of refugees being provided with some form of documentation attesting to their refugee status so that they can avail themselves of the internationally recognized standards of treatment established for their benefit. The issue of identity documentation may also assist the country of asylum in keeping an orderly record of the number of refugees and asylum-seekers within its territory.
38. During 1981, identity cards were issued to refugees on a large scale in a number of countries. In Pakistan, all recognized refugees were issued with one of several types of identity document. In Honduras, identity cards were issued to all refugees assisted by UNHCR in the border regions. In Malaysia, as in past years, identity cards were issued to all arriving Indo-Chinese refugees awaiting resettlement. Programmes for the issue of identity documentation were also undertaken in Kenya, the Sudan and Zambia; in Kenya, refugees were also exempted from the payment of fees for the issuance and renewal of their Aliens Registration Certificate. In Somalia and the United Republic of Tanzania, agreement was reached between UNHCR and the competent authorities for the issue of identity documentation to refugees lawfully residing in these two countries.
39. Provisions for the issue of convention travel documents (CTDs) to recognized refugees have been incorporated in legislation adopted by Japan in 1981 to implement the 1951 United Nations Refugee Convention. A provision governing the issue of CTDs also figures in the Decree Law on the Entry, Residence, Departure and Expulsion of Aliens which was adopted by Portugal in September 1981.
40. It is encouraging to note that in many other countries CTDs are being issued to refugees who wish to travel outside their country of asylum. Over the years, States have adopted an increasingly liberal approach with regard to the issue of CTDs with return clauses having a sufficiently long period of validity, although the office's assistance continues to be sought in cases where the non-renewal of CTDs creates difficulties for refugees who are outside the country of issue.
41. The Office continued to print CTDs to be made available to Governments on request and some 8,000 were provided by UNHCR to Governments during 1981. These documents are now produced in trilingual combinations of Arabic, English, French, Portuguese, Spanish and, most recently, in a bilingual Kiswahili and English version.
42. With regard to other types of documentation, problems frequently arise for refugees in furnishing evidence of their civil or personal status. In Malaysia, documents relating to personal status may henceforth be issued to refugees awaiting resettlement in transit camps following a governmental decision to this effect during 1981.
8. Acquisition by refugees of a new nationality
43. Where voluntary repatriation is excluded or is not feasible in the foreseeable future, the acquisition by refugees of the nationality of their country of asylum is one of the accepted solutions to refugee problems.
44. During the reporting period, in certain parts of the world large numbers of refugees sought and obtained the nationality of their country of residence. In the United Republic of Tanzania, a programme was completed involving the naturalization of some 36,000 former Rwandese refugees. In certain countries of traditional immigration, refugees continued to benefit from provisions which enable immigrants to acquire nationality within a relatively short period of time. In other countries, the pattern was for very few requests for naturalization to be submitted or granted.
45. The legislation of a number of countries takes special account of the circumstances of the refugee by either reducing the period of residency that is required of an ordinary alien to obtain citizenship or by waiving other formal requirements. Measures of this kind are of course envisaged by article 34 of the 1951 United Nations Refugee Convention which calls upon States parties to make every effort to expedite naturalization proceedings (for refugees) and to reduce as far as possible the charges and costs of such proceedings. In view of the importance of facilitating the final integration of refugees, it is hoped that more States will consider the possibility of adopting such measures.
C. Determination of refugee status
46. During the reporting period, numbers of persons who had fled their home country in large-scale influx situations were considered to be refugees by virtue of a so-called prima facie group determination of refugee status based on an objective assessment of their reason for flight. In Africa, such persons included those who fell within the widened definition of the term 'refugee' which figures in the OAU Convention Governing the Specific Aspects of Refugee Problems in Africa (art. 1, para. 2) and persons meeting such criteria were also considered refugees in other areas.
47. In determining refugee status on an individual basis, a number of Governments have adopted a more restrictive approach than in previous years. In some countries, that development involved an assumption that certain groups of asylum-seekers were a priori ineligible for refugee status. Elsewhere, it involved more onerous standards of proof being required of certain categories of asylum-seekers. While the High Commissioner fully supports efforts by Governments to ensure that only genuine refugees are recognized as such, he nevertheless wishes to stress the importance of the adoption by States of liberal practices in determining refugee status.
48. Measures for establishing determination of refugee status procedures were adopted in a number of countries during the reporting period. In Japan, such a procedure was provided for in legislation adopted to implement the 1951 United Nations Convention. In Panama, a decree was adopted during 1981 creating an interministerial refugee commission whose functions include the determination of refugee status. National refugee commissions with similar functions were set up in Honduras and Belize, and in the United Republic of Tanzania, a decision was taken to establish a body for determining refugee status during 1982.
49. In other countries, existing procedures for identifying refugees were streamlined or modified. In Australia, improved procedures were adopted with a view to ensuring a more thorough examination of asylum applications. In Canada, the recommendations of a task force specially established for the purpose resulted in the adoption of new guidelines for implementing the procedures which can be regarded as exemplary. In the European context, an important development was the adoption by the Council of Europe of a Recommendation on the Harmonization of Natural Procedures relating to Asylum.9 This recommendation reflects and further develops the basic requirements for refugee status determination procedures which were identified by the Executive Committee at its twenty-eighth session10 and thus provides asylum-seekers with additional guarantees for a fair and equitable hearing of their applications. In Costa Rica, administrative regulations were issued which detail the documentary evidence required of applicants for refugee status in support of their claim.
50. While it is important - as has been stressed by successive sessions of the Executive Committee - that procedures for the determination of refugee status be established by States, it is no less important that, once established, they should function on a regular basis. During the reporting period, in several countries the machinery for determination of refugee status fell into disuse or did not function effectively, thus resulting in a sometimes substantial backlog of pending applications. In one instance, the fact that the determination machinery was not functioning may have been a contributory factor in the refoulement of a group of asylum-seekers whose requests for refugee status had been pending for some time but had not been finally determined.
D. Voluntary repatriation
51. One of the basic functions of UNHCR, as defined in the statute of the Office, is to facilitate the voluntary repatriation of refugees. If conditions permit, voluntary repatriation is the best solution for the refugee problem.
52. At its thirty-first session the Executive Committee examined the various questions connected with the possible voluntary return of refugees to their country of origin and agreed upon certain basic principles to be followed by States in facilitating and promoting voluntary repatriation.11 Regard was had to these principles during the implementation of a large-scale repatriation operation launched in the last quarter of 1981 to assist the return of the 150,000 refugees from Chad who had sought asylum in neighbouring countries. The commencement of the return programme was preceded by the accession by Chad to the 1951 United Nations Refugee Convention and 1967 Protocol and by the issue of an amnesty to refugees from Chad in exile. A tripartite commission comprising representatives of Chad, the United Republic of Cameroon - where the vast majority of refugees from Chad had been granted asylum - and UNHCR was also established to promote the repatriation programme. within Chad itself a commission was set up to monitor the implementation of the amnesty. By the end of the reporting period, over 66,000 refugees from Chad had repatriated from the United Republic of Cameroon to their home country under UNHCR auspices, while many more returned of their own accord. Smaller numbers also returned from Nigeria and the Central African Republic. In addition, at the request of the Secretary-General of the United Nations and the government authorities, UNHCR also assisted some 50,000 internally displaced persons in N'Djamena. The deadline permitting the repatriation of refugees from Chad was subsequently extended into 1982 so that all those who still wished to return might be given an opportunity to do so.
53. Elsewhere in Africa, where voluntary repatriation is regarded as an important factor in the resolution of refugee problems, smaller groups of refugees were able to return to their home country. The final caseload of Zimbabwean former refugees, the majority of them students who had completed their studies, returned to their country of origin, thus bringing to a close this United Nations-sponsored repatriation programme. Smaller numbers of refugees from Burundi, Ethiopia, Uganda, and Zaire also returned to their respective countries of origin, some with the assistance of UNHCR, others of their own accord, during the reporting period. In Zaire, two tripartite commissions comprising representatives of Angola, Uganda and UNHCR met with Zairian officials to study the possible return to these two countries.
54. In other parts of the world, conditions did not permit the voluntary return of refugees on a large scale. A limited number of refugees were, however, able to repatriate to Chile, having obtained prior approval of the government authorities. In Bolivia, discussions are being pursued with a view to the establishment of ad hoc procedures to facilitate the voluntary return of Bolivian nationals who left their country following recent events there. In South-East Asia, a sizeable group of Kampucheans are known to have repatriated from the Lao People's Democratic Republic and smaller numbers from Viet Nam and Thailand. In September 1981, the Lao Government confirmed its willingness to permit the repatriation of Lao living abroad and to allow UNHCR to facilitate the repatriation of refugees and to assist them on their return. During 1981, some 800 Lao refugees repatriated to their home country from Thailand under UNHCR auspices and were provided with assistance to facilitate their reintegration.
E. Family reunification,
55. The Executive Committee at its thirty-second session considered a number of problems which have arisen in recent years with regard to the reunification of separated refugee families. Particular attention was focused on difficulties encountered by refugees as a result of different definitions of the family nucleus, the need to furnish documentary evidence of marriage and filiation and the requirement in a number of countries that the refugee head of the family be established in employment and housing prior to reunification with other members of his or her family. It was generally recognized that, in view of its special situation, the refugee family deserves more generous treatment than that accorded to ordinary immigrants so that the problems which might otherwise prevent or delay family reunification can be speedily overcome.
56. At its thirty-second session the Executive Committee also examined the problems which have arisen in the context of family reunification involving unaccompanied minors, infants and young children in countries of first asylum in South-East Asia. Procedures have been established in refugee camps in this region to facilitate the reuniting of families that have become separated in the course of flight. Although these procedures have met with a relatively high rate of success, problems have arisen when parents or close relatives have been traced only after the child had been placed in a foster home outside the region or even adopted. In this connection, the Executive Committee stressed the importance of efforts to trace parents or close relatives both before and after the resettlement of unaccompanied minors.12
57. In spite of a number of outstanding problems such as those outlined above, the High Commissioner has, in recent years, been able to report a generally positive response by Governments to his efforts to reunite separated refugee families. This favourable climate has enabled the Office to develop a pattern of contacts and procedures with Governments for dealing with family reunification requests. The implementation of such procedures is, however, dependent upon the continuing goodwill of Governments. In one region where, in past years, an increasing proportion of positive results could be recorded, a more restrictive approach was resorted to by the authorities during the reporting period. As a result of this development, a large number of cases involving requests for family reunification from this area remain unresolved. More positive results could, however, be recorded during 1981 in other regions of the world. In Africa, the generally favourable approach of States towards family reunification facilitated the successful conclusion of cases where separated family members were to be found in countries both within the region as well as in other parts of the world. In South-East Asia, the principle of family reunification formed the basis for the, resettlement abroad of a substantial number of refugees who had been granted asylum in one country. The same principle also permitted the departure at an accelerated rate of nationals of this country who had close family links with persons already resettled abroad.
F. International instruments13
1. Statute of the Office of the High Commissioner14
58. The statute of the Office of the High Commissioner defines the persons of concern to the High Commissioner and the action he may take on their behalf. During the reporting period, the High Commissioner frequently relied on his statute to determine which persons fell within his competence and were thus entitled to international protection. In some cases, such determination involved individuals while in others it related to groups of refugees.
59. Determination of refugee status under the UNHCR statute is frequently resorted to in countries where refugee problems occur but where the basic international refugee instruments are not applicable. The High Commissioner may also be called upon to determine refugee status in a country which is a party to the 1951 United Nations Refugee Convention15 but not the 1967 Protocol,16 or while a party to the Protocol maintains the geographical limitation. During the reporting period the High Commissioner was also called upon in certain situations to determine refugee status under his statute in order to facilitate the resettlement of refugees in third countries.
60. The High Commissioner's authority to apply the statute in this way is reinforced by the fact that the General Assembly resolution to which it is annexed specifically calls upon Governments to co-operate with him in the performance of his functions in favour of refugees.17 This exhortation to the world community to work in concert with UNHCR also strengthens the High Commissioner's capacity to perform his international protection functions.
2. The 1951 United Nations Convention relating to the Status of Refugees and the 1967 Protocol
61. The High Commissioner is pleased to note further progress in the number of accessions to the basic international refugee instruments - the 1951 United Nations Refugee Convention and the 1967 Protocol. During the reporting period, the following 10 States acceded to either or both these instruments: Angola, Bolivia, Chad, Egypt, Japan, Kenya, Lesotho, Philippines, Sierra Leone, Zimbabwe, thus bringing the total number of States parties thereto to 92. Accession by the Philippines and Japan was of special significance since these States are in a region which has hitherto been wholly unrepresented among States parties to either the Convention or the Protocol. The High Commissioner was also encouraged to learn of the intention of a number of other States to accede to the Convention and the Protocol.
62. Heightened awareness by States of the importance of measures to give legal effect to the provisions of the Convention and Protocol can also be recorded and is reflected in the increasing number of requests by States for the office's advice in preparing measures to this effect. During the reporting period, the Office was particularly active in this field in the African region, where guidelines for national refugee legislation prepared by the Office in co-operation with the Organization of African Unity (OAU) as part of the follow-up to the 1979 Arusha Conference on the Situation of Refugees in Africa have provided the basis for the preparation of refugee legislation in Kenya, the United Republic of Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe.
3. Other international legal instruments relating or of relevance to refugees adopted at the universal level
63. In addition to the 1951 United Nations Refugee Convention and 1967 Protocol, a number of instruments which are of relevance to refugees have been adopted at the international level.
64. These instruments include the 1957 Agreement and the 1973 Protocol Relating to Refugee Seamen to which 18 and 14 States respectively are parties. The High Commissioner continues to promote further accessions to these instruments as well as to the 1954 Convention relating to the Status of Stateless Persons and the 1961 Convention on the Reduction of Statelessness.
65. There has been a steady increase in the number of States parties to the international Covenants on Human Rights, which are also of relevance to refugees. There are currently 73 and 70 States parties to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, respectively.
4. International instruments concerning refugees adopted at the regional level
66. The adoption of standard-setting regional instruments continues to play an important role in supporting the High Commissioner's protection activities at the international level. In Africa, where the legal status of the refugee is well defined in the 1969 OAU Convention Governing the Specific Aspects of Refugee Problems in Africa, the institution of asylum has been further strengthened by the incorporation of a provision on asylum in the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights. That charter was adopted in Nairobi in 1981 and specifically affirms the right of every individual, when persecuted, to seek and obtain asylum.
67. In Latin America, an extensive legal framework of relevance to refugees has been developed over the years by the adoption of a number of inter-American conventions relating to asylum. The need for the concepts and standards defined in these regional instruments to be harmonized with those accepted on the international level was recognized by a Colloquium on Asylum and the International Protection of Refugees in Latin America which was held in Mexico in May 1981.
68. The Council of Europe has, during the reporting period, continued its well-established tradition of examining questions relating to the legal situation of refugees. An important development was the adoption on 5 November 1981 by the Committee of Ministers of a Recommendation on the Harmonization of National Procedures relating to asylum which strengthens and expands upon the various criteria accepted to date at the international level. Further accessions to the European Agreement on the Abolition of Visas and the European Agreement on the Transfer of Responsibility for Refugees were recorded during 1981.
G. Promotion, advancement and dissemination of principles of protection and of refugee law
69. In recent years, increased emphasis has been given to the promotional and dissemination aspects of the international protection activities of UNHCR. There is a widely perceived need for the principles of international protection to be clearly understood, particularly by officials who are in contact with refugees in the course of their work. While the training of such officials is clearly the function of their respective Governments, the office can assist by making available the expertise that it has acquired in this field since its establishment. To that end, in December 1981, UNHCR organized in Ottawa, in conjunction with the Canadian Ministry of Immigration and Employment, a Workshop on the Determination of Refugee Status which was attended by senior Canadian immigration officials and representatives of UNHCR.
70. UNHCR is also very conscious of the need to promote a climate of public opinion that is both understanding of the problems of refugees and favourable to the further development of principles for their protection. At the academic level, the office seeks the support of human rights bodies, law associations, legal research bodies and individual jurists. One of the Office's principal non-governmental partners in this area is the International Institute of Humanitarian Law at San Remo, which in recent years has convened a series of round tables on matters of topical interest in the field of refugee law.
71. Efforts to promote the teaching of international protection as a separate branch of international law have gained impetus in recent years. A landmark event in this regard was the Symposium on the Promotion, Dissemination and Teaching of Fundamental Human Rights of Refugees which was held in Tokyo in December 1981 under the joint auspices of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), UNHCR and the United Nations University. The Symposium, inter alia, considered the ways in which research into and the teaching of refugee law could be fostered both within institutions of higher learning and the public at large.
72. The work of legal experts has played an acknowledged part in the history of the development of refugee law. The Office particularly values the expertise of such persons when brought together in an independent capacity to study refugee problems occurring in a given area of the world. In South-East Asia, the conclusions of a working group established by the 1980 Manila Round Table on Current Problems in the International Protection of Refugees and Displaced Persons in Asia are being followed up. In Latin America, the Colloquium on Asylum and the International Protection of Refugees held in Mexico in May 1981 brought together a number of legal experts to study ways in which inter-American concepts of asylum and refugee status could be made to coalesce with those adopted at the international level. The conclusions reached on this question will undoubtedly provide a solid basis for the further development of refugee law in this region. At the international level, at the request of the Executive Committee at its thirty-first session18 the High Commissioner convened a Group of Experts in April 1981 to study the question of temporary refugee in situations of large-scale influx. The conclusions of this Group of Experts were considered by the Executive Committee at its thirty-second session and were adopted as its own conclusions on the protection of asylum-seekers in situations of large-scale influx.19
CHAPTER II ASSISTANCE ACTIVITIES IN AFRICA,
A. General developments
73. Africa continues to harbour some 5 million refugees and displaced persons. There were major repatriation movements during the reporting period but there were also continuing arrivals of new groups of refugees in some countries. African refugees are traditionally made welcome in their country of asylum. A large number of African states are party to the 1951 United Nations Convention relating to the Status of Refugees and to the 1967 Protocol as well as to the 1969 OAU Convention Governing the Specific Aspects of Refugee Problems in Africa. National legislation has also helped in many cases to strengthen adherence to the principle of non-refoulement.
74. Relief assistance continued to be necessary in 1981 for the large refugee populations in the Horn of Africa and the Sudan where the situation was aggravated by natural disasters in Somalia, limited possibilities for durable solutions in Djibouti and large numbers of new arrivals of refugees in Sudan. In each case UNHCR, in co-operation with the respective Government, attempted to implement a programme which would provide an appropriate level of relief aid and care and maintenance without losing sight of the need to pursue the search for durable solutions.
75. At the request of the Secretary-General of the United Nations, beginning in early 1981, UNHCR started to make arrangements for voluntary repatriation to Chad from neighbouring countries, and for a programme of assistance to returnees limited in time and scope. The programme began in June 1981, and an amnesty proclaimed in July by the Government of Chad drew an immediate response. The Secretary-General also requested the High Commissioner to include some 50,000 displaced persons in the programme, bringing the total number of persons to be assisted to 200,000. During the repatriation operation, the major phase of which was completed between October and December 1981, 200 to 300 families per day were repatriated from the United Republic of Cameroon. The programme completed its operational phase as scheduled on 31 March 1982. Further reconstruction and development assistance will be extended by other agencies of the United Nations system.
76. A noteworthy international event during the reporting period which concerned refugees in Africa, was the holding of the ministerial-level International Conference on Assistance to Refugees in Africa (ICARA), in Geneva on 9 and 10 April 1981. UNHCR provided the secretariat, and joined the United Nations and the organization of African Unity in sponsoring the event which was attended by representatives of 99 Governments, plus United Nations bodies, specialized agencies and voluntary organizations. The three major objectives of ICARA were to focus attention on the plight of refugees in Africa, to mobilize additional resources for refugee programmes in Africa and to assist countries of asylum adversely affected by the large-scale presence of refugees to obtain international assistance for projects aimed at strengthening the ability of those countries to carry the extra burden placed on their services and facilities. The Conference succeeded in raising world consciousness about the plight of refugees in Africa and the problems of asylum countries and resulted in pledges of some $574 million. Those funds allowed ongoing refugee programmes in Africa for 1981/1982 to be partially covered. Following the Conference, a Steering Committee - composed of representatives of the three sponsoring organizations - was set up to ensure that arrangements were made for the implementation of the conclusions of the Conference and that funds were channelled to priority projects.
77. In co-operation with OAU, UNHCR continued actively to follow up on the recommendations of the Conference on the Situation of Refugees in Africa held in May 1979 in Arusha, United Republic of Tanzania. Following specific a recommendations, papers on legal questions have been completed and transmitted to OAU for subsequent discussion by the OAU/UNHCR Working Group on Arusha. A preliminary study has been carried out of institutions involved in matters relating to refugee law, with a view to the eventual creation of an African centre for teaching, training, dissemination and research in this field. A workshop for government officials on the management of rural settlements was held in Dar-es-Salaam, United Republic of Tanzania in September 1981, and another workshop on the problems of refugees in Zaire was planned for Kinshasa in the latter part of April 1982.
78. Obligations in Africa totalled over $111 million under General Programmes and $55 million under Special Programmes, as indicated in table 1 of annex II below. Of the total amount of $166.4 million, over $97 million went to promote local settlement; $3,554,282 were made available from the Refugee Education Account, and $3,744,466 were provided for assistance to southern Africa, including obligations from the allocation administered by UNHCR on behalf of the United Nations Trust Fund for South Africa.
B. Main developments in various countries or areas
79. On the occasion of the International Conference on Assistance to Refugees in Africa (ICARA), the Government of Algeria estimated the number of Sahrawis in Algeria to be 150,000. At its thirty-first session, the Executive Committee approved a programme of humanitarian assistance to Sahrawi refugees in Algeria in 1981. Projects were set up in co-operation with the Algerian Red Crescent to permit the establishment of infant care clinics, the improvement of existing health facilities, the expansion of primary school facilities as well as the procurement of various items such as women's clothes, leather for locally-made sandals, canvas for tents, etc. Some 85 tons of enriched food were purchased for Sahrawi children in the Tindouf area.
80. The refugee population in Algeria, other than Sahrawis, remained at about 2,000 in 1981. This group is composed mainly of elderly refugees of European origin, who continued to receive monthly allowances for medical treatment and rent subsidies, and students from Africa and Latin America who received educational assistance and supplementary aid.
81. A total of $1,905,761 was obligated for assistance in Algeria in 1981; $1,637,346 under General Programmes and $268,415 under Special Programmes.
82. The refugee population in Angola at the end of 1981 was composed of 70,000 Namibians, 18,000 Zairians and 5,000 South Africans. The increase of some 20,000 refugees over the previous year was accounted for by new influxes of Namibians.
83. The UNHCR programme of assistance to Namibians continued to concentrate on meeting needs in the fields of health, education, shelter, agriculture, transport and domestic items. The programme was subject to modifications, due to the repeated armed attacks from outside into Angolan territory which made medium- and short-term planning virtually impossible. Fort 1981, $2.8 million were obligated under General Programmes, and donations in kind including clothing, medicines, educational supplies and medical equipment valued at $807,563 were made available under Special Programmes.
84. The local integration project for 18,000 Zairians who chose to remain in Angola after the June 1978 amnesty decree proceeded satisfactorily. A total of $471,000 was obligated for the purchase of construction materials, sanitary equipment, tractors, agricultural material and domestic utensils for rural settlements near Luanda, Malange, Kwanza-Sul and Kwanza-Norte.
85. UNHCR continued to assist the group of South African refugees by financing the air transport of food supplies.
86. Total expenditure in Angola amounted to $5,126,063, of which $3,822,770 under General Programmes and $1,303,293 under Special Programmes.
87. According to the government estimates there were 1,300 refugees in Botswana at the end of 1981, consisting mainly of Angolans, South Africans and Namibians; almost half of the refugees reside in the Dukwe Settlement. Forty-one refugees were voluntarily repatriated to various African countries and 37 were resettled, mostly in North America.
88. The Government of Botswana was the major financial contributor in 1981 to the Dukwe Settlement project, which is assisting refugees to achieve local integration through self-reliance. UNHCR and the Lutheran World Federation, which is the implementing agency, continued their financial contribution. Transport, health and educational services were provided at the settlement while agricultural, community development and supplementary feeding programmes were continued. Food supplies were provided by the World Food Programme under a bilateral agreement with the Government.
89. A total of 118 refugee students of various nationalities were admitted into the University, the Polytechnic, the National Health Institute as well as public and private schools in the country with financial assistance from UNHCR or the United Nations Educational and Training Programme for Southern Africa.
90. Obligations incurred in 1981 under General Programmes amounted to $637,676 and to $1,203,955 under Special Programmes.
91. On the occasion of the International Conference on Assistance to Refugees in Africa (ICARA) the Government of Burundi estimated the number of refugees in the country to be around 234,600. It has, however, been agreed to concentrate assistance activities on a group of some 50,000 in rural settlements. Multi-purpose assistance on behalf of unemployed urban refugees continued. Individual families were assisted within the rural integration programme, which also provided medicine and educational materials. Scholarships were offered to 250 refugee students at the lower secondary level, and some 400 were assisted at higher academic levels and with vocational training.
92. A project to construct and equip a hospital at Cankuzo was begun in late 1981. Some $1.5 million have been obligated thus far, and total costs are estimated at $2.5 million. The project is scheduled to be completed in 1982.
93. Obligations in Burundi for 1981 were $1,827,122 under General Programmes and $163,839 under Special Programmes.
94. Following the cessation of hostilities in Chad and a United Nations interagency mission to the country, the High Commissioner established, in consultation with the Governments of Chad and the asylum countries, a programme of assistance to facilitate the repatriation of those refugees who wished to return home. In June 1981 a UNHCR office was opened in N'Djamena, and in July an amnesty was declared by the Government and tripartite commissions representing the asylum countries, the home country and UNHCR were created. An agreement was signed in August by the Government, UNHCR and the voluntary agency Co-operative for American Relief Everywhere, Inc. (CARE) under which UNHCR would co-ordinate the repatriation and rehabilitation of returnees to N'Djamena.
95. The repatriation operation and the distribution of assistance in N'Djamena began on 1 October 1981. Elements of the programme included land and air transportation of refugees from their asylum country; distribution of food, blankets, clothing and materials to reconstruct destroyed homes; medical care, provided by Médecins sans Frontières doctors, at reception centres and dispensaries; transportation of repatriates from reception centres to their homes. By the end of 1981, the number of returnees to Chad was estimated at 150,000, including some 66,000 repatriated with assistance from UNHCR and approximately 84,000 who returned spontaneously, mainly from the United Republic of Cameroon. At the request of the Secretary-General of the United Nations and of the Chad authorities, the assistance provided in N'Djamena by UNHCR was also extended to some 50,000 internally-displaced persons in need of similar types of assistance as that offered to repatriates. By 31 March 1982, the total number of persons benefiting from UNHCR assistance was estimated at some 202,000.
96. From June to December 1981, a total of $6,633,702 was obligated for this special programme. This figure includes contributions in kind valued at $2,540,400 donated by the European Economic Community (EEC).
97. The number of refugees of concern to UNHCR in Djibouti at the end of 1981 was some 31,600, most of them from Ethiopia. Population surveys undertaken in the latter part of 1981 established that approximately 15,000 refugees live in each of the refugee camps, Ali Sabieh and Dikhil. About 1,200 urban refugees are registered in Djibouti town and a small group is settled just outside the capital.
98. In co-operation with the Government, UNHCR has continued actively to seek solutions for the relatively large refugee caseload in Djibouti. Projects aimed at bringing about a degree of self-sufficiency through cottage industries and small businesses were developed in 1981 for implementation in the course of 1982. A small number of refugees was able to benefit from resettlement schemes or scholarships abroad. However, in view of the difficulty of establishing rural settlements or implementing other types of local integration measures in Djibouti, UNHCR continued to extend mainly relief assistance to the refugees in 1981. Food and household utensils were provided and arrangements were made for medical care and supplementary feeding where necessary. Sanitary improvements in Ali Sabieh were undertaken by medical personnel provided by the League of Red Cross Societies. Funds were supplied to complete the infrastructure as well as a basic training workshop at the special transit centre at Ali Sabieh) the teaching equipment and materials for the workshop were based on the recommendations of consultants provided by the International Labour Organisation (ILO). In Dikhil, a voluntary agency maintained a medical team, with logistical support from UNHCR. Living conditions in the camps were further improved through construction of additional housing in food-for-work schemes supervised by voluntary agency technical personnel. UNHCR provided assistance towards the establishment on the outskirts of the capital of a group of some 200 refugees who had previously lived in highly unsatisfactory conditions in an area subject to frequent flooding.
99. Urban refugees benefited from limited food distribution and supplementary aid, as well as educational assistance in the form of scholarships to French-language schools, self-education activities and an English-language library.
100. UNHCR continued its contribution towards the running costs of a legal service which assisted in the refugee status determination procedure. Counselling services were also made available to individual refugees in 1981.
101. A total of $5,056,873 was obligated by UNHCR for assistance in Djibouti in 1981, of which $4,805,640 from General Programmes and $251,233 under Special Programmes.
102. The refugee population in Egypt remained stable at 5,500 during 1981.
103. The main activities of UNHCR concerned educational assistance, mainly for the Ethiopian refugee students, at all levels from primary school to university, including vocational training. A total of 242 refugee students were assisted at the lower secondary level and, under the Education Account, 284 were assisted at the higher secondary, university and higher technical training levels for the academic year 1981-1982. Other components of the programme are material assistance in the form of annuities, medical assistance and payments in cases of special hardship for mostly elderly persons of Armenian origin who have resided in Egypt for many years, supplementary assistance to refugees of various origins who were temporarily resident in Egypt or students pending educational placement, and socially-related activities including counselling.
104. One of the most urgent problems faced by UNHCR continues to be the decreasing resettlement opportunities for African refugees once they have terminated their studies or training. During 1981 more new refugees were registered at the Branch Office whilst fewer left Cairo than during the previous two years. The main reasons for that were the reduced resettlement prospects in the region and in general.
105. During 1981 a total of $2,092,559 was obligated for assistance to refugees in Egypt. This amount included $1,081,007 under General Programmes and $1,011,552 under Special Programmes.
106. During the reporting period, the number of refugees in Ethiopia, most of them of Sudanese origin, remained relatively constant at around 11,000. Some 5,500 southern Sudanese have been living for several years in the Gambela area and no longer required UNHCR assistance. The remaining Sudanese refugees, mostly men of rural origin, resided in camps at Ganduar. Since their arrival in Ethiopia in 1971/1972, they have received UNHCR care and maintenance and world Food Programme (WFP) food supplies. Consultations are under way with the parties concerned to find a durable solution and enable the group to become self-supporting.
107. Assistance to displaced persons in Ethiopia, which forms part of the special programme of assistance in the Horn of Africa, continued in 1981. Funds were provided for the purchase of vehicles, seeds, agricultural tools and equipment and transport costs. Since its inception in 1978, some $7.9 million have been provided for various humanitarian assistance measures in favour of more than 300,000 displaced persons in Ethiopia.
108. In co-operation with the Relief and Rehabilitation Commission of the Government of Ethiopia, UNHCR financed a pilot project of assistance to some 10,000 returnees to Ethiopia for which $1.3 million were obligated towards the end of 1980. Assistance included the construction and extension of reception facilities and limited material help to returnees while living in the reception areas plus a basic self-sufficiency package for each returnee family on leaving the reception centre for their region of permanent settlement. Following identified needs, an expanded programme for returnees to Ethiopia valued at some $20 million, including 25,000 tonnes of wheat worth some $6 million donated by the Government of Australia, was launched.
109. UNHCR continued to finance assistance measures designed to promote the local integration of individual refugees by assisting them to become self-supporting through placement in jobs, crafts and trades, apprenticeships and educational institutions. A number of urban refugees were retrained to improve their employment prospects; counselling played an important role in those cases.
110. Scholarships at the upper secondary and university levels were provided for six refugee students, and a contribution of $50,000 was made towards the operational budget of the Bureau for the Placement and Education of African Refugees of OAU.
111. A total of $7,295,846 was obligated by UNHCR in 1981, including $537,353 under General Programmes and $6,758,493 under special Programmes.
112. The total number of refugees at the end of 1981 was estimated at 3,400 including 1,400 Ethiopians, 1,100 Rwandese, 500 Ugandans and about 400 persons from various other countries. Although the majority of Ugandans were repatriated in 1979 and 1980 the influx resumed in 1981. Nearly 95 per cent of the refugees are of urban and semi-urban background, and most of them live in Nairobi.
113. The main thrust of assistance activities has been to achieve local integration for refugees in and around Nairobi and other urban centres. Assistance took the form of counselling, job placement or establishment of small-scale business and payment of allowances for accommodation, clothing, medical treatment, transport and education. Refugees seeking resettlement or repatriation were also helped. Scholarships were awarded to 282 students at the lower secondary level and to 75 students for higher education.
114. The Reception Centre at Thika, near Nairobi, started receiving new asylum-seekers in October 1981, and its capacity of 140 persons is fully utilized. The Government of Kenya has adopted a refugee status determination procedure which was worked out in consultation with UNHCR.
115. The case-load analysis has shown that only a relatively small number of refugees are likely candidates for local integration in rural areas. The proposal for the establishment of a rural settlement at Witu is therefore being re-examined in consultation with the Government. However, assistance to refugees in the Badassa Rural Settlement has continued.
116. The UNHCR programme of assistance to refugees has been formulated in consultation with the Government and with the co-operation of ILO, UNESOD and the All Africa Conference of Churches. Voluntary agencies such as the Joint Refugee Services of Kenya, the Kenya Catholic Secretariat and the Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA) implement the programme on behalf of UNHCR.
117. A total of $2,174,510 was obligated by UNHCR in 1981, of which $1,777,586 under General Programmes and $396,924 under Special Programmes.
118. According to current Government estimates, the refugee population in Lesotho at the end of 1981 was some 11,500 persons, most of whom are South African students residing in Maseru and other urban areas. About 10 per cent of that number received various forms of assistance from UNHCR in 1981, including local settlement and resettlement aid, and counselling.
119. Assistance concentrated mainly on providing additional facilities at the secondary, technical and tertiary educational levels in order to enhance the educational and employment prospects of refugees. The construction and equipment of three workshops at the Lerotholi Technical Institute in Maseru, completed in 1981, will enable courses in tailoring, dressmaking and upholstery to be provided to some 200 refugees.
120. Local voluntary organizations and agencies within the United Nations system provided various forms of financial and material assistance, mainly to refugee students at the National University of Lesotho. Following a request by the Government of Lesotho for the expansion of facilities at the National University, where refugees are studying, UNHCR obligated $1,103,896 in 1981 from funds made available for the purpose by a donor. Activities under the project included the construction of a 50-bed student residence and six staff houses, expansion of the cafeteria and of the sewage facilities.
121. The Reception Centre at Maseru, which was built to accommodate newly-arrived asylum-seekers and other destitute refugees was opened early in 1981. During the year 62 refugees benefited from the Centre's facilities.
122. Amounts of $467,840 under General Programmes and $1,252,009 under Special Programmes were obligated for refugees in Lesotho in 1981. Of the total of $1,719,849, a sum of $117,027 was made available from the United Nations Trust Fund for South Africa.
123. The refugee situation in Morocco remained virtually unchanged in 1981. The total refugee population was estimated at some 500, the majority of whom were elderly refugees of European origin; most of the others were students from Africa and Latin America.
124. Assistance measures included local settlement and supplementary aid, as well as educational and resettlement assistance. Specific measures included monthly allowances for elderly refugees and assistance covering medical treatment, rent subsidies and other daily needs. Supplementary aid and resettlement took the form of allowances for travel, clothing, food, medical care, temporary accommodation, etc.
125. A total of $23,293 was obligated from General Programmes and $6,110 from Special Programmes in 1981.
126. Following the repatriation of Zimbabwean refugees in 1980, approximately 100 refugees, most of them South Africans living in Maputo, remained in Mozambique at the end of 1981.
127. The major assistance activity in Mozambique in 1981 was the provision of supplementary aid. Four refugees were resettled, three of whom had received scholarships for further studies; two refugee families from Latin America were also resettled in Europe. The travel costs of 10 refugee students to the United Republic of Tanzania were paid by UNHCR.
128. Newly-arrived asylum-seekers and refugees in transit were provided with temporary accommodation and food at the reception centre in Maputo. UNHCR assistance also covered the recurrent costs of essential services, such as the provision of electricity, gas and water at the centre.
129. Total obligations in Mozambique during 1981 amounted to $158,237, of which $148,237 were under General Programmes and $10,000 under Special Programmes.
130. At 31 December 1981, as a result of the recent census, the refugee population of Rwanda was estimated to be some 18,000 persons, a majority of whom were from Burundi. These refugees are concentrated in the rural area of Mutara, in the capital, Kigali and in Butare. UNHCR assistance was mainly in the field of education, with 44 beneficiaries at the university level, 150 at the upper secondary level and 147 at lower secondary.
131. Trust funds were made available to the High Commissioner for improvements at the orphanage at Kacyiru and provision of equipment and educational materials. An amount of $65,515 was obligated in 1981. Total obligations in 1981 amounted to $350,819, of which $113,235 under General Programmes and $237,584 from Special Programmes.
132. A planning figure of 700,000 beneficiaries of assistance in refugee camps was agreed upon in early 1982 between the United Nations Inter-Agency Mission to Somalia and the Somali Government. This figure was used as the basis for the UNHCR 1982 programme. The 1981 programme initially had to emphasize relief assistance. During the second half of the year, however, emergencies, including drought and flooding with consequent outbreaks of disease and malnutrition, subsided. That required a reorientation of the programme and led to a revision of plans for 1982. While care and maintenance will continue at an appropriate level in all camps, a major effort is planned to engage refugees in land cultivation and other income-earning and self-help activities.
133. Refugees reside in 35 camps in the regions of lower Shebelli, Gedo, Hiran and the north-west. They are predominantly women, children and elderly men, and while large numbers are nomads, many do possess farming skills. Possibilities for a substantial increase in available farm land are being explored in 1982.
134. Co-ordination of the assistance programmes at the national level is primarily the responsibility of the Somali Government and its National Refugee Commission. UNHCR ensures co-ordination of the international assistance with food supplies channelled mainly through WFP. Considerable support has been received from other members of the United Nations system, in particular the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), IID, the world Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Volunteers. Other United Nations agencies such as the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (Habitat), UNESCO and the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) assisted UNHCR in an advisory capacity with various aspects of the programme. Technical teams provided by the Swiss Government and by some 30 voluntary agencies have been a major factor in the progress achieved.
135. To improve the delivery and distribution of food, an Emergency Logistics Unit was created and its management entrusted to a voluntary agency. Additional trucks, water tankers, tyres and spare parts were provided, and a network of transport facilities and monitoring system were established.
136. in the sphere of health, the work of 18 voluntary organizations coordinated by a Refugee Health Unit led to a marked improvement in the health situation throughout the camps. Construction of health centres for all camps was completed, while 1,600 community health workers from among the refugees were trained. Those measures complemented immunization programmes, the supply of medicines and medical equipment, and specific disease control projects.
137. In the field of education, emphasis was placed on training primary school teachers. In addition to 450 Somali teachers trained by national institutions under a UNHCR programme, an institute for in-service teacher training was set up. The institute had 500 refugee trainees in the first year. Secondary education and vocational training as well as non-formal education were also featured in UNHCR programmes.
138. Other assistance measures financed by or channelled through UNHCR included supplementary food, material to construct shelters, domestic items, communal facilities and water supply. The UNHCR-financed well-drilling project, implemented by UNICEF, continued and is expected to be completed by mid-1982.
139. Approximately 800 urban refugees were assisted by the counselling services in Mogadishu with such matters as family reunion, employment, education, housing and resettlement during 1981, 35 persons departed for resettlement in third countries. Supplementary aid was provided, mainly to refugees awaiting resettlement or camp placement. Funds were made available from the Education Account to assist 81 students at the university level.
140. Total obligations by UNHCR in 1981 amounted to $49,078,164, of which $36,111,449 under General Programmes and $12,966,715 under Special Programmes. Included in the total obligations are contribution in kind valued at $12,112,804.
141. During 1981, UNHCR continued to provide assistance to a large refugee population in Sudan. Due to the influx of refugees from Uganda, by the end of the year the Government estimated that there were 550,000 refugees in the country. This number includes 419,000 Ethiopians, 110,000 Ugandans, 16,000 refugees from Chad and 5,000 Zairians. In order to cope with this large refugee population, projects were established from the 1981 Emergency Fund to provide immediate relief assistance to the newly-arrived Ugandan refugees in southern Sudan and refugees from Chad in Western Sudan.
142. The local settlement programme was considerably expanded. To facilitate the local integration of the refugees, UNHCR provided funds for the establishment of nine new settlements (three in Eastern Sudan and six in Southern Sudan), which will be consolidated in 1982. UNHCR assistance included help in meeting subsistence needs, in constructing settlement headquarters and in ensuring an adequate water supply and other amenities. Seeds and agricultural machinery were provided for the agricultural settlements. To overcome the water shortage problem in the Gedaref area where new settlements will be established for Ethiopian refugees, UNHCR has engaged the services of rural water consultants for supply projects in Eastern Sudan (Qala-En-Nahal/El-Hawata and Gedaref).
143. In 1981, educational assistance was provided at the lower secondary academic and post-primary vocational/technical levels to 1,585 beneficiaries in various parts of the Sudan and 14 refugee students were assisted to take up scholarships abroad. In addition, funds from the Education Account provided assistance at the university and post-secondary vocational/technical levels to 57 refugee students.
144. During 1981, 284 Ethiopian refugees, 31 Ugandan refugees and 46 Zairian refugees were voluntarily repatriated under organized programmes. A total of 741 refugees were resettled, and another 119 reunited with their families abroad.
145. The UNHCR Counselling Service in Khartoum continued to provide assistance to the urban refugee population in arranging their education and vocational training and in meeting their medical and social needs. In 1981, some 7,500 refugees, including vulnerable groups and the handicapped, were assisted. Counselling services were also made available in other urban areas in the country where the case-load increased considerably during the year.
146. Contributions in kind, including blankets, medicines and tents valued at $280,973, were received, mainly for refugees from Chad.
147. Total UNHCR obligations in Sudan in 1981 amounted to $19,817,096, of which $17,688,502 under General Programmes and $2,128,594 under Special Programmes.
148. The total number of refugees in Swaziland at the end of 1981 was an estimated 5,600, virtually all of whom were South Africans. Some 400 refugees were granted asylum during the year.
149. Assistance towards the local integration of some 5,200 South African refugees at Ndzevane rural settlement in south-eastern Swaziland, on land made available by the Swazi Government, continued in 1981. Construction work on a primary school, a health clinic and a maternity ward will soon be completed. In early 1981 the first cotton crop of some 400 hectares was harvested and in November about 600 hectares were planted. Experimental plots have been planted with sunflower, maize, sorghum and cowpeas. The settlement now also enjoys an improved water supply and road system. WFP continued its food aid to the refugees, while UNICEF supplied equipment to the primary school and the clinic. The Lutheran World Federation, which acted as the implementing agency, contributed a total of $80,000 towards the administrative costs of the project in 1981.
150. Funds were obligated in 1981 to establish vocational and technical training facilities at the Mpaka Centre for refugees. Assistance included the construction and equipment of classrooms and workshops for metal work, bricklaying, panel beating, motor mechanics and technical drawing. The first group of students will be admitted in May 1982.
151. Assistance was given to individual refugees for local integration, supplementary aid, counselling and, where necessary and possible, resettlement abroad.
152. A total of $2,122,018 was obligated by UNHCR for assistance in Swaziland in 1981, including $2,056,540 from General Programmes and $65,478 from Special Programmes.
153. During the year the total number of refugees in Uganda remained unchanged at about 113,000. Of these nearly 80,000 are Rwandese, 32,000 are Zairians and the remaining 1,000 are of Ethiopian and Sudanese origin. The seven rural settlements accommodated 48,000 refugees at the end of the year, 3,000 more than at the beginning of 1981. Nearly 65,000 refugees now live outside the settlements.
154. Repair and reconstruction of rural settlements damaged or destroyed during the events of 1979 continued slowly. During 1981, tractors, vehicles, medicines, veterinary drugs and other articles of assistance were provided to refugees who cultivated land and owned nearly 100,000 head of cattle. Plans have been finalized in co-operation with the Government to improve water facilities, medical services and to buy school equipment.
155. The direct responsibility of the High Commissioner for the Special Programme of Immediate Humanitarian Assistance in Uganda, which had been launched in 1979 and for which contributions totalling more than $7 million were received, ended in March 1981 and the programme was subsequently administered by the Special Representative of the United Nations Secretary-General. Vehicles purchased by UNHCR were handed over to the Special Representative as well as $700,000 for assistance to returnees in the west Nile region.
156. During the year, UNHCR continued to assist individual refugees through programmes for counselling, local integration, secondary, technical and university education and supplementary aid. Assistance was also provided for resettlement and repatriation. Counselling services located in Kampala and Fort Portal, which is nearer to the rural settlements, have been enlarged.
157. An amount of $1,898,962 was obligated during the year, of which $754,225 under General Programmes and $1,144,737 under Special Programmes.
18. United Republic of Cameroon
158. The number of refugees from Chad in Kousséri was estimated at 110,000 at the end of 1980. By the end of December 1981, the refugee population in the camp had declined to 25,000 as a result of repatriation which took place from 1 October to the end of December 1981. During that period, slightly over 65,000 refugees repatriated to Chad with assistance from UNHCR, while over 80,000 returned by their own means. of the refugees who returned spontaneously, some 60,000 had previously been 'free-livers' in the United Republic. The number of refugees from Chad was further reduced during the first months of 1982 as a result of the continuation of the repatriation programme.
159. For those refugees who did not wish to return to Chad, a rural integration scheme was proposed for the Poli region, some 650 kilometres south-west of Kousséri. A transit centre was opened 50 kilometres west of Poli, near the Faro River, in order to be able to move the remaining refugees away from the border area immediately. Transfer of the refugees took place during March 1982, and Kousséri camp was subsequently closed.
160. Assistance to refugees in the United Republic of Cameroon had two principal aims in 1981: to assure the proper functioning of the camp at Kousséri, including care and maintenance of the refugee population, and elaborating and carrying out a voluntary repatriation programme to Chad, the details of which are given in paragraph 95 above.
161. In 1981 a total of $11,848,933 was obligated, of which $9,942,877 under General Programmes and $1,906,056 under Special Programmes. Under General Programmes, $8,836,879 were for multi-purpose assistance for the Chad refugees in Kousséri.
19. United Republic of Tanzania
162. The refugee population in the United Republic of Tanzania increased by approximately 8,000 during 1981 to a total of 164,000. A legal study undertaken towards the end of the year established that 9,000 of the Zairians spontaneously settled on the eastern shores of Lake Tanganyika could be considered refugees under the High Commissioner's mandate; their number had previously been estimated at 4,000. A few new arrivals, mainly from Burundi, and natural population growth accounted for the rest of the increase. The overwhelming majority of the refugees are from Burundi, most of them living in the rural settlements of Katumba (74,900), Mishamo (30,800), and Ulyankulu (24,800). The remaining 23,200 Burundi are spontaneously settled in the Kigoma area. Apart from the recently identified Zairians, the other main groups are Rwandese and South Africans, many of whom live in urban areas.
163. Most of the UNHCR assistance is administered by the Government and voluntary agencies, some of which make supporting contributions. Such assistance included local integration aid to individual refugees, lower secondary and vocational training, counselling, and help toward resettlement and repatriation. During 1981, 68 urban refugees were transferred to the Kigwa settlement where a communal gardening project was started and a co-operative shop opened.
164. A good deal of progress was reported at the Mishaino Settlement, especially in agriculture. By the end of 1981, all the 4,600 families who had been allocated a five-hectare plot were cultivating their lands. Most of the crops are staple foods but some cash crops are grown with the help of government experts. Blankets, clothing and domestic and agricultural equipment were supplied to each family. Five temporary clinics are now in operation, as are 16 temporary primary schools catering for 4,229 pupils. By the end of 1981 a total of 657 kilometres of road had been constructed within the various villages in the settlement, connecting them to the main Uvinza-Mpanda road, thus easing the transportation of supplies. In addition to UNHCR assistance, which totalled $4.7 million in 1981, WFP contributed food at a cost of $5 million and the implementing partner, Lutheran World Federation/Tanganyika Christian Refugee Service contributed $1.3 million.
165. Assistance provided by UNHCR in 1981 to the Pan-Africanist Congress Bagamoyo Centre was designed to enable the Centre to become self-sufficient in food. Funds were obligated for the purchase of livestock, building materials, tools, medical equipment, and for transportation costs in connection with the educational placement of southern African refugee students in the United Republic of Tanzania and elsewhere. In addition, contributions in kind consisting of food, clothing and domestic utensils were donated.
166. Total obligations by UNHCR in 1981 amounted to $6,838,869, of which $5,637,757 under General Programmes and $1,201,112 under Special Programmes.
167. During 1981, the influx of refugees from Uganda into Zaire continued. The total number of refugees was estimated to be around 365,000 at the end of the year, including some 215,000 Angolans in the Bas-Zaire, Kinshasa, Bandundu and Shaba regions, approximately 115,000 Ugandans in Haut-Zaire, 11,000 Burundi and. 22,000 Rwandese in the Kivu region and some 1,800 Zambians in the Shaba region.
168. In the Bas-Fleuve subregion, the rural settlement programme for Angolan refugees, implemented since 1977 by the Association Internationale de Développement Rural, has progressed satisfactorily. The number of refugees in the rural settlements of Kimbianga, Lundu Matende and Mfuiki remained at about 25,000.
169. A total of 7,733 hectares of arable land and some 41,000 agricultural tools have been distributed to these refugees since the opening of the settlements) 369,000 kilogrammes of seeds and seedlings were distributed in 1981 alone. the soil improvement programme continued, as did the elementary agricultural education programme. Almost 360 tonnes of food grown at the settlements were sold locally in 1981. Some rations were distributed, consisting mainly of maizeflour, oil, sugar and dried skimmed milk, and a mother and child nutrition programme carried out by Médecins sans Frontières was funded by UNHCR. Construction was nearly completed on dispensaries for each site, while primary schools and a secondary school were finished.
170. In the Cataractes subregion, the local assistance programme for Angolan refugees begun in 1979 continued until mid-1981. Local public health authorities took over three dispensaries in Mbanza-Ngungu, whereas the dispensary in Songololo was run by the Institut Médical Evangélique in Kimpese. The vaccination and nutritional programme initiated in 1980 was continued, and the medical infrastructure was handed over to the local medical authorities.
171. In the Haut-Zaire region, the rural settlement and emergency relief programme in the zone of Aru initiated in 1979 on behalf of Ugandan refugees had to be revised following a new influx in June 1981. Food, domestic items and agricultural tools and seeds were distributed with the help of donations from WFP, Catholic Relief Services and EEC. Temporary dispensaries and first-aid stations were set up and repairs made to the Aru hospital. Three doctors dispatched by Médecins sans Frontières were assisted by a team of refugee doctors and local medical personnel. A vaccination campaign against measles and tuberculosis was begun at the end of 1981. Some 60,000 refugees were moved away from the border area and various measures of assistance have been extended to facilitate their settlement in agriculture. The total number of refugees at the settlement sites at Aru was some 75,000 by the end of 1981. Expenditures in favour of Ugandan refugees in Haut-Zaire amounted to over $9.7 million.
172. Multi-purpose assistance was extended to some 1,200 Zambian refugees established in Shaba and to over 300 individual refugees in Kinshasa and Bukavu. Funds were also obligated to provide educational assistance to nearly 700 refugee students.
173. Total obligations in 1981 amounted to $21,123,149, including $15,227,599 under General Programmes and $5,895,550 under Special Programmes.
174. The total refugee population in Zambia on 31 December 1981 was estimated to be 40,500, of whom some 29,100 were Angolans, 4,700 Zairians, 4,300 Namibians, 2,200 South Africans and some 200 refugees of various origins. The majority were in Meheba rural settlement which accommodates nearly 10,500 refugees. Some 1,300 Angolans were at Mayukwayukwa settlement, 4,000 Namibians at the South-West Africa People's Organization (SWAPO) Nyango Centre, 2,000 South-Africans at the African National Congress (ANC) farm and some 700 refugees in urban areas. Angolan and Zairian refugees spontaneously settled in the western and North-Western Provinces were estimated to number 22,000. During the year there were some 1,600 new arrivals, most of them Namibians, and some 3,200 departures for repatriation, resettlement or for education purposes.
175. Major forms of assistance included social counselling, educational assistance at all levels and supplementary aid. Supply of food, medicines, clothing and the provision and expansion of education, health and agricultural facilities in the settlements were also undertaken. Assistance to the SWAPO Nyango Education and Health Centre for Namibian refugees and to the ANC farm continued in 1981. In early 1981, emergency aid was provided to Angolan refugees spontaneously settled in the Western Province. A programme of assistance was subsequently initiated, which included supplementary food supplies, seeds, agricultural equipment and improvements to health facilities.
176. The main assistance activities in the Meheba Settlement centred on agricultural development and improvements to the infrastructure. The refugees were involved in the planning and administration of the settlement through their elected leaders, and the growing of both food and cash crops through an established co-operative has improved. The settlement was handed over the Government at the end of March 1982.
177. Expansion and improvement of facilities at the Makeni Resource Centre could not be completed during 1981 due to shortages of building materials. However, the existing facilities were utilized to accommodate and provide care and maintenance to some 20 urban refugees who also received counselling. Two dormitory blocks, an ablution block and a workshop are under construction, and when completed the Centre will have facilities to accommodate 150 persons.
178. Total obligations in Zambia in 1981 amounted to $2,865,796, of which $1,920,431 under General Programmes and $945,365 under Special Programmes.
179. Almost all of the 111 refugees in Zimbabwe at the end of 1981 were South Africans residing in Harare and other cities. Newly arrived refugees and refugees in transit received multi-purpose assistance in the form of subsistence allowances, medical aid, school fees and accommodation. A small number were assisted towards resettlement and voluntary repatriation as well as lower secondary education.
180. The humanitarian assistance programme for the benefit of returnees and displaced persons within Zimbabwe coordinated by UNHCR was completed during 1981. The assistance programme included the provision of seeds, fertilizers, agricultural tools, vehicles, shelter, food, domestic utensils, care for orphans and the handicapped, agricultural training, land and water development programmes and expansion of educational facilities.
181. Total obligations in Zimbabwe in 1981 amounted to $7,641,127, of which $64,653 were under General Programmes and $7,576,474 under Special Programmes.
23. Other countries in Africa
182. In other countries in Africa not mentioned above, there were over 400,000 refugees of concern to UNHCR in 1981.
183. At the end of 1981, the Government of Nigeria estimated the total number of refugees in the country at some 105,000. Emergency funds were used to aid some 8,000 refugees from Chad living in camps in the north-western part of the country, and those who wished to repatriate were helped to do so. The educational assistance programme on behalf of southern African refugees continued. A group of 50 new Namibian refugees were offered places by the Nigerian Government in lower secondary school and some 20 refugee students were assisted at the higher secondary and university levels. A SUM Of $120,000 was obligated for multi-purpose assistance including local integration, resettlement, repatriation and supplementary aid to individual refugees. Counselling and legal services also continued, and total obligations amounted to $2,286,144.
184. At the end of 1981, it was estimated that there were some 4,000 refugees of various origins in Senegal, who received assistance through the Comité National d'assistance aux réfugiés. A project financed from the Emergency Fund in 1981 aimed to relieve the distress of rural refugees whose situation was aggravated by drought. Obligations of $573,574 from General Programmes provided for multi-purpose assistance, counselling, assistance to handicapped refugees and legal aid, while $385,850 for educational assistance accounted for the bulk of Special Programmes funds. The Regional Office in Dakar continued to devote a great deal of attention to educational assistance and improving social services for refugees in various countries of West Africa.
185. In the Central African Republic, UNHCR provided emergency assistance to refugees from Chad. By 31 December, some 200 persons had been repatriated with UNHCR assistance and about 3,000 had returned by their own means, leaving a case-load of some 4,000. Educational assistance was also extended to refugee students from Chad and elsewhere. Total expenditure was some $1,569,000, of which some 75 per cent was for assistance to Chad refugees.
186. In other countries in West Africa, educational places were offered in Benin at the University of Cotonou for some 20 refugees, and Sierra Leone offered 50 new places for Namibian refugees at the lower secondary level. Educational assistance to these refugees included payment of their travel costs. Projects were also begun or continued in the Gambia, Ghana, the Ivory Coast, Liberia, Mali, the Niger, Togo and the Upper Volta. Total expenditure in these countries amounted to some $1,200,400.
187. In the Central African region, refugees in the Congo and Gabon received assistance at the secondary and university levels from General Programmes and the Education Account. Total expenditure in these countries amounted to $172,300.
188. In Tunisia, a total of $44,409 was obligated for assistance to some 200 refugees, most of them elderly people of European origin.
CHAPTER III ASSISTANCE ACTIVITIES IN THE AMERICAS
A. Latin America
189. The three regional offices in northern Latin America (San José, Costa Rica), north-western South America (Lima, Peru) and southern Latin America (Buenos Aires, Argentina), reinforced by Chargés-de-mission in Brazil, Chile, Honduras and Nicaragua and, since the end of the reporting period, by a Branch Office in Mexico, continued to carry out their functions in the face of growing numbers of refugees throughout the region. By the end of 1981, the refugee population in Latin America totalled 280,000. In addition to strengthening its presence in the area, UNHCR responded with larger commitments of funds for virtually all sectors of its Programme.
190. The implementation of durable solutions for many refugees continued. Requests for voluntary repatriations, mainly to Brazil, Chile and some Central American Countries were more numerous than in 1980. Resettlement to third countries was undertaken, including for family reunion purposes, with the Inter-governmental Committee for Migration (ICM) responsible for related practical arrangements. Local integration projects for refugees of both urban and rural origins were Pursued where that was feasible. Several such projects involved groups of Salvadorian refugees. Expenditure under this heading in northern Latin America increased from some $350,000 in 1980 to some $3,300,000 in 1981.
191. During the reporting period, Bolivia acceded to the United Nations 1951 Refugee Convention and to the 1967 Protocol. National refugee commissions were established in Belize (the Refugee Settlement Board), Honduras (la Comisión Nacional para Refugiados), and Panama (la Comisión para el tratamiento del problema do los refugiados), in addition to such bodies already existing in Costa Rica and Mexico.
192. Traditional forms of assistance such as counselling and legal aid in connection with residence and work permits and filing applications for refugee status continued during the reporting period, as did the long-term local integration measures in favour of elderly refugees of European origin.
193. Total expenditure in the Americas was $18.9 million under both General and Special Programmes, of which some $9.9 million went toward emergency relief assistance.
2. Northern Latin America
194. In northern Latin America, which includes Belize, Costa Rica, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua and Panama, the numbers of refugees continued to rise during 1981. The outflow of Salvadorians, which had begun during the first half of 1980, persisted. That remained the largest group throughout 1981, although an increasing number of Guatemalans and Nicaraguans also sought asylum, especially during the second half of the year. Far smaller numbers of persons from the Caribbean area and from South America arrived in the region, mainly in Costa Rica. Thus, at the end of 1981, the global refugee population of northern Latin America was estimated at over 200,000 persons including 180,000 Salvadorians. Some 40,000 refugees were receiving UNHCR assistance in seven countries. The first consideration was to meet the refugees' immediate needs in terms of protection and assistance such as food, clothing, shelter and medicine.
195. The largest group of Salvadorian refugees assisted by UNHCR was in Honduras, where between 15,000 and 25,000 of them were receiving assistance at various times during the reporting period. Some 8,500 of these were in camps in La Virtud and Colomoncagua, while the rest lived among the local population. Medical care was provided by Médecins sans Frontières while Caritas undertook to organize primary education. Other voluntary agencies assisted in various sectors.
196. Several local integration schemes involving Salvadorians were begun. A rural settlement project near Belen, Panama, for 390 Salvadorians who had resettled in Panama from Honduras in 1980, showed very good progress a similar scheme was launched in Belize for 150 Salvadorian families. A model farm at Los Angeles in north-west Costa Rica served as a pilot rural project and will also serve as a permanent reception centre and a training centre. After some initial difficulties, progress was made in the fields of health care, primary education and agricultural production. Courses in preventive medicine were held, textile workshops were set up and primary level classes were begun. A number of self-sufficiency projects for refugees in urban areas - mainly handicrafts workshops and small businesses - were also begun in Costa Rica, Mexico, Nicaragua and Panama.
197. Non-Salvadorian refugees also received various types of assistance. In the Dominican Republic, a group of Haitian refugees received local integration grants and attended training seminars organized for them. In Mexico, UNHCR contributed toward the expansion of kindergarten facilities to enable a larger number of places to be given to refugee children from various Latin American countries. Individual refugees also benefited from housing and educational assistance, medical treatment and job placement in Costa Rica, Nicaragua and Panama.
198. A group of some 750 Miskitos had left Nicaragua for Honduras during the second half of 1981. By mid-March 1982, that figure had risen to 10,000 of whom 6,000 were receiving UNHCR assistance. Two camps were set up, at Mocoron and Mistruk, where the refugees received food, tents, medicines, storage facilities and other necessary equipment.
199. In 1981 a total of 468 refugees in five countries of the region were assisted by UNHCR to return to their countries of origin. With one exception, all the beneficiaries were of Latin American origin. More than 1,300 persons were assisted to resettle for reasons of family reunion, an increase over the previous year.
200. In late 1981, a sum of $101,500 was made available from the Emergency Fund to provide immediate relief assistance to some 800 Guatemalan refugees in Honduras and Nicaragua. A camp was established in western Honduras.
201. Following the High Commissioner's appeal in August 1979, a special assistance programme on behalf of 100,000 Nicaraguan returnees and 500,000 internally displaced persons was established. Seven projects concentrating on rehabilitation in the agricultural and health sectors were set up, five of which terminated by the end of 1981. The remaining ones are scheduled for completion by mid-1982. Nearly $4.2 million have been obligated for this programme since its inception.
202. A total of $12,309,729 was obligated in northern Latin America in 1981, of which $11,384,147 under General Programmes and $925,582 from Special Programmes. Contributions of food for Salvadorian refugees, made by EEC and a donor Government, amounted to $606,000. Medicines and medical supplies valued at $46,896 were donated by an American voluntary agency.
3. North-western South America
203. During the course of 1981 over 200 refugees, who had arrived in 1980, left Peru for third countries either by their own means or with UNHCR assistance. However, the number of new arrivals, mainly from other Latin American countries, more than offset the number of departures. Thus, by the end of the year, the number of Latin American refugees had risen slightly to 730 persons; the number of elderly European refugees further decreased to 750.
204. In 1981, UNHCR assistance continued to be channelled through the Comisión Católica Peruana de Migración. Special emphasis was laid on implementing long-term solutions aimed at the refugees' self-sufficiency.
205. Obligations in Peru under General Programmes totalled $734,806, of which $460,000 were in respect of local integration measures.
(b) Other countries in north-western South America
206. The Regional Office in Lima also covered Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Suriname and Venezuela.
207. The total number of persons of concern to UNHCR at that region remained fairly constant throughout 1981; there was a slight decrease in the number of elderly European refugees, due to deaths and naturalizations, to 11,000 persons. Refugees of Latin American origin were again estimated at some 8,500. The largest number of refugees receiving UNHCR assistance was in Venezuela, with smaller groups in Colombia and Ecuador.
208. Because of worsening economic conditions, more self-employment solutions had to be sought than in previous years. Our implementing partners, the Secretariado Nacional de Pastoral Social in Colombia, the Comité Ecuménico Pro-Refugiados in Ecuador and the International Social Service in Venezuela, required some guidance for the implementation of that kind of durable solution, in which they had little experience. A counselling workshop was therefore organized at the beginning of July in Lima, and a consultant was employed during the last quarter of 1981 to make an in-depth study of social services in the region.
209. Obligations for these countries totalled $521,314, of which $466,914 under General Programmes and $54,400 from the Education Account.
4. Southern Latin America
210. The overall refugee population in Argentina was estimated at some 26,500 persons at 31 December 1981. Of this number, about 20,000 were of European origin, some 5,000 of Latin American origin and some 1,500 were from Indo-China. The number of Latin American refugees remained constant as departures for resettlement and voluntary repatriation were offset by new arrivals while the number of Indo-Chinese increased by births. During the reporting period, 72 persons repatriated voluntarily, mainly to Chile, while 163 refugees were resettled; 163 cases (430 persons) were assisted towards local integration.
211. UNHCR continued to assist those refugees from South-East Asia who arrived in Argentina in 1979 following the Government's offer of resettlement opportunities for 1,000 families. The local integration of this group is being pursued, mainly in the provinces.
212. In addition, 46 refugees benefited from educational assistance at the lower secondary level. Funds were obligated for legal assistance, including costs of legal advisers attached to the Branch Office. Over 1,000 refugees received supplementary assistance pending durable solutions or to cover urgent needs. Counselling services provided by local agencies played a major role in the implementation of assistance activities, particularly in the provinces.
213. Total UNHCR obligations amounted to $2,705,081 under General Programmes and $47,440 under Special Programmes.
(b) Other countries in southern Latin America
214. At the end of 1981, the refugee populations in Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay and Uruguay remained unchanged at some 28,500, comprising for the most part elderly refugees of European origin and a small number of Latin American refugees whose numbers increased slightly during the reporting period. In most cases, such refugees were admitted in transit only. They therefore required care and maintenance, training, legal advice and counselling while permanent resettlement opportunities for them were sought. During the course of the year, 710 Latin American refugees left, mainly from Brazil and Chile, for countries of permanent settlement.
215. Sub-offices were maintained in Brazil and Chile. In addition, a UNHCR presence in Bolivia was required during the latter part of 1980 and throughout 1981. The main activities there concerned assistance to a number of Latin American refugees already living in Bolivia, and facilitating family reunion with Bolivian refugee relatives already in countries of asylum.
216. As in previous years, the bulk of UNHCR assistance in Chile consisted of facilitating the family reunion of Chilean dependants with refugee heads of family already resettled abroad.
217. With the departure for resettlement of six Vietnamese refugees, the number of Indo-Chinese refugees in Brazil decreased to 78 persons. This group has been admitted on a permanent basis and is in the process of integrating locally, although economic difficulties have reduced employment possibilities. UNHCR assistance to this group continued to be channelled through the Sistema Nacional de Emprego (which is attached to the Ministry of Labour), the Brazilian Red Cross and Caritas Brasileira.
218. Total obligations amounted to $2,060,952, of which $1,981,852 under General Programmes and $79,200 under Special Programmes.
B. North America
219. As in previous years, the UNHCR Regional Office in New York assured liaison with United Nations Headquarters and with the various agencies of the United Nations system based in New York. The Regional Office also continued to monitor the refugee situation in the English-speaking countries of the Caribbean. The UNHCR Liaison Office in Washington, which was opened at the beginning of 1979, maintained relations with the United States Government as well as with American non-governmental organizations based outside New York.
220. Close co-operation with the Canadian authorities was maintained by the UNHCR Branch office in Ottawa. During the year under review provincial governments continued to demonstrate interest in refugee matters, particularly as regards the resettlement of refugees. The traditional co-operation with non-governmental organizations was further strengthened, especially in the field of public information. The Standing Conference of Canadian Organizations concerned with Refugees, which had been set up with UNHCR support, coordinated the refugee-related activities of voluntary organizations and continued to be the most important contact point with non-governmental organizations in Canada.
221. Both Canada and the United States continued to receive refugees and displaced persons from South-East Asia for permanent settlement. During 1981, the United States accepted 139,294 Indo-Chinese refugees and displaced persons, of whom 38,387 were Kampucheans, 83,893 were 'boat people' and 2,297 under the Orderly Departure Programme. A total of 14,769 refugees from other parts of the world, notably from Eastern Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean, were also offered resettlement opportunities in the United States. Canada admitted 8,774 refugees and displaced persons from Indo-China and some 6,000 from other parts of the world, mainly Eastern Europe.
222. Total obligations in the two countries in 1981 amounted to $135,661 for Canada and $404,429 for the United States, plus $1,806 for Trinidad and Tobago for resettlement assistance under General Programmes.
CHAPTER IV ASSISTANCE ACTIVITIES IN ASIA
A. General developments
223. With a case-load of over 2 million Afghan refugees in Pakistan alone, the Asian refugee situation continued to account for a large portion of UNHCR activities. In consultation with the Government of Pakistan, UNHCR has pursued its programme of care and maintenance while devising projects aimed at reducing the refugees' dependence on this type of aid. The presence of several thousand Afghan refugees in India led to the assigning of a Chargé-de-mission to New Delhi in 1981.
224. Arrivals by sea during 1981 in countries of first asylum in South-East Asia amounted to some 75,000 persons, approximately the same level of arrivals as during 1980. Land arrivals, numbering some 24,000 during 1981, however, were roughly half the 1980 figure. Some 120,000 refugees left the region for resettlement in third countries. Although there was an improvement of the situation throughout the region, over 230,000 Indo-Chinese refugees still awaited a durable solution at the end of the reporting period.
225. UNHCR undertook a special programme of assistance for Kampucheans who since 1979 have been returning by their own means to their country. By the end of 1981, acme 400,000 Kampuchean returnees were assisted to resume productive economic activities.
226. The programme of orderly departures from Viet Nam registered considerable progress in 1981. The number of departures during the year was more than double that of the previous year. UNHCR assistance consisted of making arrangements in terms of transportation, medical examinations, processing of documentation, etc., where these were not taken care of by the resettlement countries.
227. As of the end of 1981, the refugee processing centres on Galang, Indonesia and Bataan, Philippines, were operating at close to their capacity of 10,000 and 17,500 persons respectively. Refugees were admitted to the centres once they had obtained resettlement guarantees. During the four- to five-month stay at the centres, refugees received intensive language training and cultural orientation and were otherwise prepared for departure to their new homes.
228. Total obligations in Asia amounted to $250.8 million, of which $168.6 million under General Programmes and $82.2 million under Special Programmes.
B. Main developments in various countries or areas
229. The Special Programme of assistance to returnees from Bangladesh, begun by UNHCR in 1978 at the request of the Government of Burma, entered its final phase in 1981. This programme, which involved the repatriation of some 187,000 persons, had been carried out with the participation of UNICEF, WFP and other United Nations bodies, as well as agencies including the Burma Red Cross Society and the League of Red Cross Societies. Its objectives were not only to assist in the process of repatriation but also to facilitate the rehabilitation of the returnees. Missions to the Arakan State in 1981 confirmed that the returnees were in the process of becoming self-sufficient in a measure comparable to the local population.
230. Out of funds obligated in 1980, a project was established for the reconstruction, repair and enlargement of schools and for improving the health infrastructure in the Arakan state. Funds were obligated in 1981 for the purchase of medical equipment.
231. By the end of 1981, all funds received by the High Commissioner in response to the appeal launched on 30 January 1979 had been obligated. Total obligations in 1981 amounted to $710,300 from Special Programmes and $240 (for resettlement assistance) from General Programmes.
232. By the end of 1980, 263,000 Vietnamese refugees had arrived in China; there were approximately 2,000 new arrivals in 1981. UNHCR continued to facilitate the local integration of the earlier groups on state farms, where the majority had been settled. Over $4 million were obligated to expand the production capacities of 10 state farms through land reclamation and purchase of fertilizer, equipment and seed. Thirty primary schools were constructed and equipped at 18 state farms. As in the past, the assistance programme was implemented by the Ministry of Civil Affairs.
233. An amount of $2 million was obligated to build and equip cold storage facilities and a small shipyard for the local settlement of refugee fishermen in the ports of Beihai and Qisha in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. It is expected that these will be completed in 1982. In addition, an amount of $994,200 was obligated for the establishment and running costs of a reception centre at Ping Xiang, in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, for some 3,000 Vietnamese refugees who had arrived in China in 1980 and 1981 and who were accommodated in temporary facilities pending durable solutions. The refugees accommodated in the Centre received care and maintenance assistance, health care and vocational training. Assistance was also extended to some 2,800 Indo-Chinese refugees who arrived in 1980 and 1981 from Thailand and who were resettled in Jiangxi and Yunnan provinces. UNHCR provided funds for some 'initial care and maintenance as well as communal facilities, primary schools and agricultural equipment so as to facilitate the achievement of self-sufficiency.
234. During 1981, WPP approved two projects totalling $6,715,600 to assist refugees to become self-sufficient on the two state farms of Pingsha and Xiglong in the Guangdong Province.
235. Total obligations in China amounted to $9,651,521, including $9,647,541 from General Programmes and $3,980 from special Programmes.
3. Hong Kong
236. At the beginning of 1981, there were 22,082 Vietnamese 'boat people' in transit in Hong Kong. New arrivals by boat during the year stood at 8,475 and departures for permanent resettlement at 17,818, leaving an end-of-year case-load of 13,542.
237. There were four UNHCR refugee centres in Hong Kong at the beginning of 1981 which were administered by the Hong Kong Christian Service, CARITAS, the 'British Red Cross Society (Hong Kong Branch) and YMCA. The diminishing case-load permitted the closure of two centres in March and December 1981.
238. As the refugees were permitted to work in Hong Kong, approximately 95 per cent of family heads found employment, either by themselves or with the assistance of the Association for Volunteer Service. UNHCR provided food allowances to the remaining 5 per cent of family heads and their families.
239. The Kaitak North medical Centre, which was established and sponsored by UNHCR towards the end of 1979 and administered by the British Red Cross Society (Hong Kong Branch) for non-acute cases, continued to cater for refugees for all centres. Acute cases were referred to government hospitals. All new arrivals were x-rayed, thereby facilitating the pre-resettlement medical check-ups.
240. Regular and intensive English language training was provided to approximately 4,800 and 7,120 students respectively. Legal services, including assistance with documentation, continued to be offered.
241. As in the past, UNHCR continued to provide financial assistance to refugees of European origin in transit in Hong Kong. During the period under review, 456 European refugees transited through Hong Kong for short periods until they were medically cleared for resettlement. During their stay, they were provided with care and maintenance including board and lodging, clothing, medical care and inland transportation as well as assistance towards their resettlement.
242. Total obligations amounted to $8,355,623, including $7,705,296 from General Programmes and $650,327 from Special Programmes.
243. From 1975 to 1980 refugee matters in India were looked after by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). These consisted largely of assistance to a small number of individual cases, mainly of Indo-Chinese and African origin. In the latter months of 1980, however, there was a rapid increase in the number of Afghan asylum-seekers, making it necessary to re-establish a UNHCR presence in India. Following four missions from Headquarters in late 1980 and early 1981, a UNHCR office was opened under the aegis of UNDP. In July 1981, a Chargé-de-mission was assigned to New Delhi to deal with protection and assistance matters. At 31 December 1981 the case-load totalled 3,507 refugees of whom 2,685 were Afghans, 720 Iranians, 97 Indo-Chinese and 5 from other countries. Most of the refugees lived in New Delhi and other towns in private accommodation. Needy cases relied on UNHCR assistance as there are no work prospects for foreigners in India.
244. A programme was established in 1981 to provide for care and maintenance, medical care, primary education, English language courses, training in handicrafts and recreational activities. Special assistance was extended to a number of handicapped refugees. Individual refugees received assistance towards resettlement in third countries.
245. Since 1975 several thousand Vietnamese have been admitted to India for permanent settlement, the majority of whom have family ties in the country. Most have fully integrated but a small number have been seeking resettlement abroad. A residual group of some 100 persons is presently being assisted by UNHCR to find permanent solutions.
246. In 1981, a total of $1,344,313 was obligated including $1,342,978 from General Programmes and $1,335 from the Education Account under Special. Programmes.
247. During 1981, 7,395 refugees from Indo-China left Indonesia for resettlement in third countries. Arrivals during the year numbered 9,328, leaving a first asylum case-load at the end of 1981 of 6,191.
248. Basic facilities and a skeleton UNHCR and Indonesian Red Cross staff have been maintained in the Kuku Camp on Jamaja Island in the Anambas, where most newly-arrived refugees were initially accommodated before being transported to the main refugee camp on Galang Island. At the end of March 1981, the Rambutan Transit Centre in Jakarta was closed. Since then all refugees departing Indonesia transit through Singapore.
249. UNHCR assistance programmes were implemented by the Special Task Force for Refugees established by the Indonesian Government. UNHCR co-ordinates the activities of the various voluntary agencies involved in assisting refugees on Galang and in Tanjung Pinang. Specific parts of the UNHCR programme were implemented by the Indonesian Red Cross (social and medical services) and Save the Children Federation (English language training).
250. UNHCR provided care and maintenance for refugees including, inter alia, maintenance of the physical infrastructure of the camps, provision of food sanitary facilities, household equipment, preventive and curative health care, water supply, education and transportation of refugees from the Anambas Islands to Galang.
251. The refugee processing centre on Galang, operating since December 1980, has a capacity of 10,000 persons. During 1981, 19,155 arrived in the centre and 14,470 persons departed to countries of resettlement after an average stay of some five months. A case-load of 8,704 remained at the end of the year. The costs of operating the centre have been met from Special Programmes. In 1981, $4,750,000 were obligated for care and maintenance and for the upkeep of the barracks and the administrative and physical infrastructure.
252. The total obligations in 1981 were $11,587,292, including $5,475,636 from General Programmes and $6,111,656 from Special Programmes.
253. During 1981, 1,026 Vietnamese "boat people'" arrived in Japan, rescued by Japanese vessels or by foreign vessels calling at Japanese ports. The Japanese Government allowed them to disembark against guarantees that UNHCR would assume responsibility for their care and maintenance pending a durable solution. Departures for resettlement numbered 1,181, leaving a case-load of 1,798 at the end of the year.
254. As in the past years, the refugees were accommodated in 26 refugee centres administered by four voluntary agencies. The refugees received board, lodging and medical care. Approximately 40 per cent of adult refugees found temporary or part-time employment, which was supplemented by family allowances.
255. During 1981, the Japanese Government completed construction of a reception centre at Omura which opened in February 1982. The main objectives of the Centre are to centralize reception facilities for all new arrivals as well as to provide counselling on opportunities for permanent settlement in Japan and resettlement abroad to refugees prior to their assignment to specific camps. The centre has a capacity of 200 refugees. UNHCR will contribute to the running costs of the centre in 1982, including counselling, care and maintenance, emergency assistance upon disembarkation of new arrivals, inland transportation expenses, salaries of interpreters and operating costs.
256. Total obligations in 1981 were $2,890,468 of which $2,779,569 from General Programmes and $110,899 from Special Programmes.
7. Lao People's Democratic Republic
257. In 1981, UNHCR assistance activities were directed mainly at two groups: the remaining Kampuchean refugees and the repatriates who have returned from Thailand.
258. Of the original 10,400 Kampuchean refugees in the Attopeu province, some 3,500 remained at the end of 1981, the rest having returned spontaneously to Kampuchea. Relief in the form of food, medicine and related items continued to be provided but were increasingly supplemented by agricultural assistance aimed at establishing self-sufficiency.
259. Between March 1980 and end 1981, a total of 733 Lao returned from Thailand under UNHCR auspices. To improve reception facilities, a new transit centre was established in Vientiane, while extensive repairs were done to the existing transit centre at Pakse. Assistance in the form of relief food items and resettlement kits, composed of domestic utensils and agricultural hand tools, were provided to the repatriates to facilitate their reintegration. Similar assistance was also extended to some 1,500 hill tribe repatriates who returned spontaneously to the Lao People's Democratic Republic.
260. In an effort to broaden its assistance to other groups of spontaneous repatriates as well as to promote voluntary repatriation, UNHCR launched in late 1981 its first project under the Fund for Durable Solutions. Funds were obligated to promote economic self-sufficiency in three villages in Sayaboury province containing large numbers of returnees.
261. Total obligations under General Programmes amounted to $367,100. Under Special Programmes a total of $2,150,478 was obligated including $117,650 under the Fund for Durable Solutions and $782,600 in contributions of food from EEC.
262. The refugee situation in Lebanon changed little during 1981. The number of refugees remained constant at around 3,200 persons who received assistance including self-sufficiency and supplementary aid, education, resettlement and counselling. As in the past years the projects were mainly implemented by the Middle East Council of Churches in close co-operation with the Regional Office.
263. The UNHCR assistance programme for displaced families in southern Lebanon, established in 1977 within the framework of United Nations emergency assistance to Lebanon, continued during 1981. Drugs and medical supplies were purchased for dispensaries and medical services, and funds were obligated for the rehabilitation of some 200 handicapped displaced children.
264. A total of $336,917 was obligated in 1981, of which $167,569 under General Programmes and $169,348 under Special Programmes.
265. Although the number of Vietnamese "boat people" who arrived in 1981 (23,113) was higher than in 1980, it was exceeded by the number of departures for resettlement (25,652). At the end of the year, 9,845 Vietnamese and some 2,600 other Indo-Chinese refugees remained in Malaysia. The decline in the refugee population made it possible to close the Pulau Tengah field camp in Mersing and the Friary and Convent transit centres in Kuala Lumpur. In addition, there were Filipino refugees in the State of Sabah.
266. Assistance to the Vietnamese refugees concentrated on care and maintenance pending resettlement. The major consideration in this regard was to create a plan of operation for the improvement of living conditions on Pulau Bidong. Housing for some 3,000 refugees was completed during 1981. Intensive English language training and cultural orientation courses continued for those Vietnamese accepted for resettlement in the United States. The Malaysian Red Crescent Society continued as the operational partner of UNHCR and is responsible for coordinating all aid to Vietnamese refugees in Malaysia.
267. The Malaysian Muslim Welfare organization (PERKIM) acted as operational partner for the programme on behalf of the Indo-Chinese refugees who remained in Malaysia, of whom 1,800 were settled in 1981. UNHCR provided care and maintenance, cultural orientation and language training for this group, and carpentry and masonry workshops were set up for vocational training.
268. For the Filipinos in Sabah, assistance begun under previous years' programmes continued in 1981. Furthermore, UNHCR began a project which will provide housing for some 1,850 refugees and their families.
269. In 1981 a total of $10,994,673 was obligated by UNHCR, of which $10,866,540 under General Programmes and $128,133 under Special Programmes.
270. At the beginning of 1981, the number of Afghan refugees registered by the Government of Pakistan stood at approximately 1.4 million. This figure represented an increase of a million refugees over the previous year. Numbers continued to increase steadily throughout the year, and by December the Government indicated a total of over 2,375,000 persons on its territory, the majority of whom were living in the North-West Frontier Province (nearly 2 million) and the province of Baluchistan (nearly 400,000). By the end of 1981, the Government had officially established some 300 refugee villages, each intended to accommodate approximately 5,000 persons. UNHCR assisted the Government in setting up a comprehensive infrastructure of basic equipment and services for each village. However, as a result of the continuing influx, villages had to accommodate larger numbers of refugees. It was necessary, in order to streamline the distribution of relief items and food commodities, to set up a network of warehouses, as well as to dig tube wells and provide construction material for dispensaries, schools and houses. UNHCR provided a variety of services to the refugees, principally in the fields of health, education and sanitation.
271. In October 1980, the Executive Committee at its thirty-first session had approved an allocation of $52 million for assistance other than basic food for an average case-load of 1.1 million Afghan refugees. In May 1981, based on a planning figure of 1.7 million, a new target of $97.9 million was formulated with basic food needs put an $120 million. On 1 June 1981, the High Commissioner launched an appeal to the international community for contributions in cash and kind to fund the revised programme. At its thirty-second session, the Executive Committee approved the retroactive inclusion of the additional requirements in the new and revised General Programmes appropriations.20
272. The High Commissioner's assistance programme continued to be implemented by the Office of the Chief Commissioner for Afghan Refugees, under the supervision of the States and Frontier Regions Division. The refugee administration, which was set up in October 1980, has now taken full control of the management of refugee affairs from the district and Agency civil authorities in the provinces. In 1981, UNHCR agreed to meet the costs of the refugee administration, which has improved the effectiveness of the assistance programme.
273. Supplementing international assistance, the Government of Pakistan continued its policy of giving a cash allowance to refugees, at the rate of 50 rupees per month per person with a maximum of 500 rupees per family. The Government also continued to cover the costs of inland transportation of relief commodities reaching the harbour of Karachi.
274. In addition to basic food commodities, such as wheat, dried skim milk and edible oil provided by WFP and through contributions in kind, UNHCR made funds available to the Government for the provision of tea and sugar, part of the staple diet of Afghans. Moreover, protein-enriched biscuits, received from the Government of Australia, were distributed, under the supervision of UNHCR nutritionists, to vulnerable groups. As mentioned earlier, funds were also made available to construct warehouses near refugee settlements, and for large quantities of material for shelter in the form of tents, tarpaulins, and construction material such as beams and door frames. Clothing, shoes, quilts and ground sheets were procured and distributed, along with cooking utensils, stoves and firewood or kerosene oil, with storage facilities for the fuel.
275. In the health field, coverage continued to be provided by mobile medical teams, staffed by doctors and lady health visitors, as well as by dispensaries in refugee villages, in addition to the existing government health facilities. The international Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) opened a surgical hospital in Peshawar and voluntary agencies provided mobile health units and medical supplies.
276. The education programme was extended to all the refugee villages. Primary schools were established and scholarships offered to Afghan refugee students for higher education in universities or technical institutes in Pakistan. UNHCR also continued to promote vocational and skill training projects such as carpet weaving and embroidery centres.
277. Total obligations in Pakistan during 1981 were $109,482,503 of which $90,472,864 from General Programmes and $19,009,639 from Special Programmes. The latter covered mainly food donations received in kind. In addition, WFP allocations totalled some 230,000 tonnes.
278. During 1981, 8,353 Indo-Chinese refugees arrived in the Philippines by boat while 5,402 persons departed for resettlement in third countries; 6,628 persons awaited a durable solution at the end of 1981. The number of arrivals was almost double that of the previous year.
279. Most of the first-asylum case-load was accommodated in the camp near Puerto Princesa on Palawan Island. The José Fabela Centre in Metro Manila continued to provide transit facilities for newly-arrived first-asylum refugees prior to their transfer to Puerto Princess and for refugees on their way from Puerto Princesa and the Bataan Refugee Processing Centre to resettlement.
280. UNHCR assistance programmes included, inter alia, care and maintenance, construction and renovation of shelter and the upkeep of the physical infrastructure in the camps, medical supplies and hospital treatment, fostering of self-sufficiency, promotion of resettlement opportunities, foreign language and : kills training, counselling and social services. Special emphasis was placed on English language training. A number of local and international voluntary agencies provided a wide range of services to the refugees in the camps.
281. The refugee processing centre at Bataan Peninsula in the Bay of Manila, operating since January 1980, provides accommodation for up to 17,500 persons. During the time of their stay at the centre, the refugees are provided with an intensive English language and cultural orientation programme. During 1981, the monthly average population of the centre was 16,400 persons. A total of 36,640 persons arrived from first-asylum countries in the region. After an average stay of four months, some 37,302 departed to resettlement countries, leaving 16,590 persons awaiting departure at the end of 1981.
282. The cost of the operation of the centre has been financed under Special Programmes. A total of $7,799,626 was obligated in 1981 for, inter alia, care and maintenance, preventive and curative medical care, transport, social services and administration by the Government's Task Force on International Refugee Assistance.
283. A total of $2,293,297 was obligated for the language and cultural orientation programme that has been implemented by the International Catholic Migration Commission. In 1981, additional class facilities and teacher dormitories as well as educational materials and equipment were provided. Funds were made available for cultural orientation and German language training and for the training of refugee women in food preparation.
284. Total obligations in the Philippines were $13,560,204, including $3,231,773 under General Programmes and $10,328,431 under Special Programmes.
285. In 1981, 5,381 refugees arrived in Singapore and 5,967 departed. The number of arrivals was slightly over half the number in 1980. At the end of the year, 539 Vietnamese refugees were awaiting resettlement. An additional 21,569 Indo-Chinese refugees arrived from the Galang RPC in transit for resettlement.
286. On arrival, refugees received medical care and basic household equipment, along with a daily allowance. UNHCR assistance was implemented in co-operation with the Singapore Red Cross, and goods in kind and services were contributed by voluntary agencies and by private sources.
287. A total of $1,926,260 was obligated in 1981 under both General and Special Programmes.
288. As of the end of 1981, the total number of persons of concern to UNHCR in Thailand was 192,998, consisting of 97,804 Kampucheans, 89,391 Lao and 5,803 Vietnamese. That represented a significant decrease in the total case-load of 261,334 a year earlier, and was due mainly to the marked decline in arrivals while resettlements continued. There was a total of 42,792 recorded arrivals against 101,961 departures for third countries. UNHCR also facilitated the voluntary repatriation of 540,000 Lao, an increase over the 193 who were repatriated in 1980 under the same programme. Efforts to facilitate an organized voluntary repatriation programme for the Kampuchean refugees were continued during 1981.
289. Owing to the reduction in the case-load and in line with the policy of the Royal Thai Government to consolidate camp populations, six camps were closed in the course of the year. One new camp was opened in June to accommodate new arrivals from the Lao People's Democratic Republic. At the end of 1981, there were three holding centres and one camp for Kampucheans, eight camps for Lao and one camp for Vietnamese, as well as one resettlement processing centre and three transit centres in the vicinity of Bangkok.
290. UNHCR continued to provide assistance to the refugees in co-operation with the Royal Thai Government and a large number of voluntary agencies. The services of the voluntary agencies were coordinated through the existence of the Committee for Co-ordination of Services to Displaced Persons in Thailand, with whom UNHCR maintained close relations. Close co-operation was also maintained with other United Nations organizations. WFP continued to purchase food for the Kampuchean Holding Centres and made available a contribution of rice valued at $1.3 million from the Government of Japan. WHO seconded a senior health coordinator, the United Nations Volunteers supplied six volunteers and UNICEF provided valuable support in the field of education.
291. As in previous years, the assistance programme for the Lao and Vietnamese, implemented mainly by the Ministry of Interior, was designed to meet basic needs such as food, water, shelter, health and education. With basic camp infrastructure largely in place, more attention was paid to the maintenance of adequate standards and the improvement of services.
292. Under the Special Programme, similar assistance was also provided to the Kampuchean refugees. The Joint Operations Centre of the Supreme Command administers the holding centres for Kampucheans where essential health, education and social welfare services were further developed. Particular attention was given to vocational and skills-training programmes aimed at facilitating eventual durable solutions.
293. A programme of regular language training was provided to the refugees selected for resettlement in order to facilitate their integration upon arrival in third countries. Those proceeding to the United States continued to benefit from the intensive language training and cultural orientation programmes launched in 1980.
294. International efforts to deter pirate attacks on refugees arriving by boat in Thailand were intensified with the implementation of a six-month joint United States-Thai anti-piracy programme. The unarmed patrol boat donated to the Royal Thai Navy by UNHCR participated in the overall anti-piracy programme and carried out its own surveillances and patrols. At the end of the reporting period, plans were being finalized with the Royal Thai Government to strengthen the anti-piracy effort through a programme funded by contributions from a number of countries.
295. Total obligations under General Programmes amounted to $24,929,638, of which $18,756,799 were for assistance projects and $5,475,816 for resettlement. Under Special Programmes a total of $36,649,022 was obligated, including $34,379,730 for assistance to the Kampuchean refugees.
14. Viet Nam
296. In 1981, UNHCR continued its assistance to Kampuchean refugees in Viet Nam whose numbers, according to government estimates, decreased from 33,000 to 30,000 in the course of the year. Some 10,000 were transferred to three rural centres where assistance towards self-sufficiency was provided, including agricultural and fishing equipment and workshop materials. Pending the completion of another two or three centres to accommodate the rest of the case-load and the achievement of self-sufficiency, food and other relief items continued to be provided.
297. During the year a total of 1,397 Kampucheans were resettled in third countries, the result of continued efforts by UNHCR to find feasible durable solutions for that case-load. Significant progress was achieved in the orderly departure of Vietnamese directly for countries of new residence. There were 9,815 departures under the Orderly Departure Programme, compared with 4,706 in 1980. Funds for the programme came from Special Programmes.
298. Total obligations in 1981 amounted to $9,826,953, of which $7,077,930 from General Programmes and $2,749,023 from Special Programmes.
15. Western Asia
299. The area covered by this section comprises Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, the Syrian Arab Republic, the United Arab Emirates and Yemen. Estimates based on information provided by various sources would indicate a total refugee population of some 70,000. This figure does not include Afghan refugees in Iran for whom assistance measures are being considered, following a request from the Government. A programme aimed at the settlement of 50,000 refugees in rural areas was discussed during two UNHCR missions which visited Iran.
300. The UNHCR Regional Office in Beirut continued to be responsible for the assistance activities in favour of refugees, co-operating closely with UNDP offices in the area.
301. A total of $45,000 was obligated for local integration in 1981, primarily for individual refugees. Assistance included major medical expenses, monthly allowances and primary education in Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Jordan and the Syrian Arab Republic. Funds were also made available for the provision of sanitary facilities at a refugee centre for Ethiopian refugees in Yemen. Assistance was provided at the upper secondary, vocational/technical and university levels for the 1981/82 academic year to students in Jordan, Lebanon and the United Arab Emirates.
302. Obligations totalled $250,910 in 1981, including $141,934 under General Programmes and $108,976 under Special Programmes.
16. Other countries or areas in Asia
303. Since 1979, large numbers of Kampucheans have returned spontaneously to their homeland. During 1981, UNHCR was requested to extend assistance to further returnees, bringing the total to some 400,000.
304. UNHCR assistance continued to be aimed at enabling the returnees to attain a measure of self-sufficiency as rapidly as possible. To that end, three types of kits comprising domestic utensils, agricultural implements and cloth were distributed to the returnees in the five target provinces of Battambang, Siem Reap, Prey Veng, Svay Rieng and Takeo. Distribution of the returnees kits was implemented by the Kampuchean Red Cross under the supervision Of UNHCR. Under the Special Programme for Kampuchean returnees, a total of $2,677,211 was obligated during 1981, including $991,552 in contributions of food.
305. In the Republic of Korea, there were 168 arrivals and 79 departures in 1981. The case-load stood at 131 at the end of the year. The Korean Government continued to grant temporary asylum to Vietnamese refugees rescued at sea and landed in Korea.
306. The UNDP Office in Seoul notified UNHCR of new boat arrivals and assisted with resettlement formalities. Once the refugees disembarked, they were accommodated in a refugee centre in Pusan City, administered by the National Red Cross. During the transit period, they received board and lodging, medical care, clothing and assistance with pre-departure formalities to resettlement countries. UNHCR obligations totalled $109,837 from General Programmes.
307. The Vietnamese refugee case-load in Macao was 2,920 at the beginning of 1981. The influx continued throughout the year, with arrivals numbering 448 and departures 2,294, including departures for permanent resettlement and transit to Hong Kong for English language training. Vietnamese refugees who arrived directly by boat in Macao were allowed to disembark and remain in the dockyard for a period of approximately 24 to 48 hours for the purpose of registration, medical examinations, etc. before being transferred to refugee centres. Due to the decreasing number of arrivals, the Casa de Beneficiencia centre was closed in March 1981 and the Green Island centre handed over to the Government in June. By one camp remained at the end of the reporting period.
308. During their transit in Macao, Vietnamese refugees were provided with shelter, food, household equipment, relief supplies and local transportation facilities. A mobile X-ray unit was provided as part of a tuberculosis detection campaign and refugees were referred to local hospitals for treatment when necessary.
309. A total of $1,323,202 was obligated from General Programmes in 1981.
310. In Papua New Guinea at 31 December 1981, there were some 150 refugees from Indonesia awaiting durable solutions. During the year, the Government decided to close the camp at Wabo and to integrate the refugees. While in the camp, the refugees were provided with basic necessities) after leaving, they were assisted with local integration measures, including help with finding employment. Assistance was extended in co-operation with the UNDP office in Port Moresby) one United Nations Volunteer was assigned to the Wabo camp.
311. A total of $104,810 was obligated in 1981, including $103,853 under General Programmes and $957 from the Education Account under Special Programmes.
CHAPTER V ASSISTANCE ACTIVITIES IN EUROPE
A. Assistance in various countries
312. The overall number of refugees in Europe at the end of 1981 stood at some 589,200. As in the past, the role of UNHCR in Europe consisted principally of facilitating the resettlement or local integration of refugees admitted to the various countries. The majority of projects were initiated and implemented by the respective Governments or by voluntary agencies, in response to the specific needs of the individual case-load. Through its Branch Offices, UNHCR closely followed changes in national refugee legislation and other developments affecting the status and well-being of refugees throughout Europe.
313. There was a substantial increase in the number of Poles requesting asylum during 1981. Nearly 30,000 Poles entered Austria, and at the end of the year 23,419 were under the care of the Austrian Ministry of the Interior. The facilities at the Traiskirchen and Gotzendorf centres proved inadequate and accommodation had to be arranged in some 600 private establishments around the country. In response to a request from the Austrian Government, $2 million were made available from the Emergency Fund for assistance towards the local settlement of a limited number of Poles who had requested that solution. The High Commissioner approached 24 countries, asking them to increase resettlement opportunities for refugees in Austria in order to lighten Austria's burden.
314. European countries continued to admit Indo-Chinese refugees under established quotas including schemes for family reunion, and to provide programmes designed to ease integration into new cultures. These included educational and social counselling, job and language training, and legal assistance. Arrivals of Indo-Chinese to the principal resettlement countries of Austria, Belgium, France, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Netherlands, Switzerland and the United Kingdom totalled some 20,500. A number of these refugees had been rescued at sea by European vessels. By the end of the reporting period, over 148,000 Indo-Chinese refugees had been resettled in Europe since 1975, of whom some 54,000 were "boat people'. The majority of these refugees have gone to France, the Federal Republic of Germany and the United Kingdom.
315. Handicapped refugees continued to be accepted for resettlement under the "Ten or More" plan, and to be provided with specialized assistance, mostly through voluntary agencies. Some additional resettlement places for handicapped refugees were made available in response to the High Commissioner's appeal in August 1981, which was made in the context of the International Year of Disabled Persons (see para. 371 below). Programmes for the elderly, including placement in institutions and payments of annuities and subsidies, also continued.
316. The refugee situation in Portugal and Spain remained virtually unchanged in 1981. In Portugal, UNHCR assistance again went mainly to facilitate the local integration of some 7,500 displaced persons from Africa. In addition, Portugal has introduced measures which will allow refugees to work under the same conditions as nationals (see para. 32 above). The case-load of some 20,500 Latin Americans in Spain continued to receive legal advice in connection with applications for refugee status or naturalization, assistance towards local integration and supplementary aid pending resettlement.
317. Total expenditure in various countries in Europe (excluding Cyprus) amounted to some $8.3 million under General Programmes, 35 million of which was for local settlement programmes and $493,200 under Special Programmes.
B. United Nations humanitarian assistance for Cyprus
318. At the request of the Secretary-General of the United Nations, UNHCR continued to act as Co-ordinator of United Nations Humanitarian Assistance for Cyprus, providing comprehensive assistance to members of the island's communities who were displaced as a result of the events of 1974. Contributions for that purpose were channelled through UNHCR by the international community, at the request of the Government of Cyprus. The UNHCR assistance programme was again implemented by its operational partner, the Cyprus Red Cross Society. As in previous years, UNHCR benefited from the co-operation of the United Nations Peace-Keeping Force in Cyprus.
319. During the period under review, the programme continued to promote farming and agricultural activities as well as small businesses, provide increased educational facilities particularly in the field of vocational training, give special assistance to socially handicapped groups, and provide low-cost housing in place of temporary shelters. In co-operation with WHD, improved medical facilities and supplies were also the subject of particular attention.
320. Total obligations in 1981 amounted to $12,678,937, including $3.5 million for the construction of a hospital at Larnaca and $5.8 million for construction and improvement of permanent shelter.
321. Additional information concerning the humanitarian activities carried out by the United Nations in Cyprus in the course of 1981 may be found in the relevant chapters of the progress reports submitted by the Secretary-General to the Security Council in the months of May 1981 (S/14490) and December 1981 (S/14778).
CHAPTER VI ASSISTANCE ACTIVITIES IN OCEANIA
322. The UNHCR Representative for Australia, Fiji, Kiribati, Nauru, New Zealand, Samoa,, Tonga, Tuvalu and Vanuatu also represents UNICEF and the United Nations information Centre. As in the past, the Joint Representative maintained close contacts with the various Governments as well as with non-governmental organizations of the countries concerned. The Branch Office continued to emphasize the promotion of accession to the 1951 Convention and the 1967 Protocol as well as the promotion of refugee law of the various countries in the South Pacific. Fiji ratified the instruments while a number of other States in the region expressed interest. The Branch Office facilitated the repatriation of a mull number of refugees to the Lao People's Democratic public, Uganda and Zimbabwe from Australia and Now Zealand.
323. In the context of the Orderly Departure Programme, Australia accepted 63 persons and Now Zealand 28. During 1981, Australia accepted a total of 13,485 refugees and displaced persons from South-East Asia, 11,983 of whom were "boat people". New Zealand accepted a total of 607 Indo-Chinese refugees and displaced persons, of whom 155 were "boat people".
324. Obligations, under General Programmes, totalled $178,376 in 1981.
CHAPTER VII ASSISTANCE ACTIVITIES - COUNSELLING, EDUCATION, RESETTLEMENT, THE HANDICAPPED
325. In 1981, there were 45 counselling projects covering 40,000 refugees in 33 countries a slight increase over the number in 1980. As in previous years, professionally trained local staff, employed either by implementing agencies or UNHCR field offices, helped refugees to adjust to their new environment, resolve personal problems and become self-sufficient. Refugees in urban areas are the main beneficiaries of counselling services although it has been found increasingly necessary to provide periodic counselling services to certain urban-oriented groups in rural areas. Counsellors also began to explore local settlement opportunities for urban refugees in small towns and semi-rural areas.
326. Continuing emphasis on in-service training for counsellors was demonstrated in 1981 by regional workshops which were held in northern Latin America, north-western Latin America, East Africa and South-East Asia. Reports of these meetings were distributed widely, thus enabling other offices to benefit from the ideas which were exchanged.
327. The network of "social services officers" in the field who advise and support UNHCR field officers and implementing agencies was enlarged during the year with the placement of officers in Costa Rica, Egypt, the United Republic of Tanzania, Thailand and Zambia. In addition, the loan of an officer from a voluntary agency was arranged for assignment in Somalia. The contribution of those specialists was quickly felt through the improved analysis of needs, identification and planning of solutions, and training. Consultancies were also arranged in Argentina, Botswana and Peru to provide temporary expertise to field officers where specific problems were identified.
328. During 1981 UNHCR continued to provide educational assistance to refugees. Refugee children were offered primary education, sometimes in the local primary schools in the countries of asylum but also in specially established schools in the area of settlement or in the camps/centres where they awaited resettlement. Non-formal education, usually taking the form of skills training, was also made available.
329. A total of 9,258 refugee students were assisted to pursue their studies at the secondary and tertiary levels, an increase of 69 per cent over the previous year. Refugee students receiving vocational training were counselled before selecting their field of study. Of the students assisted by UNHCR, 20 per cent chose to undertake vocational training in 1981 as compared to 7.5 per cent in 1966, when the programme started.
330. The collaboration with UNESOD continued to benefit from the UNHCR refugee education programme. UNESCO has made available associate officers and consultants both at ENWR headquarters and in the field for the implementation of refugee education projects. A number of other organizations, including the United Nations Educational and Training Programme for Southern Africa, continued to cater for the needs of refugees seeking education at the post-secondary level.
331. As in previous years, UNHCR promoted the resettlement of groups of refugees in various parts of the world where other durable solutions were not available. Resettlement activities continued to be pursued for small groups of refugees in Africa and Latin America, while a sustained effort continued to be required for refugees from the Indo-Chinese peninsula. In late 1981, a new influx of asylum-seekers from Eastern Europe brought with it the need for fresh efforts on their behalf.
332. The resettlement case-load in Africa, though still relatively small compared to other regions in the world, required close attention in 1981. Many refugees, primarily from the Horn of Africa and from southern Africa, were located in urban centres which had no resources to absorb them. Others, because of their previous activities or former associations, found themselves in vulnerable situations requiring urgent resettlement attention. Several countries outside Africa were particularly helpful in accepting these refugees.
333. The resettlement of Indo-Chinese in 1981 continued to require a high level of effort and resources from a number of resettlement countries in order to continue reducing the case-load. The rate of arrivals decreased slightly over the previous year with 99,100 persons arriving in 1981 compared to 119,400 persons in 1980. Departures totalled 10,000 persons from camps in Hong Kong, Indonesia, Japan, Macao, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand, compared to 260,000 persons the previous year. At the end of 1981, some 45,000 'boat people' remained in various countries of temporary asylum, a reduction of 20 per cent over the figure for the end of 1980. In addition, some 90,000 land cases, mostly Lao, and 97,000 Kampucheans remained in camps and holding centres in Thailand awaiting durable solutions. Special efforts continued on behalf of unaccompanied minors and the disabled on the part of both UNHCR, voluntary agencies and the Governments of resettlement countries.
334. During the course of 1981, 14,589 Indo-Chinese were rescued at sea by 213 vessels flying the flags of 32 countries. Contributions were still required for the Disembarkation Resettlement Offer Scheme to enable the prompt disembarkation of refugees rescued by ships flying flags of convenience or flying the flags of States unable to provide resettlement guarantees.
335. The Orderly Departure Programme from Viet Nam continued to receive particular attention during the period under review. Discussions were held with all parties concerned in order to seek ways to accelerate departures. In 1981, nearly 10,000 persons left Viet Nam for 30 countries of resettlement, more than twice the departure rate of the previous year. The rate of orderly departures increased considerably during the last quarter, averaging over 1,300 persons per month. In addition, some 1,400 Kampuchean refugees left Viet Nam for resettlement in 16 countries.
336. Resettlement countries continued to make full use of the two refugee processing centres in Galang, Indonesia and on Bataan, Philippines. With a capacity of 10,000 and 17,000 persons respectively, those centres provided facilities for language training and cultural orientation and also assisted in the disembarkation of large numbers of persons rescued at sea who could not immediately proceed to their final country of resettlement. Since the centres were opened, over 65,000 persons have made use of the facilities.
337. In order to prepare refugees for final resettlement, a programme of language' training and orientation was implemented in various countries of South-East Asia, in consultation with concerned Governments and voluntary agencies. The programme consisted of regular language training for all refugees awaiting resettlement, as well as intensive language training and orientation for those proceeding to the United States.
338. In Europe, a large number of asylum-seekers arrived in various countries of Western Europe, many of whom were seeking resettlement elsewhere. During the year, it was estimated that some 34,000 asylum-seekers were registered with the Austrian authorities with perhaps several thousand more who had not yet officially applied.
339. The vast majority of Central American refugees have been allowed to settle locally. This solution and resettlement within the region are considered to be the most appropriate. However, individual cases of family reunion or other persons in particular need were resettled outside the region as required.
340. Elsewhere in Latin America, refugees in Argentina and Brazil along with smaller numbers in Peru were registered for resettlement while others applied to join family members abroad. During the course of 1981, 1,550 persons were resettled from Latin America to 24 countries, bringing the total number of persons resettled since 1973 to 27,719 persons, including family reunion cases from Chile.
341. Following a recommendation made by the Executive Committee at its thirty-first session in 1980, a tripartite agreement between ICM, the International Council of Voluntary Agencies (ICVA) and UNHCR was concluded in 1981 to set up an International Refugee Integration Resource Centre, under the aegis of the three organizations, to facilitate the sharing of resource materials, data and information on resettlement and integration.
342. UNHCR expenditures for resettlement in 1981, mostly for the transportation of refugees arranged by ICM, amounted to some $13.5 million. Those funds were also used to finance the registration of refugees, the provision of documentation, medical examinations and related expenses. Special contributions totalling $13.5 million were made available by the Government of the United States of America for intensive language training and cultural orientation for Indo-Chinese refugees in 1980-1981.
D. Assistance to handicapped refugees
343. In 1981, 176 persons benefited from the overall project for treatment and rehabilitation of handicapped refugees. That was in addition to the increased efforts in this field as part of UNHCR participation in the International Year of Disabled Persons (see para. 371 below). Assistance included treatment of refugees in their countries of asylum, provision of prosthetics, physiotherapy and psychiatric treatment. Whenever such facilities were not available in the asylum country the refugees were moved to another country with the required facilities. Every effort was made to enable handicapped refugees to take advantage of whatever services were available at the national level. Collaboration between UNHCR and governmental and non-governmental agencies helped disabled refugees to obtain appropriate medical diagnoses, treatment and rehabilitation.
344. Special country projects begun under previous years' programmes in Spain and Venezuela were continued for refugees suffering from trauma related to their experiences of persecution and dislocation. UNHCR also contributed to a Belgian study of the integration of refugees who had a history of psychological problems. A project was established in the United Republic of Tanzania where a voluntary agency undertook to identify the large number of disabled refugees who were in desperate need of services. Smaller projects were also established in Japan, Portugal, Turkey and west Africa with the same objectives.
345. During the year, several hundred physically and socially handicapped refugees were resettled with their families under the '10 or More' plan or other programmes, and 100 under special operations. In response to the High Commissioner's appeal for resettlement of handicapped refugees as part of the International Year of Disabled Persons, special offers were received from several countries.
346. In 1981, a total of $343,115 was obligated for treatment and rehabilitation of handicapped refugees. The increased expenditure resulted from the higher costs of treatment and transportation as well as from the establishment of small projects in several countries which have led to a much larger number of refugees receiving the special treatment and rehabilitation services they require.
CHAPTER VIII RELATIONS WITH OTHER ORGANIZATIONS
A. Co-operation between UNHCR, the United Nations and other members of the United Nations system
347. Co-operation between UNHCR and other agencies of the United Nations system increased during the reporting period, notably in connection with the International Conference on Assistance to Refugees in Africa (ICARA). UNHCR attended meetings of the governing bodies of several organizations, a number of which had included refugee-related items on their agendas. Contributions of United Nations agencies to UNHCR programmes ranged from implementation of specific sectors of assistance projects to the provision of technical advice and expertise. The Office also participated actively in the work of the Administrative Committee on Co-ordination and its subsidiary bodies, including inter-agency meetings on strengthening the capacity of the United Nations system to respond to emergencies.
348. The world Food Programme (WFP) continued to provide most of the basic food needs of refugees, either from their own resources or by channelling bilateral contributions. In 1981, 29 refugee-related operations, most of them in Africa, accounted for two thirds of WFP emergency assistance. WFP also continued to act as food-aid coordinator for the major relief operations in Pakistan, Somalia and Thailand. WFP contributions have also helped UNHCR to promote self-sufficiency among refugees within the context of local integration projects, and their advice was sought in establishing feeding programmes.
349. The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) continued its activities in the fields of health, education and community development. UNICEF is carrying out projects for the supply of drinking water for refugees in Pakistan and Somalia a similar project in Djibouti will also assist the local population. UNICEF field staff have provided expert advice and have accompanied UNHCR technical missions.
350. As in previous years, the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) has provided support, especially in those countries where UNHCR is not represented. Visits by UNDP resident representatives to UNHCR headquarters provided opportunities for close co-ordination on issues of mutual concern. Some 40 United Nations Volunteers were assigned to Indo-Chinese refugee programmes in Hong Kong, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines and Thailand; United Nations Volunteers also worked with UNHCR in Djibouti and Somalia. The United Nations Fund for Population Activities helped UNHCR to carry out a census in refugee camps in Djibouti.
351. Jointly with UNHCR, the World Health Organization (WHO) provided the services of senior health co-ordinators for Somalia and Thailand) a similar arrangement is being considered for Pakistan. In the United Republic of Cameroon, a special study was carried out by a WHO consultant to assess the risk of the transmission of onchocerciasis in a proposed refugee settlement. WHO also assisted UNHCR by providing health supplies and contributions to studies of refugee situations, as in the Sudan.
352. Co-operation with the International Labour Organisation (ILO) has increased considerably. UNHCR benefited from ILO technical expertise in eight African countries and in the Philippines and Thailand in such areas as vocational training, income-generating activities for refugee settlements and for women refugees, the establishment of a post-primary technical centre and agricultural schemes in rural settlements. ILO also recruited a specialist for UNHCR to study non-agricultural co-operative activities among refugees in Bas-Zaire. A joint ILO/UNHCR mission on income-generating activities for refugees in the Sudan made substantial recommendations for projects.
353. In the field of education, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) continued to second associate experts to UNHCR headquarters and to the UNHCR Regional Offices in Dakar and Nairobi, and to provide consultants for UNHCR missions. One such mission was undertaken in September 1981 to ascertain the educational needs of refugees in Pakistan. Other UNESCO activities included a symposium in Tokyo on the promotion, dissemination and teaching of fundamental human rights of refugees, held in December 1981 in co-operation with the United Nations University and UNHCR. In Thailand, UNESCO continued to provide educational materials for refugees.
354. UNHCR also received technical advice from other agencies. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (PAO) provided rural experts on different occasions for UNHCR programmes in the Sudan. An expert from the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) helped with a mission to consider the question of the continued operation by UNHCR of a small aircraft in Somalia. The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) participated in a mission to Somalia concerned with improving the environment of refugee settlements. The Office of the United Nations Disaster Relief Co-ordinator (UNDRO), along with other agencies, provided UNHCR with advice in the compilation of its emergency handbook. The United Nations Research Institute for Social Development (UNRISD) has initiated some studies concerning African refugees, and the United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (Habitat) was consulted on matters relating to the settlement of groups of refugees.
B. Relations with other intergovernmental organizations
355. The close co-operation between OAU and UNHCR continued during the reporting period. The important follow-up of ICARA contributed to further developing these contacts through both formal and informal meetings. The High Commissioner attended the eighteenth OAU Summit in Nairobi and UNHCR delegations participated in the thirty-seventh and thirty-eighth sessions of the OAU Council of Ministers. Likewise, OAU was represented as an observer at the thirty-second session of the UNHCR Executive Committee in October 1981. Co-operation also continued between OAU and UNHCR on the follow-up of the recommendations of the 1979 Arusha Conference. The High Commissioner's Regional Liaison Representative in Addis Ababa served as Chairman of the Co-ordinating Committee of the OAU Bureau for African Refugees and the Office participated actively in the work of the OAU Commission of Fifteen on Refugees. Throughout the period, the UNHCR Regional Liaison Office in Addis Ababa maintained close regular contacts with the OAH headquarters, including the Bureau for African Refugees.
356. Close relations with the Council of Europe were further developed, particularly in the field of protection. The established links with the European Resettlement Fund were maintained with the aim of providing support to countries in Europe which accept refugees.
357. The long-standing collaboration with the Inter-governmental Committee for Migration (1(24), especially concerning practical arrangements for the transportation of Indo-Chinese and Latin American refugees accepted for resettlement in third countries, continued to prove of utmost value.
358. Contacts with the Organization of American States (OAS), of increasing importance not least in view of the refugee situation in Central America, were intensified. UNHCR was represented at the General Assembly of the OAS meeting in Saint Lucia in December 1981. Regular contacts were also maintained by the UNHCR office in Washington with OAS headquarters.
359. The increasing co-operation with the Arab League and the organization of the Islamic Conference was further developed. Reciprocal attendance at important meetings and regular exchange of views and consultations proved very useful, notably on those refugee situations of direct concern to those two organizations.
Co-operation with the European community
360. It is by now a well-established fact that the European Community, both through its Parliament and the Commission, is closely associated with many of the UNHCR programmes. Humanitarian resolutions and fact-finding missions from the Parliament have enhanced the overall awareness of refugee needs, both on the Community level and on the level of the individual member countries. The Commission continued to provide substantial assistance to refugee programmes throughout 1981, when some $37 million in cash and $15 million in kind were received, notably for Pakistan and Somalia. EEC also provides a mechanism for associating UNHCR with the co-ordination of humanitarian policy among the 10 member countries.
C. Co-operation with liberation movements
361. Pursuant to the relevant resolutions of the General Assembly, UNHCR continued to maintain close working relations with liberation movements recognized by OAU and the United Nations. The African National Congress, the Pan-Africanist Congress of Azania, and the South-West Africa People's Organization (SWAPO) attended the thirty-second session of the Executive Committee of the High Commissioner's Programme as observers.
D. Relations between UNHCR and non-governmental organizations
362. UNHCR co-operates with some 250 non-governmental organizations (NGOs), which provide multiple forms of assistance and support services to refugees. NGOs serve refugees in many different capacities: as implementing partners for UNHCR projects, as sources of specialized field personnel, as fund-raisers, as sponsors in the resettlement of refugees and as disseminators of information about refugee problems to the public. In Thailand, 48 NGOs have been working under the umbrella of the Committee for the Co-ordination of Services to Displaced Persons in Thailand, while in Somalia, some 32 agencies are operating under the overall co-ordination of UNHCR.
363. Certain NGDS, which work on a direct and daily basis with refugees, have provided valuable services in counselling and education, and in resettlement and integration. Counselling is required both in the temporary and final asylum countries and must take into account the vulnerabilities of specific groups. In 1981, the International Year for Disabled Persons, particular attention was given by some NGOs to the needs of handicapped refugees. The role of NGOs in resettlement has included obtaining refugee sponsorships, setting up language training and cultural orientation programmes, and providing housing, employment and educational facilities to refugees in their country of final settlement. Many NGOs provided refugees with educational assistance in the form of scholarships some of these scholarship programmes, although administered by NGOs, were financed by UNHCR.
364. UNHCR relations with NGOs in the field of public information have continued to expand. UNHCR has established a continuous information flow to some 250 NGOs and has instituted a regular section, "NGO Forum", in its monthly publication, Refugees. Film and television co-productions have been undertaken with NGOs in various countries. In the fund-raising field, joint promotional campaigns were undertaken by UNHCR and NGOs. In 1981, 53 NGOs contributed $14,652,000 in cash and kind to UNHCR.
365. The Unit for Liaison with Non-Governmental Organizations, located within the External Affairs Division of UNHCR, serves as the focal point for relations with the voluntary agencies. The Unit co-ordinates and sometimes initiates contacts between functional sections of the Office and NGOs, deals with general problems which may arise, and represents UNHCR at NGD meetings.
366. UNHCR has maintained continuous contact with a number of umbrella organizations which co-ordinate NODS, usually on a regional basis. These include the American Council of Voluntary Agencies, Australians Care for Refugees (AEJSTCNRE), the Committee for Co-ordination of Services to Displaced Persons in Thailand, the Danish Refugee Council, the Norwegian Refugee Council, Rädda Barnen in Sweden, the Standing Conference of Canadian Organizations Concerned for Refugees, and the British Refugee Council. The major international umbrella organization, grouping over 60 NGOs is the International Council of Voluntary Agencies (ICVA) in Geneva, which co-operates closely with UNHCR.
367. The League of Red Cross Societies and the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) have also continued their refugee assistance activities. The League has been chosen as the operational partner of UNHCR in certain major operations and RCRC has also played an important role, notably in the tracing programme for Kampuchean unaccompanied minors in Thailand.
368. In order to further strengthen the relationship of UNHCR with NGOs, a Consultation took place from 20 to 22 May 1981 which was attended by 130 organizations from 22 countries. The underlying theme of the NGO/UNHCR partnership was stressed throughout the discussions, which included such subjects as protection, assistance, resettlement, counselling and education, fund-raising and public information. On the basis of the recommendations of the Consultation, follow-up measures are now being taken in various areas of concern to both NGOs and UNHCR.
369. In November 1981, UNHCR was invited to participate in the ICVA General Conference held in Colombo, Sri Lanka. Among other subjects, the Conference examined NGO/UNHCR co-operation in the light of the May 1981 Consultation.
E. United Nations Decade for Women
370. Following General Assembly resolution 35/136 endorsing the recommendations of the World Conference of the United Nations Decade for Women, the High Commissioner designated a focal point for all activities relating to refugee and displaced women. Instructions were issued requesting field offices to ensure adequate protection to refugee and displaced women and to involve them in the administration and operations of camps. The Office has stepped up skills training and income-generating activities for women refugees. Guidelines for assistance to refugee women within the context of material assistance to all refugees are presently being developed.
F. International Year of Disabled Persons
371. UNHCR took active part in the International Year of Disabled Persons during 1981, both within the United Nations system and in the field by creating awareness of the needs of and services for disabled refugees. In addition to the overall project administered from headquarters, the Office established a number of small projects in several countries during the year. The field offices made special efforts towards assisting disabled refugees. A number of composite centres were established where diagnostic, prosthetic and rehabilitation services were provided. In August 1981, the High Commissioner made an appeal to 15 countries for additional resettlement places for handicapped refugees. The appeal had a positive effect, with several countries either fully utilizing the places they offered or making new offers.
372. In accepting the Nobel Peace Prize in December 1981 on behalf of his Office, the High Commissioner announced that it had been decided to use the cash proceeds of the prize to assist handicapped refugees. This was an expression of the concern on the part of UNHCR for handicapped refugees who are thus doubly disadvantaged. A Trust Fund for Handicapped Refugees established with the Nobel Prize cash award has since grown with additional donations from various sources.
G. World Assembly on Ageing
373. The Office has been actively involved in preparations for the world Assembly on Aging and participated in inter-agency consultations. A background paper entitled "The Older Refugees" has been prepared and submitted to the United Nations Centre for Social Development and Humanitarian Affairs for circulation during the meeting of World Assembly on Aging in July/August 1982. The paper outlines the efforts of the Office in assisting elderly refugees. Meanwhile, the Office has stepped up efforts to meet the needs of elderly refugees more adequately. Special projects are being worked out for implementation during 1982. A seminar on the needs and problems of elderly refugees is also planned before the world Assembly on Aging.
H. Nansen Medal award
374. The Nansen Medal for 1981 was awarded to Major-General Paul A. Cullen, the National President of the Australian voluntary agency AUSTCARE. AUSTCARE has long been active in many aspects of refugee assistance, including fund-raising, sending of operational personnel to refugee camps and assisting with the resettlement and integration of refugees in Australia. Major-General Cullen proposed that the monetary prize of $50,000 attached to the award should be devoted to a project for medical aid for refugee children in Pakistan. The funds will finance a number of beds in the now children's ward at the Pishin Hospital in Baluchistan, construction of which is scheduled to begin in April 1982.
CHAPTER IX FINANCING OF MATERIAL ASSISTANCE ACTIVITIES
375. In 1981, it was possible to reduce expenditures for UNHCR programmes from the high 1980 level of almost $500 million to $474.2 million. Of this amount, some $319 million were required for General Programmes and some $155 million for expenditure under major Special Programmes and other Trust Funds. The international community responded to those needs with generosity and the programmes for 1981 were fully financed. A total of 86 Governments provided contributions while non-governmental organizations assisted through contributions of cash and kind valued at $14.6 million.
376. Despite the decrease in overall expenditures in 1981, the High Commissioner was obliged to respond to urgent needs by launching a number of special appeals for additional funds. In mid-1981, the international community was requested to provide additional resources as a result of increased assistance needs in Pakistan and in Central America. It was also necessary to reiterate the need for additional funding for the Programme of Orderly Departures from Viet Nam and, towards the end of the year, an appeal was issued to fund the closing stages of the programme for returnees to Chad from neighbouring countries. In a new development in South-East Asia, a programme was prepared in consultation with the Government of Thailand and ICRC and funds sought for an anti-piracy programme in the Gulf of Thailand. The international community, recognizing that refugee situations are both volatile and urgent, responded quickly and positively to these special appeals - the number of which showed a further decrease compared with 1980 and 1979.
377. During 1981, UNHCR continued the practice begun in May 1980 of informing Executive Committee members and important donors to UNHCR of the funding requirements and financial situation of the Office through the issuance of periodic information letters by the Director of External Affairs. This practice continued into 1982 following useful discussions on the question by the Sub-Committee on Financial and Administrative Matters of the Executive Committee of the High Commissioner's Programme.
378. At its thirty-second session, the Executive Committee approved a target of $387,670,000 for General Programmes in 1982. This target, together with requirements anticipated under currently identified Special Programmes (notably for returnees to Chad, Ethiopia and Kampuchea, the Refugee Education Account (for higher education for refugees) and the continuation of the Orderly Departure Programme) implies that, as far as can be estimated at the end of the reporting period, some $450 million may be required from voluntary contributions during 1982. Total contributions in 1982 for both General and Special Programmes as of 31 March 1982 amounted to some $156.5 million.
379. Table 3 of annex II below shows contributions to UNHCR General and Special Programmes for the years 1981 and 1982 which were paid or pledged as of 31 March 1982.
380. The High Commissioner is aware of the considerable volume of financial resources he is obliged to request from the international community and of the budgetary problems caused by additional special appeals. The response to identified refugee needs has been both prompt and generous. The High Commissioner depends on donors to maintain such understanding and generosity so that refugees may be assisted to the level necessary and in a balanced and effective manner.
CHAPTER X PUBLIC INFORMATION
381. Throughout 1981, the Public Information Section continued its efforts to sensitize world public opinion to the problems of refugees through the production and distribution of information materials and direct co-operation with information sources and outlets. ICARA, held in Geneva in April 1981, and the attribution of the 1981 Nobel Peace Prize to UNHCR were two main events of the reporting period used to draw public attention to the activities of UNHCR.
382. ICARA represented a major effort for the Section during the first half of 1981. Special support was provided to the ICARA Secretariat's public information activities. Two itinerant journalists' seminars were organized to visit refugee camps in Africa. A press kit was compiled, and publications and posters were produced. As part of the follow-up, the Section compiled a scrapbook of many of the articles on the Conference published in newspapers around the world.
383. Following the announcement of the awarding of the 1981 Nobel Peace Prize to the Office, hundreds of media interviews were organized. A film, Road to Survival, covering the office's 30-year history, was distributed to television stations world-wide and special radio programmes were produced and distributed. A Nobel scrapbook was produced consisting of official, public and media reactions to the award.
384. The tabloid publication Refugees was published regularly in French and English. Formerly a bimonthly, from 1 January 1982 Refugees has appeared on a monthly basis. A new format has also been introduced. Other publications included regular press releases, Refugee update and refugee situation sheets, as well as special reports, a world refugee map and calendar.
385. Press releases are produced when warranted by events. The fortnightly Refugee Update offers up-to-date information on the main refugee situations. The situation sheets give specific information on the refugee situation in a given country or region and are regularly updated. Moreover, two special reports were issued, one entitled "Africa's Refugees and UNHCR" issued as a follow-up to ICARA and the second on the problems of resettlement and integration of refugees in third countries. Increased demand for UNHCR publications led to the introduction of a computerized distribution system. The 1982 calendar drew from UNHCR's wealth of photographic material.
386. The photo-library distributed some 50,000 photographs (black and white and slides) to media, schools and NGOs; that was 100 per cent increase over 1980. In addition to servicing external demand, the photo-library provides support for all the Section's publications.
387. The film department completed and distributed three documentary films on refugees: Zimbabwe: From Swords to Ploughshares, Refugees: A Historical View and Road to Survival. In addition, a special six-minute spot was produced for Vis News, London, to announce the ICARA Conference. UNHCR also entered into co-productions with several television companies to produce films on refugee issues. UNHCR co-production agreements contain provisions that the film must be shown at prime time and the footage given to UNHCR for its non-commercial use. At the beginning of 1982, a film director sponsored by UNHCR began work on a film dealing with durable solutions to refugee problems in Africa.
388. UNHCR increased significantly the number of radio programmes it produced and distributed. They were sent either directly to radio stations around the world or via regional disseminators such as United Nations Radio transcription services. These methods, together with direct contact with radio stations in Europe and North America and their accredited correspondents in Geneva, provided increasing coverage for UNHCR activities.
389. Public information materials in the form of films, photos, posters, printed material, calendars and education kits were provided to voluntary agencies to support their fund-raising projects and information campaigns.
390. In order to assist the world media to develop and sustain an interest in refugee problems, the Section kept in regular contact with the press, radio and television, while Public Information Officers maintained a network of contacts with the world media, responded to numerous inquiries and gave interviews to interested journalists. UNHCR representatives and Public Information Officers in the field continued to keep the press in their respective countries informed, and requested from journalists and television crews for UNHCR assistance in reporting on various situations around the world continue to increase. Two post-ICARA itinerant journalists' seminars visited Central America and Africa.
391. The year saw continued co-operation with the United Nations Department of Public Information, both in Geneva and New York, and with other United Nations information sections represented in the Joint United Nations Information Committee.
(Note: Statistical and financial tables not included in this online version. See your nearest UN Depository Library.)
1 Resolution 36/125, para.14.
2 Resolutions 36/50/, 36/124, 36/125, 36/153, 36/156, 36/158, 36/161, 36/170, 36/210, 36/214 and 36/218.
3 Official Records of the General Assembly, thirty-sixth Session, Supplement No. 12A (A/36/12/Add.1), para.57 (2) I.3.
4 Art. 12, para.3.
6 Official Records of the General Assembly, thirty-sixth Session, Supplement No. 12A (A/36/12/Add.1) para.57 (1) (h).
7 Ibid., para. 57 (2) III.23.
8 Such Conventions now exist for the Latin American and Caribbean, European, Arab. Arab and European States bordering the Mediterranean and African regions respectively.
9 Recommendation No. R(81) 16 adopted by the Committee of Ministers on 5 November 1981.
10 Official Records of the General Assembly, Thirty-second Session, Supplement No. 12A (A/32/12/Add.1), para.53 (6) (a-g).
11 Ibid., Thirty-fifth Session, Supplement No. 12A (A/35/12/Add.1), para.48 (3) (a-j).
12 Official Records of the General Assembly, Thirty-sixth Session, Supplement No. 12A (A/36/12/Add.1), para. 57 (4) 7.
13 See annex I to the present report for a table showing the status of accessions to the relevant instruments.
14 Adopted by the General Assembly on 14 December 1950 as the annex to resolutions 428 (v).
15 united Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 189, No. 2545, p. 137.
16 Ibid., vol. 606, No. 8791, p.267.
17 Resolution 428 (v), para.2.
18 Official Records of the General Assembly, Thirty-fifty Session, Supplement No. 12A (A/35/12/Add.1), para.48 (4) (h).
19 Ibid., Thirty-sixth Session, Supplement No. 12A (A/36/12/Add.1), para. 57 (2).
20 Official Records of the General Assembly, Thirty-fifth Session, Supplement No. 12A (A/35/12/Add.1), para.69.